THANKSGIVING DAY 2019 – MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING

THANKSGIVING DAY 2019 – MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING

Thursday, November 28, 2019. Reflections on man as a social being.

On Thursday, November 28, 2019, Thanksgiving Day, I want to share my thoughts on the ‘Social’ dimension of man’s existence in the natural world. Man’s mental health and well-being are determined by his ability to formulate harmonious social relations. Man uses food and drink as tools to develop and to sustain his social relationships.

Man is the natural host of trillions of microbes. It adds a new dimension to the social aspects of man’s existence in the natural world.

In my analysis, the singular reality called Man represents a biological or biotic community of independent, individual cells apart from trillions of individual microorganisms that man hosts by providing them food and shelter all the time.

The Tradition of Thanksgiving Day

The tradition of Thanksgiving Day – Man lives by giving Thanks during all days of his life.

In the United States, Thanksgiving is an annual holiday observed on the fourth Thursday of November. It is a day of feasting, and it often serves as a public expression of thanks to God in the form of prayerful eating of food. It commemorates the Pilgrims’ celebration of the good harvest and a friendly relationship between Plymouth Colonists and Native Americans in 1621. The first national Thanksgiving Day, proclaimed by President George Washington was celebrated on November 26, 1789. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln made Thanksgiving an annual holiday.

GRATITUDE IS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The word “Thanks” is used to acknowledge the feelings of gratitude for a benefit that we have received; grateful acknowledgment of something received by or done for one. Giving thanks is an act that reveals the spiritual nature of a relationship between two or more entities involved in interactions. The term ‘spiritual’ describes the nature of a relationship, partnership, an association, or bonding between two living entities based upon characteristics such as cooperation, mutual assistance, tolerance, sympathy, compassion, voluntary subservience, and functional subordination to provide some benefit to the members of a biotic community participating in the biotic interactions at a given place, and in a given environment. The human organism represents a biotic community of interacting living cells. It is estimated that the human body consists of about 100 trillion cells, and the human body carries about ten times as many bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. These microbes are important to the health of humans. The man has no cortical awareness of the colonization of his body by microbial flora and has no direct awareness of the biotic interactions that take place inside his gut. The biotic interactions between the gut cells of the human body and the bacterial cells have the characteristics of spiritual biotic interactions.

The Biological Membrane performs cognitive functions.

Living cells have a corporeal substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm that demonstrates the ability that I choose to describe as Spiritual Biotic Interactions. The Biological Membrane or Cell Membrane separates the cell from its environment and other living cells present in the environment. Cells use unique proteins, biological molecules and receptor sites to recognize the other living cells and use chemical signals to facilitate the interactions. Such interactions between living cells involve cognitive abilities, the characteristics of consciousness or awareness.

The biotic interactions take place at the cellular level and are dependent upon the conscious nature of the living cell that gives it the ability to recognize the presence of other living cells in its external environment. The anatomical organ known as the brain does not play any role in these spiritual biotic interactions inside the human gastrointestinal tract. Each time we eat a meal, consume any food or drink, the act of eating gets transformed into ‘Thanksgiving’. The man has no choice and has no control over the beneficial effects his eating contributes to the microbial flora of the gut with whom he had established a mutually beneficial social relationship. Whether he likes it or not, whether he knows it or not, man lives by providing a Thanksgiving meal during all the days of his existence. Each meal functions as a serving of ‘Gratitude’. While his existence is dependent upon Lord God Creator’s Power/Force/Energy known as Mercy, Compassion, Grace, and ‘KRUPA’, the man may or may not publicly express his thanks in acknowledgment of that Compassion. However, man has no escape from the act of giving thanks and living as a Natural Host to trillions of unknown microbes.

MAN’S ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE – THE IDEA OF THANKSGIVING:

The idea of giving thanks to God is associated with the fact of celebrating the success of a bountiful harvest. Man expresses joy and happiness for success in his physical and mental endeavors. The success is often measured by the gain in material prosperity, social position and public acclaim. The desire for success is often driven by ambition, a craving for the desired object called success. It gives the impression that man would be forced to experience pain, misery, sorrow, and despair if he encounters failure in his physical and mental work. I ask readers to examine the reality or the truth that establishes man’s biological existence in the physical world. The man may try his very best to define the purpose of his mortal existence or his Essence in terms of his physical and mental output. Man is conditioned to think that his experience of joy and happiness in life is a simple product of his physical and mental work. In my opinion, man is conditioned by fear, the fear of failure in his struggle for Existence. When properly examined, it must be recognized that human existence primarily involves what may be called Divine Grace, Mercy, and Compassion or Providence. Human Existence shows the characteristics of a design, or plan to achieve a desired goal or objective. For man need not struggle to keep his existence, there is no need to fear and man has no reason to strive to avoid failure in life. When the expectation about failure is emptied from the mind, man liberates himself from the thoughts of fear. In the absence of fear, and in the absence of the expectation of failure, the man finds the experience of a living condition that is characterized by Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility. Without the experience of peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living condition, there will be no true or real joy and happiness in life. The Freedom from Fear, the lack of concern about an outcome that could be called Failure gives the man a true ability to Give Thanks to God for His benevolent guidance. Today, in giving Thanks to God, I want to proclaim my Victory over Fear, the Fear of Failure in my life.

I extend my best wishes for a Happy Thanksgiving Day to all of my readers.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S. Class of April 1970.

Reflections on Thanksgiving Day 2019.

 

 

 

 

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IN GOD WE TRUST: IGNORANCE IS BLISS

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE- THE DISCOVERY OF BHAVANAJAGAT.org: What is the “Connection” between man and Sun??? Does man have the physical and intellectual ability or capacity to harness Solar Energy to maintain his living functions?

In my analysis, the man can directly experience the Mercy, Grace, and Compassion of the LORD God Creator while having no cognitive abilities to obtain the Knowledge of God. It is very interesting to read the view of His Holiness the Dalai Lama who states that Knowledge is more important than faith to understand Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. He recommends study as an important tool in the acquisition of Knowledge.

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Science can explain the Motions of planet Earth. Science can not provide the experience of planet Earth’s Motion. The Reality of Earth’s Motions is known and is understood. But, man exists only if this Reality is not directly experienced. The physical and mental experience of the Speed of Earth, the Angular Speed, and the Linear Speed would not permit man’s physical existence on the surface of planet Earth.

Buddha contemplated on the experience of pain, suffering, and misery that characterize the human living condition. I study Science to explore the biological basis of the conditioned human existence that cannot avoid the encounter with problems like disease, aging, infirmities, and death. I experience LORD God Creator’s Mercy, Grace, and Compassion by knowing the Great Grand Illusion that separates the man from the fundamental realities of planet Earth. The man seeks his mortal existence while he remains blissfully ignorant of the linear and angular speeds of Earth. Any direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth is not compatible with human existence. In fact, the man measures the duration of his life’s journey taking the clues from events like the Sunrise and Sunset caused by the apparent motion of Sun across Sky.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

Knowledge is more important than faith to understand Buddha, says Dalai Lama

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Knowledge and not faith is necessary to understand Buddha and Buddhism.

Knowledge and not just faith is necessary to understand Buddha and Buddhism, Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama said in Aurangabad on Sunday, November 24, 2019.

Addressing the Global Buddhist Congregation, he said, “Buddhism was born and developed in India itself. Babasaheb Ambedkar played a crucial role in the revival of Buddhism in India in the 20th century.”

“Acharya Shantirakshit was invited to Tibet after which the movement to study, discuss and creation of literature began there. Tibet has tried to keep this precious literature intact till now,” the Dalai Lama said.

“Buddha never said he is a creator. He said knowledge Buddha gained couldn’t be transferred to other human beings. If you follow the path laid down by Buddha, every human being can attain that knowledge,” the spiritual leader said.

He said scientists are also studying Buddhism and the Nalanda School of thoughts related to it.

“I always tell Buddhists to be Buddhists of the 21st century. It means I tell you all to study. There are two types of followers: one with faith and others with an endowment. If you follow Buddhism with only faith, Buddhism will not last long. But with an endowment, it will surely last long. There is a need to follow Buddhism on the basis of knowledge,” the Dalai Lama told the gathering.

Reciting lines of Kadam Geshe Langri Thangpa Dorje Senge, the Dalai Lama said, “The best teacher of compassion is your enemy. Till the moment you won’t think you are the lowest among all, you cannot understand the greatness of others.”

He said Buddhism was like medicine, adding that “one medicine cannot suit every type of disease”. “Everyone should choose their own religion and follow it with tolerance. India is the best example of tolerance and many religions are co-existing in peace.”

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Tat Asmi Prabhu – Natural VS Supernatural Dualism. Sun’s Ecliptic Path. Is this a Problem of Visual Perception or does it describe Reality of man’s conditioned existence in Natural or Terrestrial Realm?

November 24, 2019. The Origin of the Anatomically Modern Man cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism

November 24, 2019. The Origin, the Beginning, the Genesis, or the Descent of the Anatomically Modern Man, the species called Homo. sapiens, sapiens cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism.

In my analysis, Gregor Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance do not verify, do not validate, and do not corroborate the ‘Theory of Evolution’ proposed by the British naturalist Charles Darwin. In fact, the term ‘Evolution’ cannot be applied to the Living Matter or corporeal substance described in Biology as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm. The Chemical Composition of the Living Matter has essentially remained the same over billions of years. I cannot find any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism to account for the Origin, the Beginning, the Genesis, the Descent of Man from any other previously existing species other than the species identified as Homo. sapiens, sapiens.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE, NATURAL FACTOR, NATURAL CONDITION, OR NATURAL MECHANISM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION SEEN WHEN THE NEANDERTHAL SKULL IS COMPARED WITH THE HUMAN SKULL.

NOVEMBER 24, 1859. “Origin of Species” is published

  • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, a groundbreaking scientific work by British naturalist Charles Darwin is published in England. Darwin’s theory argued that organisms gradually evolve through a process he called “natural selection.” In natural selection, organisms with genetic variations that suit their environment tend to propagate more descendants than organisms of the same species that lack the variation, thus influencing the overall genetic makeup of the species.

Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and the English economist Thomas Mathus, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle in the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as the Galapagos Islands and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his studies in variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of organic evolution.

The idea of organic evolution was not new. It had been suggested earlier by, among others, Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus Darwin, a distinguished English scientist, and Lamarck, who in the early 19th century drew the first evolutionary diagram—a ladder leading from one-celled organisms to man. However, it was not until Darwin that science presented a practical explanation for the phenomenon of evolution.

Darwin had formulated his theory of natural selection by 1844, but he was wary to reveal his thesis to the public because it so obviously contradicted the biblical account of creation. In 1858, with Darwin still remaining silent about his findings, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace independently published a paper that essentially summarized his theory. Darwin and Wallace gave a joint lecture on evolution before the Linnean Society of London in July 1858, and Darwin prepared On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection for publication.

Published on November 24, 1859, the Origin of Species sold out immediately. Most scientists quickly embraced the theory that solved so many puzzles of biological science, but orthodox Christians condemned the work as heresy. Controversy over Darwin’s ideas deepened with the publication of The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), in which he presented evidence of man’s evolution from apes.

By the time of Darwin’s death in 1882, his theory of evolution was generally accepted. In honor of his scientific work, he was buried in Westminster Abbey beside kings, queens, and other illustrious figures from British history. Subsequent developments in genetics and molecular biology led to modifications in accepted evolutionary theory, but Darwin’s ideas remain central to the field.

Author

History.com Editors

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/origin-of-species-is-published-2

November 24, 2019. The Origin of the Anatomically Modern Man, the species called Homo. sapiens, sapiens cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism.

NOVEMBER 22. SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE 35th US PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY

HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS: November 22. Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment pays tribute to the 35th US President John F. Kennedy.

NOVEMBER 22, 1963: DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
November 22, 2019. Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment pays tribute to 35th US President John F. Kennedy.

Shortly after noon on November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated as he rode in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas.

By the fall of 1963, President John F. Kennedy and his political advisers were preparing for the next presidential campaign. Although he had not formally announced his candidacy, it was clear that President Kennedy was going to run and he seemed confident about his chances for re-election.

At the end of September, the president traveled west, speaking in nine different states in less than a week. The trip was meant to put a spotlight on natural resources and conservation efforts. But JFK also used it to sound out themes—such as education, national security, and world peace—for his run in 1964.

Campaigning in Texas

A month later, the president addressed Democratic gatherings in Boston and Philadelphia. Then, on November 12, he held the first important political planning session for the upcoming election year. At the meeting, JFK stressed the importance of winning Florida and Texas and talked about his plans to visit both states in the next two weeks. 

Mrs. Kennedy would accompany him on the swing through Texas, which would be her first extended public appearance since the loss of their baby, Patrick, in August. On November 21, the president and first lady departed on Air Force One for the two-day, five-city tour of Texas.

President Kennedy was aware that a feud among party leaders in Texas could jeopardize his chances of carrying the state in 1964, and one of his aims for the trip was to bring Democrats together. He also knew that a relatively small but vocal group of extremists was contributing to the political tensions in Texas and would likely make its presence felt—particularly in Dallas, where US Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson had been physically attacked a month earlier after making a speech there. Nonetheless, JFK seemed to relish the prospect of leaving Washington, getting out among the people and into the political fray.

The first stop was San Antonio. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Governor John B. Connally, and Senator Ralph W. Yarborough led the welcoming party. They accompanied the president to Brooks Air Force Base for the dedication of the Aerospace Medical Health Center. Continuing on to Houston, he addressed a Latin American citizens’ organization and spoke at a testimonial dinner for Congressman Albert Thomas before ending the day in Fort Worth.

Morning in Fort Worth

A light rain was falling on Friday morning, November 22, but a crowd of several thousand stood in the parking lot outside the Texas Hotel where the Kennedys had spent the night. A platform was set up and the president, wearing no protection against the weather, came out to make some brief remarks. “There are no faint hearts in Fort Worth,” he began, “and I appreciate your being here this morning. Mrs. Kennedy is organizing herself. It takes longer, but, of course, she looks better than we do when she does it.” He went on to talk about the nation’s need for being “second to none” in defense and in space, for continued growth in the economy and “the willingness of citizens of the United States to assume the burdens of leadership.”

The warmth of the audience response was palpable as the president reached out to shake hands amidst a sea of smiling faces.

Back inside the hotel, the president spoke at a breakfast of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce, focusing on military preparedness. “We are still the keystone in the arch of freedom,” he said. “We will continue to do…our duty and the people of Texas will be in the lead.”

On to Dallas

The presidential party left the hotel and went by motorcade to Carswell Air Force Base for the thirteen-minute flight to Dallas. Arriving at Love Field, President and Mrs. Kennedy disembarked and immediately walked toward a fence where a crowd of well-wishers had gathered, and they spent several minutes shaking hands.

The first lady received a bouquet of red roses, which she brought with her to the waiting limousine. Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, were already seated in the open convertible as the Kennedys entered and sat behind them. Since it was no longer raining, the plastic bubble top had been left off. Vice President and Mrs. Johnson occupied another car in the motorcade.

The procession left the airport and traveled along a ten-mile route that wound through downtown Dallas on the way to the Trade Mart where the President was scheduled to speak at a luncheon.

The Assassination

Crowds of excited people lined the streets and waved to the Kennedys. The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza around 12:30 p.m. As it was passing the Texas School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly reverberated in the plaza.

Bullets struck the president’s neck and head and he slumped over toward Mrs. Kennedy. The governor was shot in his back. 

The car sped off to Parkland Memorial Hospital just a few minutes away. But little could be done for the President. A Catholic priest was summoned to administer the last rites, and at 1:00 p.m. John F. Kennedy was pronounced dead. Though seriously wounded, Governor Connally would recover.

The president’s body was brought to Love Field and placed on Air Force One. Before the plane took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath of office, administered by US District Court Judge Sarah Hughes. The brief ceremony took place at 2:38 p.m.

Less than an hour earlier, police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a recently hired employee at the Texas School Book Depository. He was being held for the assassination of President Kennedy and the fatal shooting, shortly afterward, of Patrolman J. D. Tippit on a Dallas street.

On Sunday morning, November 24, Oswald was scheduled to be transferred from police headquarters to the county jail. Viewers across America watching the live television coverage suddenly saw a man aim a pistol and fire at point-blank range. The assailant was identified as Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner. Oswald died two hours later at Parkland Hospital.

The President’s Funeral

That same day, President Kennedy’s flag-draped casket was moved from the White House to the Capitol on a caisson drawn by six grey horses, accompanied by one riderless black horse. At Mrs. Kennedy’s request, the cortege and other ceremonial details were modeled at the funeral of Abraham Lincoln. Crowds lined Pennsylvania Avenue and many wept openly as the caisson passed. During the 21 hours that the president’s body lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda, about 250,000 people filed by to pay their respects.

On Monday, November 25, 1963, President Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery. The funeral was attended by heads of state and representatives from more than 100 countries, with untold millions more watching on television. Afterward, at the gravesite, Mrs. Kennedy and her husband’s brothers, Robert and Edward, lit an eternal flame.

Perhaps the most indelible images of the day were the salute to his father given by little John F. Kennedy Jr. (whose third birthday it was), daughter Caroline kneeling next to her mother at the president’s bier, and the extraordinary grace and dignity shown by Jacqueline Kennedy.

As people throughout the nation and the world struggled to make sense of a senseless act and to articulate their feelings about President Kennedy’s life and legacy, many recalled these words from his inaugural address:

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days, nor in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this administration. Nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

IN GOD WE TRUST – WHO IS MY NEIGHBOR?: President John F. Kennedy is known to me for he founded the military organization called the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment, in 1962 to secure Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in the occupied Land of Tibet. President Kennedy acted as a ‘True Neighbor’ of Tibet when he acted with compassion after recognizing the plight of helpless Tibetan people. The United States must reflect its true national values in the manner in which it treats its alien residents.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT CELEBRATES THE LOHIT RIVER

This is my special tribute to Lohit River and I post this blog to remember my life’s journey; a journey from 1962 to 1972.

During 1962, I was a student at Giriraj Government Arts College, Nizamabad, Andhra Pradesh, India and I was studying in the First Year of a 3-Year Bachelor of Science Degree Course. During October 1962, when China attacked India across the Himalayan Frontier, Indian people spontaneously reacted condemning the act of Chinese aggression. It gave me a strong motivation to serve the country to defend the Northern Frontier. My dream came true during 1969 when I was granted Short Service Regular Commission to join the Indian Army Medical Corps. On completion of my basic military and professional training, I was deputed to Special Frontier Force and I had the proudest moment of my life when I visited the War Memorial in Walong, Lohit District, North-East Frontier Agency(NEFA) during 1972. I got married during January 1973, while I was serving in the North-East Frontier Agency and Lohit River is my witness to my Life’s Journey and Commitment.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE - LOHIT RIVER: Map of Anjaw District, Arunachal Pradseh State, India.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the LOHIT RIVER: Map of Anjaw District, Arunachal Pradesh State, India.

I am pleased to share an article titled ‘China opens a new highway near Arunachal Pradesh Border’ written by Ananth Krishnan that was published in the HINDU on November 01, 2013. I served in that area and the military organization in which I served discouraged photography and I did not take photos of the natural scenery of that area. I would like to share some photo images published by http://GreenerPasturesInd.Wordpress.com and others, particularly the images of Lohit River that flows down the Anjaw District of Arunachal Pradesh.

The North-East Frontier Agency(NEFA) was constituted in 1912-13. To settle the border between India and Tibet, Sir Henry McMahon, Secretary in the Indian Foreign Department represented Great Britain at a conference held in Simla during 1913-14. The Simla Accord or Simla Agreement between India, Tibet, and China resulted in the McMahon Treaty and the McMahon Line established the official border between India and Tibet. India after gaining her independence and after becoming an independent Republic has ratified the McMahon Treaty. The People’s Republic of China which came into existence on October 01, 1949 opposed this Treaty and occupied Tibet during 1950 rejecting the status of Tibet of being an independent nation.

Communist China’s occupation of Tibet continues to pose a military threat to Peace and Democracy in Southeast Asia. The Supreme Ruler of Tibet, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India in March 1959 as a consequence of China’s repressive, brutal military actions. On August 26, 1959, in this northeast frontier sector, China’s People’s Liberation Army crossed the McMahon Line for the first time to capture an Indian border post. China abandoned this post during 1961 and launched a major offensive war during October 1962 attacking Indian Army positions in the entire North-East Frontier Agency.

Due to the firm intervention by US President John F. Kennedy, China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew its forces from all the areas it had captured in the North-East Frontier Agency. One of the consequences of this 1962 War of China’s Aggression on India was the creation of a military alliance/pact between India, Tibet, and the United States to defend the border and to challenge the military occupation of Tibet. This military pact/alliance has created a military organization called Establishment No. 22 which is later given the name of Special Frontier Force. I served in Special Frontier Force along with Tibetan soldiers and we were defending North-East Frontier Agency. The North-East Frontier Agency became Indian Union Territory and was named Arunachal Pradesh on January 20, 1972. The State of Arunachal Pradesh was formed on February 20, 1987.

I had arrived at Doom Dooma(Dum Duma) during February 1972 after my successful participation in the military action called ‘Operation Eagle’ which initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh on November 03, 1971 with attacks on Pakistan’s military border posts in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The United States had withdrawn its CIA personnel from our Organization prior to the launch of Operation Eagle. However, our military alliance/pact withstood the test of the times.

In 1972, the CIA contacted my Unit in North East Frontier Agency to request us for assistance to plant monitoring devices to record data from China’s underground nuclear tests in occupied Tibet. China’s occupation of Tibet, its claims for Indian territory and China’s military build-up still pose a grave threat to Peace and Freedom in Southeast Asia.

Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: I was based at Dum Duma(Doom Dooma) Airfield during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma Airfield during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Lohit River enters the plains and flows as the Brahmaputra River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Lohit River enters the plains and flows as the Brahmaputra River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: At the southern end of Lohit District, Lohit River enters the plains.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: At the southern end of Lohit District, Lohit River enters the plains.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: The bridge near Parasuram Kund also known as Brahma Kund.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: The bridge near Parasuram Kund also known as Brahma Kund.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: This Border Road along Lohit River did not exist during 1972-73. I had the pleasure of trekking along this route.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: This Border Road along Lohit River did not exist during 1972-73. I had the pleasure of trekking along this route.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Suspension Bridge across Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Suspension Bridge across Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: A Special Tribute to Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: A Special Tribute to Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: This bridge swings in the air and is commonly called "JHULA" which refers to the swing found in recreational parks and playgrounds.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: This bridge swings in the air and is commonly called “JHULA” which refers to the swing found in recreational parks and playgrounds.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong Valley
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong Valley
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Parashuram Kund
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Parashuram Kund
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: A view taken at Hayuliang.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: A view taken at Hayuliang.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Hayuliang-Walong Road.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment No. 22 Lohit River: Hayuliang-Walong Road.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong War Memorial
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong War Memorial
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: "WALONG WILL NEVER FALL AGAIN."
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: “WALONG WILL NEVER FALL AGAIN.”
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong, Anjaw District.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong, Anjaw District.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Trip to Kibithu
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Trip to Kibithu
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Mishmi Hills
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Mishmi Hills
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Hayuliang
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Hayuliang
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: The Border Post at Kibithu
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: The Border Post at Kibithu
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Lohit River near Indo-Tibet Border
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Lohit River near India-Tibet Border.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:

Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
The Spirits of Special Frontier Force

SERVICE INFORMATION:

R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Personal Numbers: MS-8466/MR-03277K. Rank: Lieutenant/Captain/Major.
Branch:Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission(1969-1972); Direct Permanent Commission(1973-1984).
Designation:Medical Officer.
Unit:Establishment No. 22(1971-1974)/South Column,Operation Eagle(1971-1972).
Organization: Special Frontier Force.

Published in the HINDU: November 1, 2013 03:14 IST
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BEIJING, November 1, 2013

China opens new highway near Arunachal Pradesh border

Ananth Krishnan

Nearly 1 billion Yuan project comes to light after seven failed attempts over the past 50 years

China on Thursday opened a new highway that links what the government has described as Tibet’s “last isolated county” – located near the border with Arunachal Pradesh – with the rest of the country and will now provide all-weather access to the strategically important region.
Chinese state media have hailed the opening of the highway to Medog – which lies close to the disputed eastern section of the border with India – as a technological breakthrough, with the project finally coming to fruition after seven failed attempts over the past fifty years.
China started attempting to build the highway to Medog – a landlocked county in Tibet’s Nyingchi prefecture – in the 1960s, according to State media reports, in the aftermath of
the 1962 war with India.
With Thursday’s opening of the road, every county in Tibet is now linked through the highway network, underlining the widening infrastructure gulf across the disputed border, even as India belatedly pushes forward an upgrading of border roads in more difficult terrain.
The official Xinhua News Agency on Thursday described Medog as “the last roadless county in China”. Before this week, Medog was the only one of China’s 2,100 counties to remain isolated
from the highway network, according to State broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV).
What the project will do
State media reports have focused on the development benefits that the project would bring and have sought to play down the strategic dimensions. Local officials said the road’s opening will
bring down commodity prices and widen access to healthcare.
The road will also provide access to the border county for nine months of the year. That the government was willing to spend as much as 950 million Yuan – or $ 155 million – on a 117-km highway, with ostensibly few economic returns expected, has underscored the project’s
importance to State planners.
Local officials said prior to the opening of the highway, reaching Medog required traversing the treacherous Galung La and Doxong La mountains at an altitude of 4,000 metres. With frequent landslides, the road was often rendered impassable.
Now, the road will be accessible for “8 to 9 months per year, barring major natural disasters”, Ge Yutao, Communist Party head of the transportation department for the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), told Xinhua.
Work on the 117-km road began in 2009, a year after the project was given the green light by the State Council, or Cabinet.
Renewed attention on infrastructure projects
The opening of the road comes at a time when there has been renewed attention on
infrastructure projects in border areas in India and China.
Last week, both countries signed a Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) during
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Beijing, aimed at expanding confidence-building measures. The agreement calls for setting up channels of communication between military commands, increasing the number of border personnel meetings, and formalizing rules such
as no tailing of patrols, to build trust and avoid incidents.
The agreement does not specify or limit either country’s plans to boost infrastructure – an
issue that, analysts say, has in the past triggered tensions along the disputed Line of Actual
Control (LAC), most notably in April when a Chinese incursion sparked a three-week-long
stand-off in Depsang, Ladakh.
Han Hua, a South Asia scholar at Peking University, suggested in a recent interview that
the “basic reason” for the incident was “too much construction” along the border. The
Chinese side, she acknowledged, did not have to build closer to the disputed LAC because
their infrastructure, as well as more favourable terrain enabled quicker mobilisation.
“If we don’t have the overall collaboration of the military, policy-makers and decision-makers
on both sides,” she said, “it will be difficult to avoid such incidents”.
‘India’s plans will not be limited’
The BDCA, Indian officials said, will not limit India’s plans to upgrade infrastructure. It recognises the principle of equal and mutual security, which allows either side to pursue its security in its own way. At the same time, officials say the BDCA will still help “regulate activity” along the border by opening up new channels of communication, even as the border continues to remain a matter of dispute.
On Thursday, Chinese Defence Ministry spokesperson Yang Yujun told a regular press conference that military personnel would hold “regular meetings” and “make joint efforts” to maintain peace in border areas, following the signing of the BDCA. The agreement, he said according to a Xinhua report, “summarised good practices and experiences on the management of differences in China-India border areas”.

Keywords: Sino-Indian border, Arunachal-China border, infrastructure, Tibet Autonomous Region

Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma or Dum Duma during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Landscape of Anjaw District
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Landscape of Anjaw District
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River.
An aerial view of the Lohit’s braided channels in winters soon after it emerges from the hills and simply spreads on the plains. The fantastic view right till the horizon makes for a good photo opportunity. At the same time, it also brings in thought about the possible dreadful image of this whole place under a thick volume of water in monsoon. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The spot where Lohit emerges free from the mountains. A little upstream of this place is Parshuram Kund, a place squeezed tight between two virtually parallel mountain ranges. Downstream of this, on the right side, the road continues through the gradually decreasing slope towards Tezu while on the left side is jungles bringing in several more tributaries of Lohit. In winters, a whole lot of pebbled riverbed is exposed. At several places, this makes for an easy spot to collect pebbles and stones for crushers used for road building. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
A beautiful, serene destination, Parshuram Kund is a major pilgrim place on the Lohit banks. A huge Mela (fair) is held for two days on the occasion of Makar Sankranti in January every year. The story associated with the place goes that after killing his mother and brothers on the orders of his father, Parshuram could find no other place to wash off his sins. The kund here, now only a portion of it remains after the 1952 quake, was the place where the Parshu came off his blood-stained hands.
Also, upstream of this place till Tiding inside the river waters is considered to be the sacred abode of Nimkay, the spirit that is invoked by the Mishmi community before their every ritual. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Hayuliang (seen on the top left) is a scenic place at an altitude of about 4000 feet approximately almost mid-way between Tezu and Walong. As altitude decreases, alpine vegetation gives way to subtropical forests. These were some of the densest tropical jungles in all of India. But now, places such as Hayuliang and surrounding areas have become a major concrete zone as scores of government offices shifted here in the last decade. Also, it is a major congregation point for people coming from the Chhaglagam side, an area that is not entirely connected with motorable roads. Hayuliang showcases both the modern and the traditional facets of the Mishmi community, especially its housing and food habits. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
From Kibithoo till Hayuliang, the road runs parallel to the river and entirely on the right bank. At times, right near it, as can be seen here. At times, high above on the face of the lofty hills. Having a road connection makes or breaks the overall connectivity for the people and the army. In 1962, there was no road beyond Tezu, the headquarters of the then undivided Lohit district and Indian soldiers had walked almost 8-10 days to reach the respective posts near Walong and Kibithoo. Things are relatively easier now with the BRO building and maintaining roads but there is always a possibility of a landslide washing away a substantial chunk of the road and/or the hill on which that road is built. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Walong, situated at a picturesque location at an undulating 4,500 to 6,000 feet, was where the Indian soldiers braved the Chinese onslaught during the 1962 war at the nearby Namti plains. Here the Lohit flows on one side of a vast relatively plain landform at about 4,500 plus altitude while the hilly roadside has almost all the houses. There are war memorials (both old one and new one) and few government offices apart from the ALG (advanced landing ground) of the armed forces. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Places that are few and far on the left bank are connected with a variety of bridges – bamboo made, steel wire suspension bridges and at very few places, proper RCC bridges – with the road on the right bank. This one, a little downstream of the hot springs leads to Dong that receives the first sunrays of India. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The site near Walong that has hot springs aptly called Garam Pani. It is a typical Himalayan geological feature of warm water oozing out of a small opening barely meters away from the bone chilling cold waters of Lohit. This is a popular tourist destination for both locals and outsiders. In winters, as the Lohit waters ebb, the spot is open for all to reach easily. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The difference in volume that the Lohit carries in winters and monsoons can be understood from the markings on the torn hill on the other side. The water column easily rises to almost 100 feet or more in peak monsoon and the winding river gnaws off hillocks and washes off soils and trees in its spate. In winters, icy cold water splashes the banks that are full of pebbles of various shapes and sizes. These pebbles form the core of building material for roads by the Border Road Organisation (BRO) that needs to bring tar/bitumen from outside Arunachal Pradesh. Locals in the higher reaches still majorly live in houses made of bamboo, so these pebbles hardly make to the civilian construction sites there. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
As the blue river charts a serpentine path, the sparsely populated hills are covered with large coniferous trees as found in higher altitudes. The Lohit is called Tallow in local Mishmi language. Beyond the human habitations around the Walong area, there are large and small several lakes, some of the glacial lakes, at 6,000 feet and above. These lakes feed big and small streams and rivers joining the Lohit from both sides. In monsoon, the river turns muddy and showcases an entire range of grey and ash. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
This was the only motorable road connection that the two bastis (Villages) Kaho and Mosai had with Kibithoo. Built only in 2009 as a suspension bridge by the Indian army, which touted it as the “Easternmost Road of India”, this bridge was washed away by Lohit’s perilous floods in 2012. People are left to use the hanging bridge again. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Kaho and Meshai (also called Mosai) are the two small habitations of Meyor community on the left bank of Lohit in the Kibithoo neighborhood. Kaho has just seven houses. In absence of a road (which is on the right bank all through), this hanging bridge, about six km from Kaho, is the only connection that the two bastis have with Kibithoo and hence, the rest of India. Lohit flows through a gorge for a long distance in this stretch. The atmosphere is hazy in winters on most days. Similarly, the strong winds on most days exacerbated due to the gorge make it very hard for commuters crossing the hanging bridge. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
This is a war memorial in the shape of the Mishmi community’s memorial for the dead. An emotional poem adorns the plaque at this war memorial. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-PERISHABLE vs IMPERISHABLE DIMENSIONS OF LIFE

The Living Things are composites of 1. Form, and 2. Matter. There are many living things that live with the same ‘form’ or morphological appearance while experiencing the aging process that defines the mortal dimension of Life. The term ‘extinction’ refers to the complete disappearance of a living form from the natural world. However, the phenomenon of extinction cannot be easily applied to the Living Matter which has the faculty of propagating itself either by using the mechanism called Reproduction or the power called Nutrition which involves the ability of a Living Thing to consume Matter provided by other Living Things to renew or regenerate or rebuild its own Living Matter.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Bhavanajagat.Org

Longest-Living Animals in the World

 John Harrington 10/30/2019

How long can a creature on Earth live? Animals living on the land, in the air, and in water can, under the right circumstances, live for many decades or even centuries.

The oldest-documented creature, a clam named Ming the Mollusk, lived for 507 years. Ming was born in 1499, seven years after Christopher Columbus first arrived in North America. We don’t know how much longer Ming would have lived if researchers trying to determine its age in 2006 had not opened the clam and in the process killed it. Ming’s fate is an example of an unfortunate encounter between people and animals. 

To find the 50 longest living animals in the world, 24/7 Tempo reviewed data in the Human Ageing Genomic Resources database collection — specifically, the AnAge animal longevity database.

Cynthia Kenyon is a biochemist and geneticist working on unlocking the secrets of longevity. At a TED talk in Edinburgh, Scotland, eight years ago, she talked about aging. “There are some animals that don’t seem to age,” said Kenyon. “If you look at birds, which live a long time, cells from the birds tend to be more resistant to a lot of environmental stresses like high temperature, or hydrogen peroxide.”

About three-fourths of the 50 species on our list are either fish or mammals like whales that live in the ocean. Size doesn’t appear to be a factor in how long animals live. Salamanders called olms that weigh less than an ounce can live as long as 102 years. The largest animal on Earth, the blue whale, can live to be up to 110 years. Despite its size, the blue whale is not among the most dangerous mammals on Earth. 

Galapagos tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 177 years
> Average adult weight: 500.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
American alligator
> Oldest recorded: 77 years
> Average adult weight: 330.7 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern United States (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Sperm whale
> Oldest recorded: 77 years
> Average adult weight: 62,831.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All major ocean basins. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Andean condor
> Oldest recorded: 79 years
> Average adult weight: 23.1 lbs.
> Habitat: Pacific Coast of South America. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
China rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 79 years
> Average adult weight: 2.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
European eel
> Oldest recorded: 88 years
> Average adult weight: 8.0 lbs.
> Habitat: All over the European Continent. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Tuatara
> Oldest recorded: 90 years
> Average adult weight: 0.9 lbs.
> Habitat: Off the coast of New Zealand. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Humpback whale
> Oldest recorded: 95 years
> Average adult weight: 66,138.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All major ocean basins. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
American lobster
> Oldest recorded: 100 years
> Average adult weight: 3.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Atlantic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Olm
> Oldest recorded: 102 years
> Average adult weight: 17 grams
> Habitat: Southern Europe. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Redbanded rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 106 years
> Average adult weight: 5.4 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Blue whale
> Oldest recorded: 110 years
> Average adult weight: 299,828.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All Oceans except the Arctic. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
European pond turtle
> Oldest recorded: 120 years
> Average adult weight: 2.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Central Europe, Northwest Africa, Middle East. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 127 years
> Average adult weight: 13.0 lbs.
> Habitat: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Eastern box turtle
> Oldest recorded: 138 years
> Average adult weight: 1.5 lbs.
> Habitat: North America and the Gulf of Mexico. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Orange roughy
> Oldest recorded: 149 years
> Average adult weight: 8.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern Coast of Australia. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Aldabra tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 152 years
> Average adult weight: 550.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Indian Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Red sea urchin
> Oldest recorded: 200 years
> Average adult weight: 1.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Rougheye rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 205 years
> Average adult weight: 1.1 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Bowhead whale
> Oldest recorded: 211 years
> Average adult weight: 220,462.3 lbs.
> Habitat: Arctic Ocean. (Photo Credit. National Geographic Creative)
Greenland shark
> Oldest recorded: 392 years
> Average adult weight: 2,260.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Arctic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Ocean quahog clam
> Oldest recorded: 507 years
> Average adult weight: 0.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Atlantic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)

NOVEMBER 14- THE BIRTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: "AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA." Both India, and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMA; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.

The military organization which is known as Special Frontier Force- Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment came into its existence during the presidency of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967.

India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment.

India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru is the architect of this military organization and hence the 14th Day of November, his birthday is linked to the birth of this organization. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.

September 05-Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's birthday
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan belonged to Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai) and his daughter, Rukmini was married to the younger brother of my maternal grandfather, Dr. Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who lived at 2/37 Kutchery Road in Mylapore. I was born in my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my regular summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Dr. Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence daily.  At that time, Dr. Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India(1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956, while I was in Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai), and in India’s capital of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the  10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The Institution of Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan's birthday(05 September) as Teacher's Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan’s birthday(05 September) as Teacher’s Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and the Indian President. He had correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice and during his Presidency, India had bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It had inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing, and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.

INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Becuase of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to People's Republic of China's invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to the People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India, and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

India had achieved its full independence from British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s ambassador to the Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President and he had served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962. India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when the People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War and was fully interested in preventing the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not request direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India had also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951 Communist China had imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement to justify its illegal and unjust military occupation of Tibet. It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ching Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 39-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the creation of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet's isolationism.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries in spite of sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs and their traditional style of governance through the institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government continued for four centuries.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India's President and Vice President. Both India, and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President. Both India and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of an autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate a military alliance/pact in response to China's military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honour the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate a military alliance/pact in response to China’s military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honor the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Both India, and Tibet desired friendly, and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Both India and Tibet desired friendly and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China's policy of Expansionism.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China's military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai , and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India's peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The photo images of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrate the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.

While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheela” Agreement of 1954 between India and the People’s Republic of China recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.

THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE -ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT:

The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China's occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People's Liberation Army.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation and had been called ST CIRCUS.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010 was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010, was the first time that the US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.

In 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA's covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India during March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North-East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India's belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China's occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.

THE 1962 INDIA-CHINA WAR:

I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded, or killed in action. China paid a heavy price and had utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.

Truths about the 1962 India-China War
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards a better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.
The 1962 India-China War
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.

The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962, and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.

THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT:

President John F. Kennedy immediately responded to the Chinese attack on India. Apart from the delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) had decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to fight the threat posed by Communism. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru's visit to Washington D.C.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: People's Republic of China could not alter the course of India's foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to "NUKE" China.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: the People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.

The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.

1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.

2. The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing(RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.

3. India started increasing its own defense-preparedness and had strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.

4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack and had decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

5. India, Tibet, and the United States joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which is later formally named The Special Frontier Force to describe its official Headquarters in New Delhi.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India had withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.
Special Frontier Force- President Radhakrishnan-Clash with China
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORIC VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:

After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, as Prime Minister Nehru’s personal health demanded serious attention, President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy. The visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03/04, 1963. The historic visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
Indian President-President Kennedy-Spirits of Special Frontier Force
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment. President of India’s visit of June 03/04, 1963.
President Kennedy with Indian President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy.

I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement during 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would be that of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency. In India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22 – Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People's Republic of China.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras(Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.
Special Frontier Force-At Sarasawa.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.
THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT – OLD FLAMES NEVER DIE – THE LIVING NEHRU LEGACY: I AM WITNESS TO THE LIVING LEGACY OF PRIME MINISTER JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. I GRATEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGE HIS TIRELESS EFFORTS TO FOSTER FRIENDLY RELATIONS BETWEEN INDIA, TIBET, AND THE UNITED STATES.

THE BALD EAGLE-THE GOLDEN EAGLE-OPERATION EAGLE- THE NIXON CONNECTION

From George L. MacGarrigle, The United States ...
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment-Operation Eagle 1971 and the Vietnam War.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon at the White House, Washington, D.C. on November 04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 03/04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in the White House, Washington, D.C. on November 03/04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 03, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT- OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR:

THE EAGLE CONNECTION: THE BALD EAGLE-THE GOLDEN EAGLE-OPERATION EAGLE – WHAT IS THE CONNECTION?

The military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971 is known as Operation Eagle. This military action used the military power of ‘The Bald Eagle’ and is executed by ‘The Golden Eagle’ without getting the formal approval or sanction of the US President.

Operation Eagle was a very modest military confrontation as compared to the Vietnam War. However, a comparison must be made to understand the use of military force to defeat an enemy to obtain a political objective. The Operation Eagle was executed using US weapons, ammunition, US military radios, medical supplies, assorted tools and equipment, field gear, and U.S. Military Field Rations-Meals Ready to Eat or MREs that the US Army was using in the conduct of the Vietnam War.

In a hilly, forest terrain, the use of aerial firepower or bombing campaigns will not dislodge the enemy. The enemy must be found on the ground and must be directly attacked. This is a view of Mizo Hills of India taken from Chittagong Hill Tracts in the foreground.

The military objectives of the Vietnam War could not be accomplished because of the reliance placed upon aerial bombardment to defeat the enemy. Operation Eagle was small in its scope and size. But, it did not rely upon the use of aerial bombardment. We operated on a ‘manpack’ basis, went in search of enemy positions, and directly challenged the enemy at his own post. United States failed to attack the enemy on the ground during the Vietnam War. To defend South Vietnam, the military strategy and planning would call for Infantry attacks on the enemy inside North Vietnam. United States used more bombs as compared to the number of bombs that were dropped during the Second World War and yet could not dislodge the enemy from his entrenched positions. We need to fight and engage the enemy on the ground. Secondly, during Nixon’s presidency(1969-1974), while engaged in War, the President conceded the battle by befriending the Enemy.

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR INFANTRY WEAPONS AND FIELD GEAR:

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR INFANTRY WEAPONS, FIELD GEAR AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT. INDIA’S GOLDEN EAGLE SYMBOLIZES THE MILITARY OPERATION THAT WAS WAGED WITH THE MILITARY EQUIPMENT PROVIDED BY THE BALD EAGLE THAT SYMBOLIZES AMERICAN MILITARY POWER.

A military action by Infantry is best understood by examining the weapons that are used. During Operation Eagle 1971 and the Vietnam War, the Infantry used the same kinds of Infantry weapons. We must ignore the sophisticated technology and the firepower of United States Navy and Air Force. The battle must be won on the ground. During Operation Eagle 1971 we used the same Infantry weapons, equipment, and other supplies more effectively in our battle as compared to US Army in its combat missions against its enemy in Vietnam. We did not use helicopters as gunships or to attack the enemy in support of ground troops. I would like to share some of the photo images of the Infantry Weapons and equipment that were used in the Vietnam War and which I have seen during Operation Eagle 1971.

The General Purpose Machine Gun M60 was designed for use in the Vietnam War was equally useful for Operation Eagle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
M1 Muzzle loading 81mm Mortar is a heavy piece of Infantry weapon which provides indirect fire support. During Operation Eagle, our men carried them on their backs and used them to fire upon the enemy patrols and enemy posts.
The most common weapon used by American Infantry Battalions in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. Operation Eagle was fought on a manpack basis and this short-range, lightweight mortar was very useful.
Rifle is the most basic Infantry weapon. M14 Infantry Assault Rifle was used in Vietnam. During Operation Eagle 1971, I politely refused to use this M14 Rifle as my personal weapon.The men used this Rifle. During Operation Eagle 1971, I could not bring my Sub Machine Gun or SMG and willingly participated in the battle without carrying the M14 Rifle.
During Operation Eagle 1971 we were not allowed the use of cameras or photography. I would have looked like this man wearing Olive Green Coat Poncho. I used US Army Cap-Field.
A Soldier needs his gun, boots, and clothing to protect himself. During Operation Eagle 1971, I used this US Army Nylon Poncho with Hood(Olive) to sleep on the ground and as a coat to protect myself from intense fog and dew prevalent in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Short-range, manpack, portable, frequency modulated(FM) transceiver that provides two-way voice communication. Radio Set AN/PRC – 25 is used in the Vietnam War and I used the same in Operation Eagle. Two-way voice communications could be easily monitored by the enemy. Fortunately, It posed no problem as the enemy in the Chittagong Hill Tracts had no linguistic experts. I openly communicated with my Unit Commander in my native language of Telugu and there was absolutely no risk of revealing any sensitive information.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection?
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection?
The U.S. Army uses a variety of Individual Field Medical Kits. The Kits issued to us during Operation Eagle 1971 were Olive Green Canvas pouches worn on the belts by each individual. The medical supplies included Water Purification Tablets for use in water bottles, anti-Malaria pills, Insect Repellent Solution(DBP), Insect Repellent Cream(DMP), Injectable Tubonic Morphine, tetracycline tablets, Multivitamin tablets, Field dressings, bandages and others. The Kits were not stamped but the contents reveal the place of origin.
Infantry marches on its feet. Boots are the most important equipment apart from Guns. I used Ankle Canvas Boots during Operation Eagle and marched on feet to fight and dislodge the enemy from the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Canvas Boots lasted for the entire duration of Operation Eagle. They were better than the leather boots that I would use in other operational areas.

WAR AND PEACE – A FAILURE OF U.S. DIPLOMACY:

United States failed in Vietnam as it failed to develop a clear vision to achieve its goal of resisting and containing the expansion of Communist Power in Southeast Asia. U.S. efforts to stop the spread of Communism got derailed by Dr. Henry Kissinger who chose the option of backstabbing people who support the United States in its global mission to oppose Communism using diplomacy and military power. U.S. gave away a lot during the Paris Peace Talks basically defeating the accomplishments of its military and literally ridiculing their sacrifices. The several concessions given to the Peoples’ Republic of China to win its cooperation failed to stop the flow of military assistance to North Vietnam.

The establishment of US-China relations gave no advantage to the United States for its War in Vietnam. United States added insult to its own injuries by seeking the support of Communist China to attack India across its Himalayan frontier in the North East Frontier Agency in a vain bid to stop India in its efforts to liberate Bangladesh during 1971.

President Nixon and Dr Henry Kissinger failed in their attempt to block the launching of Operation Eagle, the Bangladesh Ops of 1971.
During 1971, Richard Nixon and Dr. Kissinger played on the Sino-Soviet Split. United States moved to normalize trade with China. Dr. Kissinger and President Nixon visited Peking(Beijing) to befriend Communist China. Did it stop China from delivering military assistance to North Vietnam? Did this famous meeting stop Hanoi’s EASTER OFFENSIVE in March 1972?
President Nixon met Communist China’s Prime Minister Chou Enlai. Did this act of friendship help the US Army in the Vietnam War? Could it stop Communist North Vietnam from launching its major invasion of South Vietnam during March 1972? Using this friendship, both President Nixon and Dr. Kissinger tried their best to stop India from Liberating Bangladesh during 1971. This Nixon and Chou Enlai friendship did not stop the Liberation of Bangladesh which India initiated with Operation Eagle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Dr. Kissinger’s diplomatic initiatives totally fail the US Policy in Southeast Asia. Communist China remains a huge military threat in this region and United States fails in its mission to curb the expansion of Communist Power.

THE BALD EAGLE AND THE GOLDEN EAGLE CONNECTION :

The Bald Eagle and the Golden Eagle came together as Operation Eagle.

My Unit participated in Operation Eagle  during 1971-72 to gain practical experience of Infantry Combat Operations to fight against Communists in a future battle.

The Operation Eagle 1971-72 was inclined towards peace. It intended to deliver peace to the people of Bangladesh who declared their independence from Pakistan during March 1971.

The War in Vietnam is over and yet the threat of Communism still persists in Southeast Asia. To deliver peace to people of Southeast Asia, the United States must learn from its failure in Vietnam. The failure was not that of the US Army which willingly sacrificed the lives of over 58,000 of its fighting men and women. The US political leadership had failed the US military mission in Vietnam. United States must seek assistance from the people of Southeast Asia and fight its enemy on the ground and dislodge the enemy in a ground battle.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Service Number: MS-8466, Rank. Captain,

Branch:  Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission. Designation: Medical Officer, South Column Operation Eagle 1971-72.

Unit: Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO.

Organization: Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

https://bhavanajagat.com/2008/08/18/international-control-commission-for-vietnam/

OCTOBER 31, 1984. PRIME MINISTER INDIRA GANDHI – A FLAME THAT GOT EXTINGUISHED

October 31, 1984. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Operation Eagle(1971)-Public Grievance Registration Number: MODEF/E/2011/00761 dated 24 September, 2011 is asking Government of India to give due recognition to a participant of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. This was India’s Undeclared War on Pakistan that started on November 03, 1971.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
Organization: Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with President Richard Nixon on November 03, 1971 while I was taking part in Operation Eagle to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with President Richard Nixon on November 03, 1971 while I was taking part in Operation Eagle to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi took the executive responsibility to initiate military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. The Battle Plan was named Operation Eagle.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi took the executive responsibility to initiate military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to initiate the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. The Battle Plan was named Operation Eagle.
On completion of my military training and medical internship, I was sent on deputation to serve in Special Frontier Force(Establishment No. 22), a multinational defense alliance/pact which is supervised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Secretariat/The Directorate General of Security.
On completion of my military training and medical internship, I was sent on deputation to serve in Special Frontier Force (Establishment No. 22), a multinational defense alliance/pact which is supervised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Secretariat/The Directorate General of Security.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 3, 1984.
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From ‘Rudi’ to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Verification of the Dialectical Theory of Religion

From “RUDI” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Verification of the Dialectical Theory of Religion

From “Rudi” to Rudolf J. Siebert of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.


Rudi is my nickname. I studied Natural Sciences. I was introduced to the name Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow while I studied Human Pathology.

Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist in 1855 coined the biological dictum “OMNIS CELLULA E CELLULA” – All living cells arise only from pre-existing living cells.

Dr. Virchow is known as the Pope of Medicine. Cellular Pathology (1858), regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula (“All cells come from cells”). I refer to Dr. Rudolf Virchow’s Cell Theory in my analysis of man, society, and religion.

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.

The story of Professor Rudolf of Western Michigan University is of interest to me as it relates to a person named Rudolf of German descent. But, I do respect his age.
I want to give attention to Western Michigan University. Does this School believe in the principles of academic freedom and academic integrity at places of higher learning? My concern directly relates to their teaching of the subject called ‘Comparative Religion’. What is the WMU trying to compare? It appears that the University is indulging in comparing human thoughts described as “Religion” without any concern about the Unchanging, Everlasting, Eternal Truth or Reality called God.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION: CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS.


I directly ask the WMU to reject the redundant idea of comparing religions as the same God is existing now as in the past when planet Earth had no living species identified as Homo sapiens. sapiens. To begin with, Earth had no religion and human thoughts about God are of only recent origin. Without knowing God who exists irrespective of the presence or absence of human thought, how could we postulate about the future of society, and the future of religion? 

Professor Rudolf’s hypothesis for the future of society and the future of religion needs basic verification. His predictions apparently have not considered the fact of man’s creation as a rational being. The social/political/religious conflicts recorded in human history simply reveal that the man is alienated, separated, or even ignorant of his true or real nature. How can there be any tensions or conflicts between religions if the man has a rational experience of true God, the Reality that never changes, the Reality that is never influenced by time or place? 

The Vitruvian Man. c. 1492. The painting by Leonardo da Vinci displays the spirit of scientific inquiry. The inquiry of Man must begin with the investigation of Consciousness.

The Theory of Man:

I would be happy if Professor Rudolf Siebert joins this conversation to briefly explain his ‘Theory of Peace’.
Firstly, I have to ascertain his theory of man. I appreciate his interest in comparative religions. Most religions, unfortunately, deal with the Theory of God without properly accounting for the entity who is concerned about God.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE PROMISE OF GOOD OLD AGE: THE OLD TESTAMENT BOOK OF GENESIS IS A WRITTEN RECORD OF THE LIFE-SPAN OF HEBREW PEOPLE. HUMAN HISTORY AND THE RECORDS OF HUMAN LONGEVITY BEGIN WITH THE CREATION OF ADAM AND EVE IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN. THE HEBREW WORD ADAM MEANS MAN.


I am not opposed to the Biblical preaching, the story of the man and woman described in the Book of Genesis. So, we have a man and a woman.
Now, I ask Dr. Rudolf Siebert, his colleagues, his students, to tell me the rest of the story about the man who desires to find peace in his living condition and living experience. How can there be an experience called peace without knowing the man?

Professor Rudolf Siebert’s ‘Dialectical Theory of Religion’ proposes three global alternative futures of human society. His second alternative Future, the entirely militarized society, is a product of his creative imagination without any correspondence to the present-day reality called Military Service. He should at the least describe the name of the country to which his imagined militarized society may belong. The military is a very sophisticated professional service and the professional soldier is unwilling and is unprepared to manage the affairs of the society in which he may live.

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.

For example, the problem of civilian unrest in Hong Kong cannot be managed by professional military service. The military does not believe in the use of tactics used by the Police Service to manage civilian unrest or street protests. A professional soldier does not use a baton, teargas, water cannon, taser gun, or rubber bullets. Do you want the professional soldier to abandon his training to embrace the role of the policeman? 

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.
Rudolf J. Siebert was born in Frankfurt a.M., Germany.   He studied history, philology, philosophy, sociology, psychoanalysis, and theology at the University of Frankfurt a.M., the University of Mainz, the University of Munster, and the Catholic University of America, Washington D.C. from 1947 – 1955.   Professor Siebert has taught, lectured, and published widely in Western and Eastern Europe, the United States, and Canada.   He is a professor of Religion and Society in the Department of Comparative Religion at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.   He is the director of the Center for Humanistic Future Studies at Western Michigan University since 1980, the director of the international course on the “Future of Religion” in the Inter-University Center for Post-Graduate Studies in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia / Croatia since 1975, and the international course on “Religion and Civil Society” in Yalta, Crimea, and Ukraine since 1999.   The Inter-University Center is sponsored by the University of Simferopol, Simferopol, Ukraine, and Western Michigan University.  

Professor Siebert’s main works are The Critical Theory of Religion: Frankfurt School,  and From Critical Theory to Critical Political Theology: Personal Autonomy and Universal Solidarity.   From 1955 to the present, Professor Siebert has developed the critical or dialectical theory of religion out of the critical theory of society, from the endeavors of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt, globally known as the “Frankfurt School,” and in continual discourse with sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, economists, philosophers, religionists, and theologians from the United States, Canada, England, Belgium, Holland, France, Germany, Yugoslavia / Croatia, Israel, and Columbia.   The dialectical theory of religion emphasizes the three global alternative futures of society: Future I – the totally administered society; Future II – the entirely militarized society; and Future III – the reconciled society.   It stresses the three global alternative futures of religion: Future I – religious fundamentalism; Future II – total secularization; Future III – the open dialectic between the religious and the secular aiming at a post-modern reconciliation between a reformed religion and transformed secular enlightenment.  

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The verification of The Dialectical Theory of God.