On Wednesday, July 30, 2014, I discovered the meaning of Whole Love. I am the ‘Creme’ just like the Creme of a Sandwich Creme Cookie and my original human nature reflects the sweetness of God’s Love. I discovered the three fundamental dimensions of Love, which must come together to give the experience of Whole Love.
The Discovery of America vs The Discovery of Whole Love
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) discovered America on October 12, 1492 for he was determined to reach India by sailing West. He indeed discovered the New World but failed to discover Love or the meaning of Love. The Land that Columbus discovered was not India and he mistakenly identified its people as Indians. You cannot find Love in Life without knowing the people with whom you get attached.
The Discovery of America by Columbus resulted in the introduction of sexually transmitted infection like Syphilis from the New World to the Old World. That is the reason I compare my Discovery of the concept of Whole Love with the Discovery of America.
My discovery is not about the New World, or the Old World. My discovery will be known as the Whole Discovery, the discovery of all the dimensions of Love, a discovery with a potential to transform the Whole World.
On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Nina. On October 12, the expedition reached land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and “Indian” captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century.
During his lifetime, Columbus led a total of four expeditions to the “New World,” exploring various Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South and Central American mainlands, but he never accomplished his original goal—a western ocean route to the great cities of Asia. Columbus also missed the great opportunity of reaching the beautiful coastline of Southwest Florida.
Columbus died in Spain in 1506 without realizing the great scope of what he did achieve: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.
Columbus was honored with a U.S. federal holiday in 1937. The second Monday in October is celebrated as Columbus Day.
What is Love? What is Whole Discovery?
Love is a powerful emotion felt for another person manifesting itself in deep affection, devotion or sexual desire. If love is viewed as fondness or affection it may include or based in part on sexual attraction which is related to libido (sexual urge or instinct), and lust (a desire to gratify the senses or bodily appetite that seeks unrestrained gratification). Love implies feelings that are attached to relationships or objects and assumes various forms such as sexual love, brotherly love, and love of God. The attachment may be felt for inanimate things as well as people, or ideas, or expressed as an abstraction. There are many different kinds of love; different in object, different in tendency, and different in expression. The problem of the kinds of love is further complicated by the need to differentiate and relate love and desire. The category of love known as sexual love has the tendency to desire possession of the object that is loved. The tendency of desire is acquisitive. Sexual love is a love born of desire, and the drive of desire continues until it is satisfied by possession of the loved object. Physical possession is the basis for the satisfaction of sexual desire, sexual appetite, or sexual hunger, or sexual thirst. The other forms of love do not tend to possess the object loved but seek to benefit the object that is loved. Love is selfish when it acts like hunger, thirst, or appetite which need to be satisfied for the benefit of the person expressing that love. Love is altruistic when it acts for the good or the benefit of the beloved. Conjugal love may include a combination of selfishness and altruism. The ancient languages have three distinct words for the main types of love; EROS, PHILIA, and AGAPE in Greek language; AMOR, AMICITA or DILECTIO, and CARITAS in Latin language. However, English language has no such distinct words and hence it becomes necessary to use such phrases as “sexual love”, “love of friendship”, and “love of charity” in order to indicate plainly that love is common to all three, and to distinguish the three meanings. The idea of love expressed in Biblical Scriptures makes no distinction between AMOR, DILECTIO, and CARITAS.
THE ORIGIN OF LOVE:
Sigmund Freud’s theory places the origin of love in the sexual instincts, and so for him the many varieties of love are simply the forms which love takes as the ‘LIBIDO’ fixes upon various objects. He states, “The nucleus of what we mean by love naturally consists …… in sexual love with sexual union as its aim. We do not separate from this; on the one hand, self-love, and on the other, love for parents and children, friendship and love for humanity in general, and also devotion to concrete objects and to abstract ideas….. All these tendencies are an expression of the same instinctive activities…. They differ from sexual love only because they are diverted from its aim or prevented from reaching it, though they always preserve enough of their original nature to keep their identity recognizable.” If love is the passion of the sexual instinct, temperance is an inadequate restraint. Neither reason nor law is adequate to the task of subduing the nature of the sexual instinct. Sexual instinct is a very powerful biological instinct and it profoundly influences human behavior. Hence it becomes necessary to transform sexual love either by repressing it, or sublimating it, or mixing it with tenderness or kindness. In that context, friendship, charity or compassion, and devotion to God could be stated as transformations of sexual love. Sexual instincts are inhibited or actually repressed in the expression of brotherly love, or feelings of deep affection for children and others where the relationship should not be based upon feelings of sexual attraction.
THE COMPLEXITY OF LOVE:
Love is a very complex emotional instinct and it is complex as it may not always provide a sense of joy or happiness. There is a fact about love; love frequently turns into its opposite, hate. Sometimes there is love and hate of the same object; sometimes love inspires hate, and love may also cause jealousy, anger, and fear. Love seems to be the primal passion, generating all the others according to the oppositions of pleasure and pain and by relation of cause and effect. The individual’s experience of love is extremely variable and it includes the operation of both positive and negative impulses. The Indian tradition has carefully examined this complex instinctual behavior and has instructed people of the Land of Bharat or India to understand the three major distinctions or categories of love and to apply a sense of restraint, or that of repression to bring love under the purview of morality, the code of Right Conduct or Dharma. The Indian Culture does not provide the linguistic tools to express feelings associated with sexual passion without using temperance. There is no linguistic equivalent in classical Indian languages to profess love. The terms and words that Indians use have specific meaning attached to them.
LOVE vs PREMA:
Love is not a universal term and this idea is not expressed in Indian tradition and classical literature. The word Love appears repeatedly in the Bible, in several different editions of Bible. I am not a language expert and I believe that people who had translated Bible have exercised great care to convey the meaning of love. Many editions of Bible have further clarified the meaning of Love in their glossary section or Bible dictionary and define Love as a deep sense of affection, devotion for someone or something and they very carefully exclude sexual desire and sexual passion. In English speaking world, and in English literature, the word Love is used to describe desire, libido, lust, and passion based upon sexual attraction. So, Love is a generic term and it may not always mean brotherly love and goodwill. Indian Culture has erected subtle barriers and has not provided linguistic tools to use the word Love as we like. It separates Love into various categories and sets them apart. The feelings of affection, or fondness that are associated with sexual attraction are specifically known as Kama and intense sexual passion or desire is called Moha. Any intense or passionate desire could be called Kama and to act under its influence could be stated as Moha or infatuation. My love for God could only be expressed in terms of Bhakti or Devotion, and the desire could be called Preet. The desire called Preet or Prema is a legitimate desire. It is also called Ishta, or personal desire. I am allowed to seek or desire certain things in my life and that desire is subject to the rule of Good Conduct or Dharma. I can express the sentiment of Preet only when, and where such desire is allowed to be stated in a legitimate manner, and is acceptable to tradition and established conventions and social norms. If I entertain thoughts of sexual attraction about my attractive and rich neighbor, I am not allowed to express my feelings as Preet or seek the gratification of my personal feelings terming it as Ishta. I can call it Kama or Moha. In the epic poem of Ramayana, when King Ravana of Lanka wanted to marry Princess Sita and attended her Swayamvara, the desire was legitimate and for it is legitimate to express the desire for a lawful union called marriage. But, when he abducted Princess Sita while she was lawfully married to Prince Rama, that desire and sexual attraction represents an impulsive action of Moha, and Kama. King Ravana was not entitled to express his Love for Sita if it is formulated by Kama, and intense sexual passion known as lust or Moha. Similarly, a man can express his love or Preet for a woman in a respectful or legitimate manner and to seek a valid relationship. If the relationship is illegal, it can not be called Preet. A father’s love, or mother’s love, or brother’s love is described as Vasthalya, a natural sense of affection and fondness which is not related to sexual attraction or desire. The word Prema or Preet is used to describe the feelings of affection, fondness, friendship (Sneha), kindness (Daya, or Karuna), compassion (Krupa), happiness, joy (Ananda) that have no direct relationship to the satisfaction of sexual desires and passions. The deep sense of affection between husband and wife is often called Anura which indicates an intimate friendship. I can not literally translate the word Love into any of the Indian languages as such expression is not allowed without stating the nature of its contents.
To express the Commandment of Jesus to Love your neighbour as thyself in the Indian languages is not easy. Jesus describes the idea of Love not in terms of friendship (Sneha), kindness (Daya), or giving the experience of happiness (Ananda). The attributes of friendship, kindness, and giving joy or happiness are not specifically described to write the preaching of Jesus to express Love of one another.
In the Indian tradition, the deep sense of affection or fondness or Love of God is described as Bhakti or devotion. Mirabai has expressed such deep sense of affection and I would not call it as her love of Krishna. Jayadeva in his famous description of Lord Krishna’s creative activities in Vrindavan has depicted the intense erotic feelings of the young maidens as a product of their intense devotion to the Lord. I can not use the word Love to describe the sexual passions of the Gopis or the young maidens of Vrindavan.
SELF-LOVE AND NARCISSISM:
While writing about Prema or Love, I must stress the importance of self-love, a man’s love of himself. In psychology the word Narcissism is used to describe excessive self-love. In my medical practice, I have not encountered such narcissistic tendencies among people of Indian origin. The Indian tradition has erected barriers and would not easily let us identify ourselves with the physical-self. Indian tradition repeatedly instructs us about our Essence and true Identity and reminds us not to get attached to the physical-self. If I have no feelings of attachment to my physical-self, I can not really love myself. If I can not truly love myself, I can not also love my neighbor in the same manner, or to the same degree or extent of my self-love. If man is not expected to love himself, the issue of loving the neighbor is redundant.
The Concept of Whole Love to Formulate Wholesome Interpersonal Relationships
The word ‘Whole’ as an adjective describes quality of being healthy, sound, auspicious, not broken, not defective, entire, undivided, complete, containing or constituting the entire amount, or having all of its natural elements. The word ‘Whole’ is also used as a noun to describe a thing or entity that is complete in itself and which lacks none of its parts. Just like White Light, the singularity described as man is in reality a spectrum of seven colors. The seven dimensions of the man are, 1. The Physical, 2. The Mental, 3. The Social, 4. The Moral, 5. The Spiritual, 6. The Creative, and 7. The Rational. The description of man as a created, spiritual, and rational being is fundamental to defining the term Whole Love as a feature of Wholesome interpersonal relationships.
God created both man and woman in His own image and hence God is both male and female at one and the same time. In the common usage of the term God, most often writers refer to God as if He is exclusively Male or of the masculine gender. From the very beginning, the Indian tradition views God as the First Male and the First Female and named the Male Principle as Father and the Female Principle as Mother. Father is the Originating Principle, and Mother is the Source Principle. The Indian tradition describes the Mother as the Divine Source of Matter, Energy, Knowledge, and Life or as the Constitutive Principle. Father is described as the LORD, the Owner, the Ruler, the Governor, the Controller, the Protector, the Sustainer, the Maintainer, the Preserver or as the Regulative Principle that rules, regulates, and governs all the operations of matter, energy, knowledge, and life in the created, natural Cosmic Order.
Love is about relationships and it is central to the man’s connection with God, and the man’s relation to other persons.
WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE DISCOVERY
At Whole Foods Market, Ann Arbor, Michigan, the Whole Dude has formally announced his Whole Discovery, the discovery of the experience called Whole Love. Love is an emotional experience and it is both a Subjective, and an Objective experience. Love is a personal experience and the experience can be objectively verified. The mental experience called Love demands a Subject who may experience the feelings termed as Love and at the same time, Love demands an Object that may experience those feelings described as Love. Love is always manifested as a connection, a relationship, as an attachment, a bonding, or a cementing feeling that brings together the persons involved in the attraction called Love. Hence, there are three fundamental aspects of the experience called Love. These are, 1. The Subject who experiences Love by expressing Love of another person which is identified as the Object loved, and 2. Experiencing Love for being the Object of another person’s Love, and 3. To have the experience called Whole Love each person needs to be both the Subject who is Loving, and also be the Object that is Loved.
It may be very easy to claim that Love is a mutually shared experience and state that the partners in a Love relationship experience Love for one another to the same extent. When you examine the reality of the present day world, very few people may truly claim that they have discovered Love. To be the Subject who is Loving and simultaneously be the Object that is Loved on a reciprocal basis is not happening as frequently as people would expect to find. There is a gap or a ‘Mismatch’ between the feelings expressed and the feelings returned. Many relationships are simply ending when they find this gap or Mismatch a bit overwhelming. For Love involves mental attachments, a person in Love needs the experience of an emotional attachment from the person that he truly loves and get the feeling that he is the most loved person when that person feels attached to him through expression of the sentiments of love.
God’s Unconditioned Love goes beyond Good and Evil. However, the human interpersonal relationships will not be Wholesome unless they are based upon the pillars of trust, respect, and commitment. In other words, the human love relationships will never last unless the feelings of mutual attraction include the foundational values of trust, respect, and commitment. Whole Love in its essence reflects the three dimensions of Love. These dimensions are, 1. Self-Love, 2. Love of another person, and 3. God’s Love.
I am posting this article to make an open appeal to all the members of the US Congress to pass a decree or law to commence a new tradition in the national life that celebrates the central role of love in developing human relationships.
For example, Matthew, Chapter 22, verses 37, 38, and 39 speak of the Great Commandments of The Laws of Moses: Jesus said unto him, “Thou shalt love the LORD thy GOD with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.” Jesus brings unity between the idea of self-love, love of God, and the love of one another without making distinction between the three different kinds of love. Jesus does not specify if man should wish and expect to be loved in return. Jesus attaches no purpose to this act of Love, and excludes any description about the nature of desire, the nature of attachment, and the nature of gratification of his Love Commandment.
In the United States, we have no Law, or a cultural tradition to commemorate the event in which Jesus Christ has issued the two great commandments asking people to observe the Law of ‘Whole Love’ which demands, 1. The Love of God with Whole Body, Heart, Mind, and Soul, and 2. The Love of Neighbor as a requirement of God’s Law for man. After my ‘Whole Discovery’, the discovery of the experience of ‘Whole Love’ at Whole Foods Market, Ann Arbor, Michigan on Wednesday, July 30, 2014, I have decided to promote the establishment of a ‘Whole Tradition’ to follow the Spirit of the ‘Whole Law’ to truly observe the Commandment of ‘Whole Love’. To commemorate my ‘Whole Discovery’, I am writing this appeal to ask all the members of the US Congress to approve a new Law to observe the last Wednesday of July as the ‘Whole Love Holiday’. The choice of Wednesday is very appropriate as most other legal holidays are observed on Mondays as a matter of convenience and not for the purposes of obedience to a Divine Law which should be the source and inspiration for the Human Law. Thus, the concept of Whole Love represents the Whole Law, the only Commandment that man must follow and observe in his lifetime. To acknowledge the Whole Law and to celebrate its pronouncement, we need the creation of a Whole Tradition by instituting the observation of Whole Love Holiday.
Yes Indeed, Life is Complicated. The complexity of Life is about the nature of the man’s Life Journey. How would I know if every move I make has been predestined? How could I make this journey from Santhome Beach, Mylapore, Madras to Englewood Beach, Florida? Do I have the free will to make the choices for the moves I choose?
Pope Gregory X sponsored the travels of Marco Polo particularly out of interest to investigate the place where Apostle Thomas was buried on the eastern coast of India. The place described as Moabar by Marco Polo has been identified as Mylapore, my birth place. I believe in the Oral Traditions of India. As a kid, while visiting the Santhome Beach, on several occasions I interacted with the local fishermen who dry their fishing nets on the Beach. They believed that a holy person was buried on that shore. Their belief is not based upon any scholarly work or research. It is simply a narrative shared with them in the Oral Traditions of India.
Christopher Columbus(1451-1506) discovered America on October 12, 1492 for he was determined to reach India by sailing West. He had indeed discovered the Land but failed to discover Love or the meaning of Love.Columbus had never reached the coast of Florida.
The Land that Columbus discovered was not India but he had mistakenly identified its people as Indians. It was claimed that the Discovery of America by Columbus had resulted in the introduction of sexually transmitted infection like Syphilis from the New World to the Old World. That is one reason for which I have chosen to compare my Discovery with the historical Discovery of America. My discovery is not about the New World, or the Old World. My discovery will be known as the Whole Discovery, the discovery of all the aspects of Love, a discovery with a potential to transform the Whole World.
I ask my readers to read this story about my Spiritual Journey giving attention to the Indian Concept of Life Journey described as Samsara.
“The fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom” says the Holy Bible, The Book of Proverbs, Chapter 1, verse 7.
The cultural traditions that originated in India motivate people to seek refuge or shelter at the Feet of the Lord by evoking a sense of fear and this fear is described as the fear of “Samsara.” Samsara or Bhava describes the viewpoint about the human condition and deals with the problems of human existence. It contributes to a sense of apprehension and anxiety and the attitude it generates is one of intense fear and helplessness.
For the religious traditions that originated outside of India such as Judaism, Christianity and Islam, the fear of the Lord could be a primary motivating factor to seek the worship of the Lord. On the contrary, the religious traditions that originated in the Land of India, do not encourage their adherents to entertain any such fear of the Lord. In the Indian traditions, the Lord or God that Indians choose to worship would receive them with a sign that proclaims ” Be Fearless.” The Lord reassures them with a sign that is popularly described as ABHAYA HASTA or ABHAYA MUDRA. In Indian literature, and in Indian Arts comprising of countless number of images, idols, paintings and drawings, there are invariable references to a consistent message of ABHAYA (Be Fearless) and naturally Indians are less concerned with ” The Fear of the Lord.”
Samsara portrays the picture of Life Journey as a tedious,difficult and challenging swim across an unknown, uncharted and treacherous ocean.The Journey is difficult for it involves repeated cycles of birth, death, and rebirth before the human soul arrives at the Shore or the Final Destination described in terms like Moksha (Liberation), or Mukti (Release) from the perpetual cycles of birth, death, and rebirth.
Samsara is also depicted as a serious disease entity afflicting a person’s health and is referred to as “Bhava Roga.” Others view Samsara as existence in a bottomless deep pit (“Aghada”)or that of being trapped in a deep well from where an escape would not be easy. The fear of Samsara/Bhava, the fear of the human condition, has nothing to do with physical courage. The powerful idea of Samsara inspires a sense of fear in the hearts of even the most courageous of all people. Cultural traditions that have their roots in the other parts of this planet may not be aware of this kind of fear and hence the fear of Samsara could be viewed as a feature that defines and molds the Indian Identity. Indians chant the Lord’s name as a medicine to cure this terrible disease and they seek Lord’s protection to reach the shore and complete the journey across the ocean. There are numerous references in the Indian literature about this affliction or disease entity called Samsara.
Human existence is beset with countless uncertainties and difficulties which may arrive without any prior warning from different directions in an unpredictable manner. It is rational to approach life with a sense of apprehension and seek the help of the Lord who graciously held His right hand in a show of compassion and receives with a greeting of “Abhaya” and is willing to banish the fear of Samsara.
The Culture of the Land Of India introduced to me several personalities and Cultural Icons and I tend to develop a relationship with them and each of my relationships exists in a particular context. Shiva is my protector and the Master who guides my intellectual functions. I describe Lord Krishna as my “GURU”, the Guru who guides my actions and I name Prince Karna as my favorite Hero as he is the “Salt of Life.” Rama describes himself in the following words. On the occasion of Princess Seetha’s ordeal by fire at the end of the epic battle, Rama says to Brahma (The Lord of Creation) who appeared there among others:
11. manye = I think; aatmaanam = of myself; maanuSham = to be a human being; raamam = called Rama; dasharathaatmajam = the son of Dasaratha; bhagavaan = you; as a gracious Divinity; braviitu = tell; me = me; tat = that; saH aham yasya = which I as such really am; aham yashcha = and why I am like this.
“I think of myself to be a human being, by name Rama, the son of Dasaratha. You, as a gracious Divinity, tell me that which I as such really am like this.”
“I regard myself only as Rama, son of Dasaratha, an ordinary human being. Who I am in reality, where I belong, why I took birth, are matters on which you may enlighten me, and I do not know.”
In the personality of Rama, the course of human conduct and the Dharma governing it come linked together. My love for Rama could be mostly attributed to the story that is revealed in Book II, ‘Ayodhya Kanda’ of Valmiki Ramayana. We should view the events described through imagination and actually experience the emotional state of each character as the story is enacted in front of our eyes. It is claimed that, wherever Rama’s tale is told, Hanuman himself joins the gathering and reverentially stands with tear-filled eyes, listening. This has been my personal experience. Whenever I read the story about this ordinary human being, my eyes fill up with tears. I rechecked my emotions while preparing to write down this entry. When I read Ayodhya Kanda, my eyes can not resist from filling up with tears. For having experienced this emotional connection, I claim that Rama is my Beloved Hero.
My desire to speak about Rama is provided by Rama himself and I did mention about it in the very first entry of my blog posts. I give credit to the Telugu poet Bammera Potana whom I acknowledge as my ‘mentor’. Potana proclaims that he wrote his poems with the help of the creative spirit inspired directly by Rama. My Master Shiva gives the consent to entertain this idea that Rama is my resource for creative writing, my Guru Krishna approves my actions to express my sentimental attachment to Rama, Saraswati gracefully provides the ability to pen my thoughts, Hanuman certifies that my tears are genuine and Ganesha blesses my effort and lets me post this entry.
In the Indian tradition, the Life Journey is described as a perilous and tedious swim without navigational aids and floatation devices across an unknown and uncharted ocean. I stay afloat while I cross this ocean and the name ‘RAMA’ is like a life jacket, a flotation device which would guide me to get to the destination and gives me the hope to reach the shore. I live in a universe which is a reflection of “MAYA.” I find no better way to know the Ultimate Reality. I prefer to cling to the two-letter ‘MANTRA’ of RA-MA. I would just be happy if I could find the way and end up in the company of others who lived before me placing their trust in this Name.
Mother Kaikeyi spoke prophetic words when she said Rama’s dutifulness would bring him glory undying. That glory she said will continue as long as the Himaalaya stands and the waters of Ganga flow and as long as the ocean-waves beat on the solid earth.
May everyone that reads the Chapter XV of Ayodhya Kanda receive by Rama’s grace the strength to bear the sorrows that have to be faced in life.
I would have loved to share these thoughts with my mother and I shed tears reading Rama’s story while remembering her.
My Thanks to the CEO/Founder of Sargassum Monitoring organization for graciously giving me the permission to use their map to illustrate this article. In the past, I worked for Greenpeace USA for ten years at their Office in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Massive swath of brown algae angles toward Southwest Florida beaches, but need we worry?
WGCU | By Tom Bayles
Published March 24, 2023 at 7:21 AM EDT
A super-swath of brown seaweed is drifting toward Southwest Florida’s beaches, threatening to pile up feet deep in places and stink like rotten eggs as little creatures it calls home stand ready to sting anyone who touches the bio-mass.
The Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt — stretching from West Africa to the Gulf of Mexico — is arriving at about the same time the noxious red tide blooms that have been plaguing the region’s beaches for months are moving away.
The “blob,” as many in the media are calling it, has been making news for weeks. News accounts have the seaweed-like algae “drowning ecosystems” and “killing wildlife” after it “stifles tourism” by “turning nearshore waters into seething sargassum soup.”
There is even a sargassum monitoring webpage by “Christine” that allows folks to “follow the brown seaweed’s invasion.”
But one marine biologist at Florida Gulf Coast University, who calls the sargassum migration an normal, healthy environmental fact of ocean life, is worried the hyperbole has already done damage to public perception and a barely recovering tourism industry post-Hurricane Ian.
“I think the hysteria started when people started calling it a ‘blob.’ That invokes this horror story that was this movie way back when,” said Barry Rosen, an aquatic biologist at FGCU’s The Water School. “It is not a blob. It is a mass of living organisms pumping oxygen into the air. It’s a very nice ecosystem, and it typically doesn’t cause a problem.”
The brown algae travels from a place aptly called the Sargasso Sea in the North Central Atlantic every year. While biologists have recorded the mass growing to record sizes in the past five years, this year’s floating algae pile is setting no new records.
Rosen said sargassum piles in the Atlantic Ocean are critical ecosystems that serve as shelter for baby sea turtles and a host of other creatures until they grow larger.
In fact, sargassum has properties that can overwhelm red tide blooms like the ones plaguing Southwest Florida’s coasts for months. The brown algae also leaches natural substances that can prohibit new harmful algae blooms.
“I’m very uncomfortable that the media has taken this from an organism that’s been around for in the Caribbean at least a decade, if not longer,” Rosen said. “It’s a teeming healthy ecosystem. Is it going to come towards our shoreline? It’s a matter of circulation, not destiny.”
In other words, it may or may not make a sea-weedy landfall in Southwest Florida. And if it does, it may or may not be anything more than a morning nuisance for clean-up crews.
Certainly nothing in store like the mayhem depicted in “The Blob,” the classic 1958 movie, starring a young Steve McQueen, about a red mass from space: “It crawls! It creeps! It eats you alive!”
Here’s a look at this year’s sargassum seaweed bloom from the Associated Press:
What is it?
A leafy brown seaweed festooned with what look like berries. The seaweed floats on the open ocean and — unlike other seaweeds — reproduces on the water’s surface, helped by air-filled structures that give it buoyancy.
Sargassum originates in a vast stretch of the Atlantic Ocean called the Sargasso Sea, which lies well off the southeast U.S. The Sargasso has no land boundaries; instead, four prevailing ocean currents form its boundaries.
The matted brown seaweed stretches for miles across the ocean and provides breeding ground, food and habitat for fish, sea turtles and marine birds, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
“It’s a dynamic, constantly changing set of pieces of this large mass,” said Rick Lumpkin, director of the Physical Oceanography Division at NOAA. “It’s not one big continuous blob heading straight to South Florida.”
Is it a problem?
Sargassum piles up on beaches where it quickly decomposes under hot sun, releasing gases that smell like rotten eggs.
In recent years, sargassum has carpeted beaches on some Caribbean islands and Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula in the spring and summer months. Beach towns and cities and hotels have struggled to keep up with the huge amounts of seaweed that wash ashore.
The Great Atlantic Sargassum Belt — as the biomass stretching from West Africa to the Gulf of Mexico is called — contains scattered patches of seaweed on the open sea, rather than one continuous blob of sargassum. It’s not a new occurrence, but satellite images captured in February showed an earlier start than usual for such a large accumulation in the open ocean.
Once it washes ashore, sargassum is a nuisance — a thick, brown algae that carpets beaches, releasing a pungent smell as it decays and entangling humans and animals who step into it. For hotels and resorts, clearing the stuff off beaches can amount to a round-the-clock operation.
What about this year?
Some sargassum has already reached beaches in Key West, said Chuanmin Hu, a professor of oceanography at the University of South Florida. But most of it will arrive in the summer, Hu said.
“What is unusual this year compared to previous years is it started early,” Hu said. The algae generally blooms in the spring and summer, but “this year, in the winter, we already have a lot.”
Southern Florida, the Caribbean and the Yucatán Peninsula typically see sargassum piling up in the summer months and could expect the same this year, Hu said.
It’s a lot, but it’s been worse.
Scientists estimate there’s more than 10 million metric tons of sargassum in the belt this year. Lumpkin called it “one of the strongest years, but not the strongest” since scientists began closely observing the biomass via satellite imagery in 2011.
He said there was more in 2018. The years 2019 and 2021 also saw a great deal of sargassum, he said.
What causes it?
Scientists aren’t exactly sure, in part because it wasn’t closely monitored until 2011.
“We do know that to get a lot of seaweed, you need nutrients, and you need sunlight. Of course, as you get close to the equator, there’s going to be more sunlight,” said Mike Parsons, a professor of marine science at Florida Gulf Coast University.
Parsons and other experts say agricultural runoff seeping into the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and eventually the ocean could explain the increased growth of the belt on the western side. Parsons said warming waters likely help the seaweed grow faster. Changes in wind patterns, sea currents, rainfall and drought could also affect blooms.
“It may be the entire belt is fed more some years than others by dust that contains iron and other nutrients that comes from the Sahara Desert,” said Lumpkin, of NOAA.
It’s not clear whether climate change is playing any part. Hu said extreme weather that is happening more frequently due to climate change — high wind events, storms, more precipitation — could be a contributor.
Is it harmful to humans?
It can be. When sargassum decomposes, it releases ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, which accounts for the rotten-egg stench. Brief exposure isn’t enough to make people sick, but prolonged exposure — especially for those with respiratory issues — can be dangerous, scientists say.
Hu said it could be an issue for hotel workers and others who may spend hours removing the decomposing sargassum from beaches.
Left to rot on the beach, sargassum can turn into a problem. It can harm coastal marine ecosystems and also supports the growth of fecal bacteria.
Environmental reporting for WGCU is funded in part by VoLo Foundation, a non-profit with a mission to accelerate change and global impact by supporting science-based climate solutions, enhancing education, and improving health.
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Spring is the season of the year between Winter and Summer. In the Northern Hemisphere it extends from the Vernal Equinox (day and night equal in length), March 20 or 21, to the Summer Solstice (year’s longest day), June 21 or 22. The Seasons come with cyclical frequency at the expected time while planet Earth and the rest of the Solar system partake the motion of Sun in the Milky Way Galaxy and their location in Space is never constant and is never the same.
THE SPRING SEASON – A REASON FOR HOPE:
The arrival of Spring Season is celebrated with a sense of Joy in numerous cultures and human traditions. The reason for Joy is because of the Season giving a sense of Hope. The reason for Hope is that of rebirth, renewal, regeneration, regrowth, and rejuvenation. In Spring, we witness the plant and animal life getting revitalized. Things in Nature change with Time but Nature remains unchanged. Nature remains constant, immutable, unchanged, or eternal. Nature does not change as mass, energy, and momentum always remain unchanged. The Laws of Conservation stated by classical Physics state that mass and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Each Law of Conservation signifies that Nature does not change with the passage of Time. We have hope as Nature exists without change. There is hope that we can recover and renew and restart if a process is broken or worn out. Nature’s ability to support and sustain Life is maintained by operation of The Laws of Conservation and by operation of the Fundamental Force called Gravitation.
The other name for Spring Season, known as Vasant or Basant is MADHAVAM. Indian tradition describes ideas by attaching them to personalities. The person known as LORD MADHAVA is the consort of a person known as Goddess MADHAVI. She derives her name from the word MADHU which describes the nectar gathered by butterflies. Madhu is used to name the taste experience called Sweetness, the sweet substances like honey, sugar, Jaggery and any alcohol derived by fermentation of sugars. The Sweetness gives Joy and Happiness and a man can get easily addicted to its powerful intoxicating effect. The sweetness has to be experienced with a sense of restraint. The man experiences a sweet sensation called MADHURYA when he experiences MADHAVI as a FORCE/POWER/ENERGY called Mercy/Grace/Compassion. Spring Season is celebrated as MADHAVAM as Lord Madhava is the Controller of the FORCE/POWER/ENERGY of Mercy/Grace/Compassion described in the Sanskrit language as KRUPA. The man exists at all stages of his life because of God’s Mercy, Grace, and Compassion.
THE CELEBRATION OF TELUGU NEW YEAR – UGADI:
The Telugu speaking people of India follow the Lunar Calendar and the first month of the year ( March-April) is known as CHAITRA.
The Telugu New Year is traditionally celebrated as UGADI festival. A traditional holiday dish, a relish called ‘UGADI PACHADI’ is prepared to reflect the tastes and flavors of the Spring Season. Telugu people are celebrating the dawn of their New Year called SOBHAKRIT which brings the Blessings of Peace and Harmony on Wednesday, March 22, 2023.Happy Ugadi to all of you.
Welcome to Ugadi, the Telugu New Year Subhakruth on Saturday, April 02, 2022.
THE CELEBRATION OF SPRING SEASON – SATURDAY, APRIL 06, 2019.WELCOME TO THE TELUGU NEW YEAR VIKARI – UGADI CELEBRATION:
THE CELEBRATION OF SPRING SEASON: WELCOME TO TELUGU NEW YEAR “JAYA” – UGADI CELEBRATION ON MONDAY, MARCH 31, 2014:
TELUGU NEW YEAR VIJAYA: UGADI- THE DAWN OF NEW YEAR APRIL 11, 2013:
In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, the description of Power/Energy/Force can get gender association. In the Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in the Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or SHAKTI.
To fully account for the human existence, two distinct or separate Principles must come together to produce the harmonious singular identity called man. The issue is not about God’s gender. It is the concern of the man to account for his own earthly existence as male and female. The Father Principle is called the Originating Principle. The Mother Principle is called the Source Principle, for Mother is the Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life. Father originates the creation of the human form, and Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of the human form.
During 2023, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘CHAITRA NAVRATRI’ that begins on Wednesday, March 22, and ends on the tenth day, Friday, March 31. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means night. This celebration happens in the first lunar month called ‘CHAITRA’ (March-April), during Shukla Paksha or the Waxing Phase of Moon following the New Moon Day.
Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER’ (“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumes on different occasions.
Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech.
NINE DAYS OF CHAITRA NAVRATRI 2023
Day 1, Wednesday, March 22, 2023 (Pratipada)- Ghatasthapana, Chandra Darshana, Shailputri Puja
Day 2, Thursday, March 23, 2023 (Dwitiya)- Brahmacharini Puja
Day 3, Friday, March 24, 2023 (Tritiya)- Gauri Puja, Saubhagya Teej, Chandraghanta Puja
Day 4, Saturday, March 25, 2023 (Chaturthi)- Kushmanda Puja, Vinayaka Chaturthi
Day 5, Sunday, March 26, 2023 (Panchami)- Naag Puja, Lakshmi Panchami, Skandamata Puja
Day 6, Monday, March 27, 2023 (Shasthi)- Skanda Sashti, Yamuna Chhath, Katyayani Puja
Day 7, Tuesday, March 28, 2023 (Saptami)- Maha Saptami, Kalaratri Puja
Day 8, Wednesday, March 29, 2023 (Ashtami)- Durga Ashtami, Mahagauri Puja, Annapurna Ashtami, Sandhi Puja
Day 9, Thursday, March 30, 2023 (Navami)- Siddhidatri Puja, Rama Navami
Day 10, Friday, March 31, 2023 (Dashami)- Navratri Parana
I wish all my readers, ‘Happy First Day of Spring’. In 2023, the March equinox happens on Monday, March 20, at 5:24 P.M. EDT. In the Northern Hemisphere, this date marks the start of the Spring Season. At that time, the Earth will reach the point in its orbit where its axis isn’t tilted toward or away from the sun. Thus, the sun will then be directly over a specific point on the Earth’s equator moving northward.
On the sky, it’s where the ecliptic and celestial equator cross each other. While the Sun passes overhead, the tilt of the Earth is zero relative to the Sun, which means that Earth’s axis neither points toward nor away from the Sun. (Note, however, that the Earth never orbits upright, but is always tilted on its axis by about 23.5 degrees.)
After this date, the Northern Hemisphere begins to be tilted more toward the Sun, resulting in increasing daylight hours and warming temperatures. (In the Southern Hemisphere, it’s the opposite: the March equinox marks the start of Autumn, as the Southern Hemisphere begins to be tilted away from the Sun.) Equinoxes are the only two times a year that the Sun rises due east and sets due west for all of us on Earth!
After the spring equinox, the Northern Hemisphere tilts toward the Sun. Although in most locations (the North Pole and Equator being exceptions) the amount of daylight had been increasing each day after the winter solstice, after the spring equinox, many places will experience more daylight than darkness in each 24-hour day. The amount of daylight each day will continue to increase until the summer solstice in June, in which the longest period of daylight occurs.
Every Changing phenomenon in Nature is operated by an Unchanging Fundamental Force called Love
Man’s physical existence on surface of Earth cannot be fully accounted by physical force of Gravitation that explains Earth’s orbit or revolution around the Sun. Man travels about 67, 000 miles per hour during Earth’s yearly orbit around the Sun. But, man’s lifetime or lifespan on Earth is determined by alternating periods of Day and Night caused by Earth’s rotational spin. Physical Forces act mechanically without sense of purpose or goal. Earth’s rotational spin serves a specific purpose for it directs Biological Rhythms of Living Systems.
Within our Solar System, no celestial object shares rotational spin characteristics of another object. Each planet spins at a different speed or exhibits different rotational axis. On each planet, we will experience Day and Night and Seasons in different manners as they orbit around Sun. Each planet is unique, distinctive, original, and one of its own kind of celestial object. Space Exploration discovered thousands of planets, but none of them share identical rotational spins, in fact each planet displays individualistic variation in its spin characteristics. So, we need to recognize existence of “UNKNOWN” Force that may have imparted energy to initiate rotational spin of each celestial object.
I am using the term Love to define it as a Fundamental Force that brings Unity and Harmony in Interactions between Inanimate and Animate Matter to establish the Natural Order. Love is Fundamental to existence of Sensible or Living Matter and Living Things have ability to perceive Love which instruments developed by man cannot measure.
Every changing phenomenon in nature is operated by an Unchanging Reality. Spring Season brings a change, and this change is possible for it is governed by an Unchanging Reality.The word ‘Spring’ describes the move upward or forward from the ground, it denotes resilience or bounce, and it means to grow or develop or come into existence quickly. Among the Seasons, the Spring Season is the time during which plants begin to grow after lying dormant all Winter. In the North Temperate Zone, the Spring Season includes the months of March, April, and May, the period between the Vernal Equinox and the Summer Solstice.
The Spring Season is a time for rebirth, regeneration, renewal, and regrowth after a period of dormancy. Man derives a sense of joy and happiness when the plants start their growing process and quickly bear attractive flowers. It gives the experience of ‘Sweetness’ which is called ‘Madhurya’ in the Sanskrit language. It is a manifestation of a creative process, or operation of creative energy that makes human existence possible giving the man the sensation associated with consuming nectar, honey, or sweet wine.
I seek the blessings of Lord God Creator to renew my creative energy and to guide expression of my thoughts using sweet words and to promote the well-being of all my readers and become a source of Happiness to all people.
On behalf of Special Frontier Force (#SpecialFrontierForce), Establishment No. 22 (#Establishment22), and Vikas Regiment I acknowledge the role of Dr. Henry Alfred Kissinger as that of #WholeVillain, WholeVillain, and Whole Villain in the history of the US-TIBET relations. I ask my readers to give special attention to some of the aspects of US-TIBET relations. These are:
1. From 1911 to 1950, for about 39-years, Tibet was an independent, sovereign nation. However, Tibet chose a political policy called ‘Isolationism’ and limited its interactions with foreign powers. Tibet had diplomatic relations with a few of its immediate neighbors like India, Nepal, and China. For Tibet had no formal diplomatic relationships with the United States, their relations always existed under the shadow of US-India relations. It should not be of any surprise for both India, and Tibet face a common external enemy.
2. People’s Republic of China as a national entity came into existence on October 01, 1949 following the Communist October Revolution that seized political power in China after defeating the nationalists or KUOMINTANG who fled mainland China to establish Republic of China popularly known as Taiwan.
3. The security threat posed by People’s Republic of China is the driving force that still shapes the US-India-Tibet relations. After Communist China’s illegal invasion and military occupation of Tibet since 1950s, the history of the US-India-Tibet relations is shaped entirely with the sole purpose of resisting China’s military occupation of Tibet.
4. During the long course of 66-years, the US-India-Tibet relations are primarily based on the principles on which the United States declared its independence from its rule by Great Britain. In the words used by US President Eisenhower, the US-India-Tibet relations represent a “Crusade for Peace through Freedom” in Occupied Tibet.
5. I am a witness to the history of US-India-Tibet relations on account of my affiliation with a military organization called Special Frontier Force (#SpecialFrontierForce) or Establishment No. 22 (#Establishment22) or Vikas Regiment. I have no particular need to cite any government documents to support my statements. However, I have to acknowledge the vastly superior intelligence capabilities of People’s Republic of China which gave it a clear insight about the US-India-Tibet relations. China expressed its displeasure by attacking India along its Himalayan Frontier during October-November 1962. The US-India-Tibet relations survived and in this article I give special recognition to diabolic actions of Dr. Henry Alfred Kissinger, PhD from 1968 to 1977 with emphasis on his illegal/unconstitutional actions during 1969 to 1972.
Dr. Henry Kissinger is given due credit for initiating diplomatic relations between the United States and People’s Republic of China. I am asking my readers to recognize the faces of those Chinese leaders and the military dictator of Pakistan whom he befriended. Dr. Kissinger was appointed Assistant National Security Affairs in December 1968 and worked as National Security Adviser from 1969. During the years 1969 to September 1973, Kissinger had no constitutional power or authority to meet or engage foreign leaders and set the direction for the US foreign policy.
“TELL ME THE NAMES OF YOUR FRIENDS, I’LL TELL WHO YOU ARE.”
Dr Henry Alfred Kissinger PhD who served as National Security Adviser from 1969 to 1975 selected People’s Republic of China’s Communist Party leaders Mao Zedong and Zhou En-Lai to befriend China and to begin trade and commerce relations between these two countries.
#WHOLEVILLAIN – WHOLEVILLAIN – WHOLE VILLAIN – HISTORY OF THE US-TIBET RELATIONS: DR HENRY ALFRED KISSINGER IN HIS BOOK “ON CHINA” FAILED TO ACCOUNT FOR HIS DIABOLIC, VILLAINOUS ACTIONS THAT RECKLESSLY UNDERMINED HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS.
The Crusade for Peace through Freedom in Occupied Tibet:
I ask my readers to explore the history of the US-India-Tibet relations formulated on the principles of Freedom and Democracy from 1949 by 33rd US President Harry S Truman (1949-1952). Dwight David Eisenhower, 34th President of the US (1953-1961) continued President Truman’s foreign policy of containing Communism. John Fitzgerald Kennedy, 35th President of the US (1961-1963) and Lyndon Baines Johnson, 36th President of the US (1963-1969) continued to checkmate Communist Cold War strategy. To gain a correct historical perspective, I have to mention that Richard Milhous Nixon served as Vice President (1953-1956, & 1957-1960) under President Eisenhower and was intimately involved in implementing President Eisenhower’s policy of containing Communism in Southeast Asia. I am pleased to share some of these photo images that help me to recapitulate the historical ties between the United States, India, and Tibet. Because of the “SILENCE and SECRECY” imposed by Cold War Era, the connections between these three nations are often misunderstood.
THE HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS. The US President Eisenhower with the US Secretary of State. The Crusade for Peace through Freedom in Occupied Tibet.
AMERICA’S 1971 OPENING TO PEKING (BEIJING):
#WHOLEVILLAIN AUGUST 10, 1971
Dr. Henry Alfred Kissinger takes credit for the relations between the United States and Communist China that he had helped to shape following his secret visit to Peking (Beijing) during 1971. Dr. Kissinger published the book, “On China” on May 17, 2011 and most recently this book got reviewed by N. Narasimhan, the former Chief of India’s External Intelligence Agency. I am publishing the guest column that has appeared in Southasiaanalysis.org paper dated 31 December, 2011. Both Dr. Kissinger and N. Narasimhan fail to address a fundamental question about the legitimacy of the actions taken during 1971-72 that paved the way for normalization of U.S. – China relationship. Dr. Kissinger’s mischief began with his appointment as Assistant for National Security Affairs in December 1968. While working on behalf of National Security Council, Dr. Kissinger conducted secret negotiations with Heads of State and Prime Ministers without participation of Mr. William P. Rogers, the Secretary of State. Dr. Kissinger was sworn in as Secretary of State on September 22, 1973. Dr. Kissinger had grossly misused his position as an adviser and his actions during 1971-1973 prior to his appointment as Secretary of State were illegal and unconstitutional. The United States Constitution demands that the U.S. Administration is held fully accountable for all of its actions, and the U.S. Congress acts on behalf of the people to demand that public accountability. The actions of Dr. Kissinger during 1971-72 were a clear violation of trust placed in the office of the Secretary of State. For Constitution is the source of Power, it has provisions to check the use of power. The abuse of power is accomplished by separation of powers. A system of checks and balances limits the power of each branch of the Government and permits the Law of the Constitution to be applied when its officials usurp powers not granted by the Constitution or otherwise act unconstitutionally. Dr. Kissinger was not vested with powers to conduct secret diplomatic negotiations with officials of foreign governments while he was at National Security Council.
THE LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS:
I speak on behalf of the Living Tibetan Spirits, the spirits of the young Tibetan men who live in my consciousness. Myself, and the Living Tibetan Spirits feel dismayed by Dr. Kissinger’s book “On China”, and its review by the former chief of India’s External Intelligence Agency. Both of them fail to speak about the United States-Tibet relations that established the multinational defense pact or alliance called Establishment Number. 22 (1962) and later named as Special Frontier Force (1966) to secure Freedom, Liberty, and Democracy in the occupied Land of Tibet. There was a basic and fundamental understanding between the people of Tibet and the United States to defend the Freedom of Tibet. Dr. Kissinger has caused a breach of trust between these two parties which have agreed to work together to defend the rights of Tibetan people to regain their lost freedom. The ideological rift between the US and Communist China is as wide as it was during 1949. The US-India-Tibet Relations survived the test of times and there is hope for a better future. There is hope for victory in the ‘Crusade for Peace through Freedom in Occupied Tibet’.
Rudra N. Rebbapragada,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
SERVICE INFORMATION: Service Number: MS-8466/MR-03277K; Rank: Major; Branch: Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission/Direct Permanent Commission (1969-1984); Medical Officer, South Column, Operation Eagle (1971-72), Headquarters Establishment No. 22 C/O 56 APO (1971-74), Directorate General of Security, Office of Inspector General Special Frontier Force, East Block V, Level IV, R. K. Puram, New Delhi – 110 022
“ Relations Between Great Powers cannot b sustained by inertia, commerce or mere sentiments” Aaron Freidburg in New Republic, August 4, 2011.
That this Book is unique in many ways is quite obvious. Not just because of the Statistics. that Dr.Kissinger has counted having made about 50 trips to Beijing and the sheer mental and physical stamina on display. Hypothetically, someone can beat that in numerical terms. Or can conceivably even carry out missions of comparable importance in future. But there is not even a “ghostly” chance of any one replicating the meetings he has had with Mao, Deng, and the successor Chairmen of CPC/CMC/PRC; or the meticulous manner he has kept a record of these and shared them with the world.
For good or bad, this review will be understandably in the nature of lessons to be learnt, in the light of where we are now, our system and other deficiencies, and that have contributed calling for remedial action with urgency, to safeguard long and continually being neglected vital national interests.
India – China Border Dispute and War:
The India – China border war of 1962 has been covered here more in the perspective of a major illustration of Dr.K’s basic thesis on China’s “exceptionalism” and “singularity”, as characteristic style of statecraft distilled in which principles of “deterrent co-existence”, and “offensive-deterrence”(being defined as “luring in the opponents and then dealing them a sharp and stunning blow”) are important components.
Parenthetically, the India – China Border War has also been given dubious pride of place, as a dramatic opening prop for the Prologue with which Dr.K has begun the book ! Not being a critical element to his main purpose of the Book, in Dr.K’s broad brush treatment of the history and actual developments preceding the October – November 1962 Chinese attack on India, the facts are smudgy and a number of crucial issues have been glossed over. In fact, there are arguably many historic inaccuracies.
The Chinese Attack was a well planned meticulous attack This Book has done yeoman service to the Indian cause by conclusively demonstrating that the Chinese attack was a well planned and meticulously executed “malice aforethought”, which was personally handled by Mao himself. The quotes attributed to Mao in this Section almost all have been sourced from an article by one John K.Garver.
Some of Dr.K’s assessments of Chinese working and decision-making style described in this Section, which get repeated often in different forms, throughout the Book are worth reproduction for ready perusal.
“It was not yet an order for military confrontation; rather a kind of alert to prepare a strategic plan. As such, it triggered the familiar Chinese style of dealing with strategic decisions: thorough analysis; careful preparation; attention to psychological and political factors; quest for surprise; and rapid conclusion“. (Page 188, Chapter 7 – from an account of Mao’s meeting with Chinese Military Commanders in 1962)
Dr.K goes on to mention two specific points which demonstrated the comprehensive way in which Chinese policy was being planned. The Chinese leaders were concerned that the U.S might use the Sino – Indian conflict they were preparing for to unleash Taiwan against the Mainland. Also the U.S may start some mischief in Indo – China, in the developments of the then current edition of the Vietnam War, and use it for an American attack on Southern China through Laos.
They used a simple subterfuge to obtain quick reassurance on the first point. At the routine Ambassador level meetings then under way at far away Warsaw, they got the U.S. Representative to deny any American intention of armed action in Taiwan by making a false allegation that the U.S. had amassed troops for this purpose, and getting it refuted by him. Remarkable in itself, Dr.K also highlights this to additionally emphasize the difference between a comprehensive approach to policy making (Chinese model) and a segmented one (by others).
Then Chinese Ambassador Wang Bingnan at Warsaw had claimed in his Memoirs that this information played a very “big role” in Beijing’s final decision to proceed with the operations in the Himalayas. (Page-189, Chapter -7).
The role of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev and the Cuban missile crisis finds a mention in this Section, with references to Soviet flip-flops. But Dr.K does not make a specific point that the then raging Sino – Soviet ideological war may have played any significant role in the Chinese decisions and actions leading to the 1962 war – the point (the cruciality of the Soviet/Russian factor and role) he has made in every other of the three major comparable international conflicts/crises he has elaborated on, namely, the Korean war, the Taiwan Straits crises and the third Vietnam war (“We touched the Tiger’s buttocks”), to exemplify China’s use of armed action as a policy tool in its international relations. (Page-340, Chapter-13).
It needs to be noted though that Dr.K has graphically/gleefully, but briefly, described, in different places, caustic /acerbic exchanges between the Chinese and Soviet leaders and their publications, to show China’s irritation and indignation at different aspects of Indo-Soviet relations. But not as significant factor in China launching the Border War. The so-called 1961 “Indian Forward Policy/Nehru’s Forward Policy” gets mention, as occasion to quote Mao epigrammatically telling the Central Military Commission (CMC) and top leaders, “a person sleeping in comfortable bed is not easily roused by someone else’s snoring”. (Page 187, Chapter 7). (What or whom, did he have in mind in this allusion?!)
Tibet, Tripartite Agreement and Neville Maxwell’s Thesis”
Neville Maxwell who had made much of this “Forward Policy” as the main reason for “India’s China War”, in his eponymous Book sponsored by the PRC, (he was a State guest in Beijing writing the Book) gets a small foot note reference (Serial # 7, Page-545, Notes), in the early tracing of the history of the Simla Tripartite negotiations leading to the McMahon Line Agreement (1914), to quote the Emperor’s then Representatives in Calcutta, Lu Hsing – Chi on the Middle Kingdom’s positive attitude to the Simla Meeting; “We must exert muscles to the utmost during this Conference”, (Page-186, Chapter 7)
Dr.K, however fails to note that the main reason for the then Chinese Central Government’s refusal to fully “sign” the Tripartite Agreement was their non acceptance of the border between “Inner” (Sichuan and Yunnan provinces) and “Outer” (present Autonomous Region area) Tibet, and not the India – Tibet segment of the Line, while he elaborates on the significance/ difference in Diplomatic Practice between “initialling” and “signing” an International Agreement.
Though mentioning Tibet in the context of the evolution the McMahon Line aspect of the border dispute, Dr.K briefly refers to HH the Dalai Lama (DL) taking asylum in India in 1959 in this Section, only to the extent of China beginning “to treat the issue of demarcation line increasingly in strategic terms”, not as a significant trigger for the Border War China launched three and a half years later. (Page 187, Chapter 7).
There is an amazing passage of brutal frankness, in a book replete with breath-taking dialogue scripts, on the 1959 Tibetan Revolt and the D.L’s escape – a verbatim record of a macabre exchange between Mao and Khrushchev during the latter’s visit to Beijing in October, 1959, that has to be highlighted . (Page-171, Chapter-6)
Three Mao quotes given by Dr.K in this Section on India – China 1962 War are worth reproducing, as they unambiguously establish the “malice aforethought” of Mao to unleash the War on India, as supplementary Diplomacy, with meticulous preparedness. (i)“You (perhaps referring Nehru) wave a gun, and I will wave a gun. We will stand face to face and can each practice our courage.” Mao defined it as policy of “armed coexistence” (to the CMC – page 188, Chapter-7). (ii) “Lack of forbearance in small matters upsets great plans. We must pay attention to the situation”. (to the CMC – Page 188, Chapter-7) (iii) “We fought a war with old Chiang (Kai-shek). We fought a war with Japan, and with America. With none of these did we fear. And in each case we won. Now the Indians want to fight a war with us. Naturally, we don’t have fear. We cannot give ground, once we give ground it would be tantamount to letting them seize a big piece of land equivalent to Fujian province……Since Nehru sticks his head out and insists on us fighting him, for us not to fight with him would not be friendly enough. Courtesy emphasizes reciprocity”.(In early October 1962 – “to assembled Chinese leaders to announce the final decision, which was for war” – Page 190, Chapter-7)
Other Aspects of Indian Interest
It is somewhat disappointing for the Indian observer that Dr.K. had not found time and space to cover China – Pakistan relations despite their having been found to be crucial in U.S – China bilateral talks, and had apparently been dealt with as such at top leadership meetings, from two important perspectives, namely, nuclear/missile proliferation and international terrorism, during the Clinton and George W.Bush, Presidencies.(On Terrorism, Dr.K evocatively describes China as an “agnostic bystander” – till America’s “9/11”)
However, all that he has to say on the bilateral, collusive violations of international agreements and commitments on nuclear and missile non proliferation areas by the two “rogue” friends of the U.S. is :–
“Finally, the experience with the “Private” proliferation network of apparently friendly Pakistan with North Korea, Libya, and Iran demonstrates the vast consequences to the international order of the spread of nuclear weapons, even when the proliferating country does not meet the formal criteria of a rogue state.” (Page-496 – Chapter-18).
The following passage from Huang Hua’s harangue to Brzezinski in the segment relating to the third Vietnam War (page 352, Chapter 13) has something India can ponder over, in the light of its so far ineffective responses to Pakistan’s long persisting Low Intensity War strategy, to expose the fallacious perceptions it is based on. “As for the argument that the Soviet Union would not dare to use conventional arms for fear of nuclear attack from the West, this is only wishful thinking. To base a strategic stance on this thinking is not only dangerous but also unreliable”. (citation # 15, page 352, Chapter 13 and page 555 of Notes ).
The suggestion is that India needs to drastically change the ambiance of bilateral equations in Subcontinent, and gain “strategic space and strategic autonomy”, by appropriate actions and responses to periodic provocations by Pakistan, so that its “all weather friend” China, as ever pragmatic, finds it prudent to read the wisdom of the above quote to its permanently parasitic neighbour – with two small changes, inserting “India” in place of “Soviet Union” and “you” in place of “the West”, as highlighted in passage above.
Four major Historic Occurrences in US-China Relations: Principled?
These figure repeatedly in the context of the four major historic occurrences, marking the evolution of U.S – China bilateral relations, post October 1949, namely; the triangle of U.S – Soviet Union – China, Cold War era and beyond, the tortuous negotiations over Taiwan, the Korean and Vietnam wars, as well as the domestic convulsions engineered by Mao in revolutionary zeal.
Behind the facade of fiery militancy bordering on nuclear war mongering/of “principled” ideological firmness/political toughness/historic Civilizational patience, drawing inspiration from Confucius, Sun Tzu, and so on, the PRC leadership is capable of extreme elasticity and pliability, surpassing the marvels witnessed in the fantastic physical contortions of the famed Chinese Circus Gymnasts.
The only principle of their “Principled stand” is pragmatic achievement of the desired goal, by hook or crook, which may be battle for survival against, or keeping at bay, the Polar Bear time and again, checkmate the U.S. Imperialism in Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, and of late, the East Pacific, or determined pursuit of pulling the country out of backwardness, poverty, towards economic domination of the world.
It looks like the hoary Middle Kingdom Statecraft culture held the concept of “consistency” at arm’s length and use of the ideograph to depict this. Or that it had been banned along the way by Emperor Chin Shi Huang Di, with the writings of Confucius and other Chinese wise men.
Dr.K’s dramatic, ‘blow – by – blow’ account of how the Chinese Leadership desperately sought to settle the crisis precipitated by Fang Lizhi, (China’s Andrei Sakhrov sans the Noble and perhaps the Hydrogen bomb), suddenly seeking refuge in the US Embassy in Beijing with his wife on June 4 1989, fearing the worst to his safety following the Tiananmen (TAM) crack down, is a vivid, “no-holds-barred” play out of most of the above “Chinese characteristics” (pages 428-432, Chapter 15). It is also the high point of the trust Chinese Leaders had in Dr.K and his (brain) power to deliver them from the most awkward of situations (they were many) when he specially undertook this mission (November 1989) as a non official. The passage “At this point Deng got up from his seat and unscrewed the phones between his seat and mine as a symbol that he wanted to talk privately” (page 430) and what followed to a happy, face-saving package deal end, epitomizes the quintessential spirit and substance of Dr.K’s Book, on himself, China, and all in between. Point to note:- When the chips are down, there is no scale to measure the depth of a Chinese climb down.
The Chinese Leadership of all generations practices with consummate success all verbal and physical feints, duplicity, outright lies, wrapped in deliberate studied ambiguity, grandstanding calls for World Revolutions against Imperialism, Revisionism, Hegemonism, Brinkmanship in readiness to risk nuclear war annihilation, as a tool of blackmail, and so on, to achieve well planned, meticulously executed, long-range objectives of domination, even from an intrinsically weak position – Wei Qi style.
The “Chinese characteristics”- the world should take note of:
The known history of the 1962 India-China Border War, and the “unknown” developments in this area of the past three decades since the resumption of the dialogue between the two countries, post the 1962 War hiatus, (dealt with in detail elsewhere in this Paper), are the close-to-home, hurtful, demonstration of these “Chinese Characteristics”.
Most of the time they have succeeded in pulling the wool over the eyes of “friends” as well as “foes” at the given point of time. (many times the same entity is simultaneously invested with both the roles and dealt with).
PRC’s ‘cohort’-ing with impunity with “rogue”countries and their discredited leaders, shunned by most the world at a given point of time, like those of Sudan, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Somalia, Cambodia, Myanmar and many despots of later America, inter alias for crass material benefits like access to oil and other commodities, or for diplomatic purposes, uniquely sets them apart as unafraid of isolation or widespread unpopularity. Eventually they have the last laugh.
There have been, inevitably, a few misfires and failures, in this approach, and the PRC has taken the tumble, at times grievous hurt, on the chin, and continued to march forward.
Now the Chinese involvement with Col. Gaddafi in Libya and the temporary set-back in their oil fortunes there are the latest illustration. Their cozy relationship with Bangladesh after a short interregnum, despite their support to the hilt to Pakistani suppression in the East, prior to and during 1981 war, is another classic of adroit, nimble footwork, turning 180 degrees, sans any qualms.
All along, the Chinese Leadership has demonstrated extraordinary capacity to mobilize resources, man power, material and what have you, on a stupendous scale, and concentrate these to tackle the tasks on hand, be it the Korean War, Taiwan Straits crises, border show downs with the Soviets in Siberia, or the ill-conceived, force-marching of the country to instant economic Utopia, through the Great Leap Forward steroid administration, the Societal Purification and perpetual Revolution sought in the GPCR and dazzling achievements in putting up modern Infrastructure show pieces or disconcerting cyber attacks on strategic assets of countries all over the world with uncanny ease which can poise them to the role of Hitler of the future e-universe.
Aggressive Postures of Chinese Diplomacy:
To illustrate (one of many) the confidence and aggressive facet of Chinese diplomacy, even when in a hole of relative weakness, Dr.K cites detailed accounts of meetings of not only Deng, but also of second tier leaders like Foreign Minister Huang Hua, where they passionately hector his successor NSA, Zbig. Brzezinski, on the wrong line of policy and approach, in their view, adopted by the U.S towards the Soviet Union, (in the backdrop of the 3rd Vietnam War) which, inter alias allowed the Soviets various concessions in areas of trade and technology, instead of putting military pressure on it, that would rebound to haunt the U.S. through competition and challenge in future (Page 351- 353 Chapter 13).
It is ironic that, now, the shoe is on the other foot. The accommodative policy adopted by the U.S towards China in the past two decades, 1990-2010, in trade and technology transfer areas, have made China a major challenge to U.S, while the Soviet Union had withered away. Throughout the Book Dr.K gives invaluable insights into the PRC and CPC inner working, and thought – cum – decision-making processes at the highest levels from extensively researched authentic records, mostly of U.S provenance, but also plenty of Chinese and Soviet origin. It is felt that China watching scholars and diplomats will reap adequate dividends if they strive to access similar archival records of Albania, under Enver Hoxha / Mehmet Shehu the only country which PRC/CPC had kept close relations with during its decades of “revolutionary” isolation, including the domestically turbulent GPCR years, when it strove to be the center / leader of World Revolution and Communist Orthodoxy. In particular, significant keys to the mystery of Lin Piao’s death and the rise and fall of the Gang of Four may be available here.
“Insistent Posture” of the Chinese:
The most important take for me personally from Dr.K’s Book, in dealing with China is the phrase “Insistent Posture” (IP). This occurs obscurely (Page 508) in the last brilliant Chapter-18, “The New Millennium”, in the context of Dr.K comprehensively analyzing a December, 2010 seminal, authoritative Statement on PRC Foreign Policy by State Councillor Dai Bingguo in its multifaceted aspects. It has apparently been used by the “Triumphalist” school in the ongoing “The National Destiny Debate”, exemplified by two very popular, “deeply nationalistic” Books, “China is Unhappy”, a 2009 collection of essays, and “China Dream” a 2010 publication by PLA Senior Colonel Liu Mingfu, both of which advocate that China should stand up and follow aggressive measures “to become the number one in the world”. One ostensible purpose of Dai Bingguo is to distance the PRC leadership from this popular, almost militarist posture, carry conviction with and reassure the world about the bonafides of the Official policy, namely, “peaceful rise” – since revised to “peaceful development” – and “harmonious world”. (Pages 504 onwards, Chapter-18).
All the above three offerings have been expertly summarized and analyzed by Dr.K, with appreciable objectivity and thoroughness, as well as realism of an American strategic thinker. Hence, one should refrain from seeking to gild the lily, as it were, but recommend that this Chapter should be read in full, along with the succeeding, equally brilliant, “Epilogue”, where, after drawing parallel from the developments leading to World War-I, with the help of a U.K. diplomatic study, “The Crowe Memorandum”, he weighs in, ever so gently, in favour of a non-confrontationist development of U.S – China relations, in future, in the face of real, strong, inevitable challenges.
I have plumbed that “Insistent Posture” should be the watch word hereafter which should guide India’s approach to all aspects of bilateral relations with the PRC.
Obiter on India – China relations The Indian Public Should be taken into Confidence:
The nitty-gritty of the post Nehru era India – China border dispute negotiations have been marked by near total secrecy. This has been plainly proven to be purposeless, self-defeating, counterproductive, and arguably much worse. This has given rise to lot of unhealthy speculation about various proposals proffered by either side.
One of these is a “swap”, attributed to different Chinese Leaders including Mao, Chou, Deng, at different points of time. In essence this amounted to a Chinese offer that they would allow India to keep the disputed area in the Eastern sector, in return for India’s acceptance of the Chinese claims in the Western (Ladakh) sector.
Dr.K’s Book refers to this Swap in suitably authentic tone, as having been offered by Chou Enlai, and its non acceptance by India, without however any specific official level citation at this point (page 187, Chapter 7). Other references allude to this subject else were in the Book in general terms, basing on the secondary source, Mr John Garver.
Ambassador C.V.Ranganathan Book, “India and China, The Way Ahead”, second edition, 2004, (herein after referred to as “CVR – ICWA”), gives strong credence to this thesis, with a detailed narrative of the 1979 talks in Beijing between Deng and the visiting then Indian External Affairs Minister, Mr. Vajpayee, wherein the Swap had figured (Pages 166 – 168, CVR – ICWA). No documentary authority has however been cited. The narrative also shies away from authoritatively spelling out details of the Swap. It however avers that India rejected the PRC proposals on Constitutional legal, technical grounds, again without citing any authority.
“CVR – ICWA” nevertheless speculates that difficulties envisaged in “selling” any line of territorial compromise to the Indian public to settle the Border issue would be electoral hot potato. Does this mean that India just kept mum without any response, beyond, “Sorry we cannot accept this for domestic political reasons”?. Or they discussed their problems with their counterparts, in whatever fashion, but had chosen to hide it from the Indian public?
Whichever way, even if essentially correct, this premise is a totally fallacious, escapist, if not a “cop-out”, showing poor appreciation and judgement of the dynamics of India’s domestic polity.
India’s relations with the PRC is one area which can be safely postulated as extrinsic to, and fairly well insulated from the vagaries of domestic electoral politics, which can be safely kept that way unless violently mishandled.
Whatever the assessed obstacles, these will not go away with time, but only assume more dangerous dimensions, eventually bringing greater grief to the country, through the tactics of “seeping aggression” being successfully pursued by the PRC, through more frequent, enlarging, and growingly emphatic references to their claims to Tawang and “South Tibet”, which had not been seen till recently.
Recently, there was an article in Chinese media in which the author discussed in detail the relative merits of China handing over to India areas claimed by it in the Eastern Sector (Arunachal Pradesh), in return for India agreeing to China’s retention of the area under its occupation in the Ladakh Sector (Aksai Chin).
Probably for the first time, this author claimed at length that Chairman Mao had himself convincingly advanced in detail (obviously before his death) the strategic advantages of China retaining Aksai Chin, compared to lesser purchase in keeping Arunachal Pradesh. This seemed to indicate the existence of an ongoing debate, or its recrudescence, on the subject within China and a serious attempt being made by some section of the leadership to gain wider acceptance among the country’s population for this move, in the face of internal opposition.
This clearly calls for India to have a goal and a strategy to take advantage of such debates in China by appropriate, adroit modifications in negotiating positions / postures.
India Should produce a White paper on Border Negotiations:
In view of these developments, it is time that Government of India sets all speculation on this at rest without further delay, with an authentic, comprehensive report on Border negotiations held so far since 1963-1964, on the lines of the White Papers published prior to 1963 events. Simultaneously, Government of India should make public every aspect of what all has transpired in bilateral negotiations between the two countries covering all subjects, beyond the Border Dispute too.
The paradox and contrast with Government of India in keeping its “Aam Admi”( general public ) in total darkness on momentous external relations issues affecting national security, thereby denying itself the strength and support of the masses, needs to be taken note of and corrected.
Issue of River Waters:
There is a special urgency to do this immediately in respect of negotiations on the exploitation of waters of international rivers flowing out of Tibet for which both the Governments have constituted the “India – China Expert Level Mechanism on Trans – Border Rivers” which holds annual meetings.
The potential long-term adverse effects of the River Waters issue are much more damaging to the future of the Nation and its population, than even the dispute over Border territorial claims, whose (mis) handling over the years has proved dangerous enough to National security. The absence so far of any meaningful detailed disclosures on this subject, covering Government of India’s attitude and actions, if any, as well as PRC’s responses, if any, evoke an eerie, nightmarish feeling of replay of the Border dispute tragedy of the 1954 – 1962 vintage.
In the absence of more detailed information, the PM’s recent statement on the River Waters, in the current Parliament Session, gives the impression that Government of India may be following a wrong course of action intending to domestically down play the problems with the PRC, in the misplaced assessment that this is either necessary, or will lead to maintaining over all, friction – free, “friendly” relations with the PRC. If so, there has been a culpable failure to learn the lessons from the tragic experiences of Mr.Nehru which led to his refusal to a January, 7 1963 oral message of Chou Enlai requesting to meet personally and discuss the six (Non-Aligned Movement) nation Colombo proposals, with the observation “matters are gone too far and the people of India could not be persuaded to accept Chinese ‘bluff and nonsense’ any more”. (Pages 99 – 101 of India’s CDA in Beijing, Dr.P.K.Banerjee Memoirs of the Chinese Invasion of India).
White papers published by Government of India on the 1962 War graphically show the background for Mr.Nehru’s above frustration. That it is fatal to second guess PRC’s intentions and meanings from their cleverly ambiguous statements, especially from a self-induced, preconceived naive mind-set, resulting in make-believe or wishful interpretations of what one wants to see and hear, rather than nailing the PRC in writing on what they had specifically intended or wanted say.
Two letters exchanged between the two Prime Ministers, one of Mr Nehru dated May, 22, 1959 where he sought it interpret Chou Enlai on having accepted the McMahon Line during his visit to India in January, 1957 (letter written after a lapse of two years after the visit!) and Chou Enlai’s flat contradiction of the same in his reply dated September, 8, 1959 are prime examples of the failure to adopt the methodology of “Insistent Posture” (refer Para 73).
An extract of Diplomatic Note dated 31 May 1962 by the Chinese Foreign Ministry to the Indian Embassy in Beijing at Appendix – II is another shining illustration of the dangers of the preconceived mind-set in dealing with the PRC (Page-142, CVR – ICWA).
There was no Dr.K in the 1950s to wise up the world with experience to share in dealing with latter-day Middle Kingdom Mandarins who have carried the same Imperial DNA for millennia, mutated for good measure with dyed – in – the wool , Marxist – Leninist Revolutionary ambitions.
Government of India will be well advised even now to go over with fine tooth comb what all have been officially exchanged with the PRC, on the subject of River Waters, what replies the PRC had given in writing, including the record of exchanges at annual meetings of Experts. ( hopefully they are comprehensive.
The Concept of “Line of Actual Control”:
The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is a crucial concept, which unfortunately has remained only that, for decades now, in India – China Border negotiations. The PRC has successfully evaded giving any meaningful idea of their version of this LAC, in spite of undertaking to do so in solemn bilateral undertakings in Agreements signed by Heads of States and Governments of the two countries periodically. Absence “Insistent Posture” on Government of India’s part, the PRC has merrily gotten away without giving any concrete description of the LAC, so that they can draw it any time in future South of Tawang and tell Government of India that they have never said anything contradictory before officially and they cannot be proven wrong. And they will get Neville Maxwells of 21st century (perhaps some Indians too!) to paint them as paragons of all Celestial virtues, attributed to Confucius, Sun Tzu etc.
Singularity and Exceptionalism:
Dr.K devotes time and space in the Book to highlight China’s “Singularity” and “Exceptionalism”. One salient aspect emphasized is the great influence of China’s ancient Civilizational history, Culture, and writings of Philosophers like Confucius, Sun Tzu as the bedrock and guiding force throughout the many millennia, to the cataclysmic contemporary developments of 20th/21st Century, and the strength and sustenance Mao and his successors had drawn from this, to the extent of even using the same ancient elliptical, allegoric, epigrammatic, vague circumlocutory verbiage to hide and fudge, so as to thrive and succeed.
India too has a great History:
India has also been blessed with ancient history and civilization and great philosophers and thinkers whose teachings had served generations of Rulers and the Ruled for millennia. Except that in Indian case there seems to be a disastrous break in the past couple of centuries under British colonialism, and contemporary Rulers seem unaware of and unwilling to draw strength, sustenance and guidance from their Heritage, in meaningful, practical ways. This is an important point to ponder over while learning from the successful Chinese experience, so rivetingly told in the Book by the master practitioner of International Diplomacy. Another noteworthy/mentionable fact is that the PRC has been most successful in educating and sensitizing the entire country without significant distinction among populations in rural and urban areas, on the major aspects of its Foreign Policies and external relations with important countries at any given point of time, (dealt with in the Book), both in broad strategic long-term perspective and nuances, as well as immediate tactical moves, as situations develop, so as to be able to demonstrate massive support on the street, especially when it concerns countries like Japan, Soviet Union, Vietnam and the U.S.
Even allowing for the differences in the systems of government, control over media etc., this gulf is a major, self-inflicted failure which is regrettably and totally unjustified. (The writer is a former chief of India’s External Intelligence Agency)
International Women’s Day (March 8) is a global day celebrating the social, economic, cultural, and political achievements of women. The day also marks a call to action for accelerating women’s equality. As a student of Human Anatomy, my primary concern is about understanding the definition of man and woman in all its dimensions. For example, I dissected the cadaver of a human female to learn the Human Anatomy of the lower limbs without any concern for the gender identity of the human cadaver.
In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.
Who is Whole Dude?
The word ‘Whole’ as an adjective describes quality of being healthy, sound, auspicious, not broken, not defective, entire, undivided, complete, containing or constituting the entire amount, or having all of its natural elements. The word ‘Whole’ is also used as a noun to describe a thing or entity that is complete in itself and which lacks none of its parts. Whole Dude is a phrase that refers to Whole Man in all aspects of one’s being, including physical, mental, social, moral, rational, creative and spiritual. The man exists because of functional unity of the entire system and hence the singularity of the multicellular organism called man may not be divided into its constituent parts like body, mind, and soul which have no independent existence of their own.
I prefer the phrase Whole Dude over other often used phrases such as Whole Man, Whole Person, Whole Self, and others. Just like ‘White Light’, the singularity described as Man is in reality a spectrum of seven colors. The seven dimensions of the Man are, 1. The Physical, 2. The Mental, 3. The Social, 4. The Moral, 5. The Spiritual, 6. The Creative, and 7. The Rational. The description of the Man as a created, spiritual, and rational being is fundamental to defining the Man as a Whole Dude.
Who is Whole Cookie?
The phrase Whole Dude somehow misses the flavor called Woman. God created both man and woman in His own image and hence God is both male and female at one and the same time. In the common usage of the term God, most often writers refer to God as if He is exclusively Male or of the masculine gender. From the very beginning, the Indian tradition views God as the First Male and the First Female and named the Male Principle as Father and the Female Principle as Mother. Father is the Originating Principle, and Mother is the Source Principle. The Indian tradition describes the Mother as the Divine Source of Matter, Energy, Knowledge, and Life or as the Constitutive Principle. Father is described as the LORD, the Owner, the Ruler, the Governor, the Controller, the Protector, the Sustainer, the Maintainer, the Preserver or as the Regulative Principle that rules, regulates, and governs all the operations of matter, energy, knowledge, and life in the created, natural Cosmic Order.
Just like the phrase Whole Dude, I coined the phrase Whole Cookie to specifically refer to the feminine gender created by God.
The word Cookie is often applied to describe a young, attractive woman, a sweet thing, whose flavor is reflected in the language, behavior, and mannerisms that contribute to the constitution of the female personality. I love Whole Cookie for she brings to my experience the sweetness of the Divine Mother called Madhavi.
The name Madhavi is derived from the word Madhu, a sweet substance found in nectar, honey, wine, sugarcane, and others.
Whole Woman Selects Her Tone of Voice to Get Discovered as Whole Cookie
In my analysis, the flavor experienced as Whole Woman involves the attribute called the Tone of Voice. The descriptions provided by Human Anatomy and Human Physiology cannot account for the experience called Sweetness which alone helps in knowing Whole Woman as Whole Cookie.
Defining Indian Identity – The Tradition of Speech Etiquette
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee composed India’s National Song BANDE MATARAM (“Hail to Thee, Mother”). “Vande Mataram” became the Mantra and slogan of people of India in their struggle for independence.
In the Song Vande Mataram, the Land of India is described as Suhasini, and Sumadhura Bhashini .Suhasini refers to a person who can speak in a pleasant manner without being rude or offensive and provide a sense of cheer and humor to the listener. Sumadhura Bhashini refers to a person who speaks good and sweet words which gives a sense of pleasure to the listener.
Speech is the oral, audible expression of human language while talking. Man became characteristically human when he learned to speak. All human Culture and its propagation appears to depend on some form of language to serve as the vehicle for teaching, persuasion and tradition.Speech is a very important aspect of human personality. Culture plays a significant role in the development of speech behavior. Particularly, in the Indian society, there are social expectations in the use of speech, speech mannerisms and in the observation of speech etiquette.The manner of speech is predictive of human behavior. Indians are expected to speak softly, in a sweet and pleasant manner. A loud-mouthed person is generally viewed as disrespectful, disobedient and disruptive. In the following poem, the famous Telugu Poet Vemana describes the importance of speech behavior.
Sri Kumaragiri Vema Reddy is popularly known as Vemana, Yogi Vemana (Telugu: వేమన) was a telugu poet. C.P. Brown, known for his research on Vemana, estimates the year of birth to be the year 1652 based on some of his verses. Vemana was the third and youngest son of Gaddam Vema, then the king of Kondaveedu in Andhra Pradesh.
Brass can produce high volume sound as compared to Gold but we consider Gold to be a precious metal and value its high quality in spite of its lack of ability to generate a loud sound. People who are mean-spirited and low in virtue speak in tones that reflects a sense of arrogance and self-importance. People of high virtue and good character would speak in a gentle and pleasant manner that reflects a sense of humility and the listeners would be pleased by listening to the words spoken. While speaking,the pitch and the volume of the sound is less important and we need to focus on the contents of our speech.
Speech Etiquette and Indian Culture:
Indian Culture describes “Saraswati” as the Goddess of Speech or “VAK”. She is known as VAG DEVI. Indians worship her to obtain fluency and to become eloquent speakers. Our identity is related to the quality and content of our speech. Speech mannerisms, speech etiquette and speech discipline are parts of the grooming process of the children in our homes. In fact, the Indian Tradition of Learning begins only after imparting the importance of Speech Etiquette in the learning Process. Children are generally counseled to use some restraint in their speech. There are several words and phrases that identify an Indian speaker according to their speech quality and content.The phrase ‘Su Bhasini’ directs us to use good and pleasing words. The phrase ‘Mita Bhasini’ directs us to speak to the point using only a few appropriate words. The phrase ‘Manjula Vani’ directs us to speak in a beautiful and elegant manner. Our traditional greeting “NAMASKAR” represents our devotion to showing respect and displaying an attitude of obedience in our public conduct. We can only meet this Cultural expectation by using a manner of speech which would convey the qualities of respect and obedience.
Dr.Martin Luther King, the famous Civil Rights Leader of the United States wished for that day when his sons would not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Similarly, a person’s identity should not be assumed by the person’s physical attributes but by his attitude and behavior. As an Indian, I wish to be identified not by the color of my skin. ‘Sumadhura Bhashini’ is the Cultural standard of our speech behavior. If you care enough, listen to me, my speech would reveal to you the country of my origin.
Please also view a related blog post titled ‘Defining Indian Identity – The Pursuit of Pure and Perfect Knowledge’.
Phalguna Purnima occurs in Phalguna, the final month of the Hindu Lunar Calendar, at the end of the ShuklaPaksha (Waxing Lunar fortnight).
Another name for it is Vasanta Purnima, which is one of the six Vedic astrological seasons. It falls on the same day as Vasanta Ritu.
Hindus celebrate this Purnima as Kama Dahanam in states like Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka, all in South India.
The ceremonies related to Kama Dahanam are similar to those for Holika Dahan. But the mythology behind Kama Dahanam is different. In Tamil Nadu, it is called Kaman Pandigai, and as Kamuni Panduga in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Holi is more of a North Indian festival.
Indians celebrate Holi for they have the choice to choose their personal God. In the Indian tradition, God manifests in various vibrant colors giving the people a sense of joy from several directions.
WHY INDIA CELEBRATES HOLI: THE LEGENDS BEHIND THE FESTIVAL OF COLOR – CNN
By Manveena Suri, CNN
New Delhi (CNN): It’s the bold image of India most often seen in ad campaigns, films and music videos.
But what is Holi and why do Indians celebrate it?
Hindu devotees play with color during Holi celebrations at the Banke Bihari temple on March 27, 2013 in Vrindavan, India.
The beginning of Spring
Holi is a Hindu festival that marks the start of Spring.
Celebrated across India, it’s an ancient festival with the first mentions of it dating all the way back to a 4th century poem.
It was even described in detail in a 7th century Sanskrit play called “Ratnavali,” written by the Indian emperor Harsha.
“Witness the beauty of the great cupid festival which excites curiosity as the townsfolk are dancing at the touch of brownish water thrown … Everything is colored yellowish red and rendered dusty by the heaps of scented powder blown all over,” wrote Harsh.
Indian students smear colored powder during an event to celebrate the Hindu festival of Holi in Kolkata on February 26, 2018.
How it looks today
Although a Hindu festival, Holi is celebrated by Indians across the country and is a great equalizer.
Children can douse elders with water, women splash men with color and the rules of caste and creed are briefly forgotten with everyone taking part.
The evenings are spent visiting friends and family.
A national holiday, it takes place on the last full moon day of the Hindu lunisolar calendar month, which is usually March.
This year’s national holiday falls on Friday, March 18.
The festival takes place a day earlier in the eastern states of West Bengal and Odisha. In some parts of northern Uttar Pradesh state, the festivities take place over a week.
An Indian artist dressed as Hindu god Lord Shiva takes part in a procession ahead of the Holi festival in Amritsar on February 26, 2018.
The roots of the festival lie in the Hindu legend of Holika, a female demon, and the sister of the demon, King Hiranyakashipu.
Hiranyakashipu believed he was the ruler of the universe and superior to all the gods.
But his son, Prahlad, followed the god Vishnu, the preserver and protector of the universe.
Prahlad’s decision to turn his back on his father left Hiranyakashipu with no choice. He hatched a plot with Holika to kill him.
It was a seemingly foolproof plan; Holika would take Prahlad onto her lap and straight into a bonfire. Holika would survive because she had an enchanted shawl that would protect her from the flames.
But the plan failed. Prahlad was saved by Lord Vishnu and it was Holika who died as she was only immune to fire if she was alone. Soon after, Lord Vishnu in His Narasimha Avatar killed Hiranyakashipu and Prahlad became king.
The moral of the story is that good always triumphs over evil.
Indian Hindu devotees throw colored powder during celebration of Holi Festival at Sriji temple in Barsana in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh on February 23, 2018.
The love story behind Holi
In modern day Holi celebrations, Holika’s cremation is often reenacted by lighting bonfires on the night before Holi, known as Holika Dahan.
Some Hindus collect the ashes and smear them on their bodies as an act of purification
Rangwali Holi takes place the next day and is an all-day affair where people throw and smear colored powder on each other.
Indian college girls throw colored powder to one another during Holi festival celebrations in Bhopal on February 28, 2018.
The tradition of throwing colored powder and water is believed to originate from the mythological love story of Radha and Krishna.
Krishna, the Hindu god depicted with dark blue skin, is believed to have complained to his mother about Radha’s fair complexion.
To ease her son’s sadness, his mother suggests to change Radha’s skin color by smearing her with paint. It’s believed that this is where the custom of smearing loved ones with color during Holi came from.