RICHARD NIXON VISITS CHINA. THE WEEK MY LIFE DOOMED.
My arrival in Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam, India during the Week of February 1972 marks an event that Doomed My Life.
I live in the United States, the Leader of the Free World, a Free Nation without any sense of hope for my future Life. I constantly experience the Misery, the Despair, the Frustration, the Disappointment, the Pain, and the Feelings of Hopelessness that describe the lives of Tibetans living in Occupied Tibet.
DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER
Richard Nixon visits China – HISTORY
The Year 1972
Richard Nixon visits China
President Richard Nixon visits the People’s Republic of China. After arriving in Beijing, the president announced that his breakthrough visitto China is “The week that changed the world.” In meeting with Nixon, Prime Minister Zhou Enlai urged early peace in Vietnam but did not endorse North Vietnam’s political demands. North Vietnamese officials and peace negotiators took a dim view of Nixon’s trip, fearing that China and the United States would make a deal behind their backs. Nixon’s promise to reduce the U.S. military presence on Taiwan seemed to confirm North Vietnam’s fears of a Chinese-American sellout-trading U.S. military reduction in Taiwan for peace in Vietnam. Despite Hanoi’s fears, China continued to supply North Vietnam levels of aid that had increased significantly in late 1971. This aid permitted the North Vietnamese to launch a major new offensive in March 1972.
Richard Nixon makes the first U.S. presidential visit to China
President Richard M. Nixon arrives in Beijing, the capital of the People’s Republic of China, on the first presidential visit to the world’s most populous nation. The U.S. federal government had formally opposed China’s communist government since it took power in 1949,
Karl Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto
On February 21, 1848, The Communist Manifesto, written by Karl Marx with the assistance of Friedrich Engels, is published in London by a group of German-born revolutionary socialists known as the Communist League.
Kissinger begins secret negotiations with North Vietnamese
National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger begins secret peace talks with North Vietnamese representative Le Duc Tho, the fifth-ranking member of the Hanoi Politburo, at a villa outside Paris.
Nixon arrives in China for talks
In an amazing turn of events, President Richard Nixon takes a dramatic first step toward normalizing relations with the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) by traveling to Beijing for a week of talks.
India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi pays tribute as he stands next to the coffins containing the remains of Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel who were killed after a suicide bomber rammed a car into a bus carrying them in south Kashmir on Thursday, at Palam airport in New Delhi, India, February 15, 2019. India’s Press Information Bureau/Handout via REUTERS
India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi warned Pakistan on Friday to expect a strong response to a suicide attack that killed 44 paramilitary policemen in Kashmir, ratcheting up tension between the nuclear-armed neighbors.
The car bomb attack on a security convoy on Thursday was the worst in decades of insurgency in the disputed region. India said it had “incontrovertible evidence” of Pakistani involvement, a statement quickly rejected by Islamabad.
“We will give a befitting reply, our neighbor will not be allowed to destabilize us,” Modi said in a speech, after meeting security advisers to discuss options.
The attack comes months before national elections in India.
The Pakistan-based Islamist militant group Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) claimed responsibility soon after a suicide bomber rammed an explosives-laden car into a bus carrying police personnel.
India has for years accused Muslim Pakistan of backing separatist militants in divided Kashmir, which the neighbors both claim in full but rule in part.
Pakistan denies that, saying it only offers political support to the Himalayan region’s suppressed Muslim people.
The White House urged Pakistan “to end immediately the support and safe haven provided to all terrorist groups operating on its soil”.
Pakistan is due to host peace talks next week between the Afghan Taliban and the United States as part of efforts to seek a political settlement to the Afghan war, but escalating tensions with India could divert Pakistan’s attention.
People attend a candlelight vigil to pay tribute to Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel who were killed after a suicide bomber rammed a car into the bus carrying them in south Kashmir on Thursday, in front of India Gate war memorial in New Delhi, India, Feb. 15, 2019. REUTERS/Anushree Fadnavis
As outrage and demands for revenge flooded Indian social media, Arun Jaitley, one of the most senior figures in the Hindu nationalist-led government, told reporters India would work to ensure the “complete isolation” of Pakistan.
The first step, he said, would include removing most favored nation (MFN) trade privileges that had been accorded to Pakistan – though annual bilateral trade between the countries is barely $2 billion.
The last major attack in Kashmir was in 2016 when Jaish militants raided an Indian army camp, killing 20 soldiers. Weeks later, Modi ordered a surgical strike on suspected militant camps across the border in Pakistan Kashmir.
When he swept to power in 2014, Modi vowed to pursue a tough line with Pakistan. The two countries have gone to war three times since independence from Britain in 1947, twice over Kashmir.
The Line of Control, the de facto border dividing Indian- and Pakistani-held Kashmir, is widely regarded as one of the world’s most dangerous flashpoints, especially after the two countries became nuclear-armed states in 1998.
CALLS FOR REVENGE
Indian Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale summoned Pakistan’s ambassador, Sohail Mahmood, and issued a demarche demanding that Islamabad take verifiable action against Jaish. India also recalled its ambassador in Pakistan for consultations, a government source said.
Pakistan’s foreign ministry also summoned the Indian Deputy High Commissioner in Islamabad to reject New Delhi’s “baseless allegations,” a Pakistani official said.
Crowds gathered in Jammu, the Hindu-dominated part of Jammu and Kashmir state, to demand stronger action against Pakistan.
A curfew was briefly imposed in Jammu after crowds overturned and set fire to some vehicles. Protesters were also marching to the Pakistani embassy in New Delhi.
The attack comes at a difficult time for Pakistan, which is struggling to attract foreign investment and avert a payments crisis, with its swiftly diminishing foreign currency reserves at less than $8 billion, equivalent to two months of import payments.
The escalating tension risks overshadowing a visit to the region by the Saudi crown prince, who is due in Islamabad over the weekend and New Delhi next week, with both governments hoping to attract Saudi investment.
On Friday, Islamabad said the two-day visit had been put back by a day until Sunday but the programme would remain unchanged. It gave no explanation for the change.
Indian soldiers examine the debris after an explosion in Lethpora in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district Feb 14, 2019. REUTERS/Younis Khaliq
India’s Home Minister Rajnath Singh flew into Srinagar, the main city in Indian Kashmir, and joined mourners carrying the coffins of the dead policemen before they were sent to their homes across India.
Hundreds of thousands of Indian troops are deployed in Kashmir. Singh said civilian vehicles will be stopped if there is a major movement of military convoys on the main highway following Thursday’s attack.
The separatist insurgency has waxed and waned since the late 1980s, but began to pick up in the last five years as a fresh generation of Kashmiris was drawn to militancy.
Soon after Thursday’s attack, Jaish released photographs and a video of a young Kashmiri villager, Adil Ahmad Dar, who it said had carried out the suicide attack on the convoy.
In the video, Dar warned of more attacks to avenge human rights violations in Kashmir. On Friday, hundreds of people gathered at his village of Lethpora to mourn his death.
His parents told Reuters the 20-year-old took up the gun after he was beaten by troops in Kashmir three years ago.
Jaish is one of the most deadly groups operating in Kashmir.
In 2001, it mounted an attack on the parliament in New Delhi that brought India and Pakistan to the brink of war.
Indian efforts to add Jaish leader Masood Azhar to a UN Security Council blacklist of al Qaeda-linked terrorists have been blocked by China.
Chinese foreign ministry spokesman Geng Shuang expressed “deep shock” at the latest attack and said Beijing hoped “relevant countries in the region” could cooperate to combat the threat.
MY THOUGHTS ON GANDHI’S ASSASSINATION ON JANUARY 30, 1948
Judas Iscariot hanged himself for he betrayed his Master. Gandhi must have hanged himself for he betrayed his followers. Betrayal is a sin that deserves the Capital Punishment. Gandhi’s political leadership victimized millions of people for he lacked moral sensitivity, he failed to make the distinction between Good and Evil.
In my analysis, Gandhi must have spared the lives of Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte who were put to death by hanging for committing the crime of murdering Gandhi. They would not have performed this sinful action if Gandhi had the moral sensitivity possessed by Judas Iscariot.
Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte became the victims of Gandhi’s moral insensitivity, alienation, estrangement, separation, and ignorance of his own true and real Spiritual Nature.
“It is one of the simplest truths of war that the thing which enables an infantry soldier to keep going with his weapon is the near presence or the presumed presence of a comrade” S.L.A. Marshal ‘Men Against Fire’, 1947 The Indian civilization is a rich mosaic of many diverse ethnic groups and cultures, a Rainbow Coalition. Waves of successive emigrations from the Central Asian heartland to the rich alluvial plains of India created this melting pot of many cultures and ethnic groups. The Indian Army is a microcosm that faithfully represents the rich and vibrant diversity of the Indian macrocosm. India can boast of many fighting ethnic groups who have thousands of years of soldiering behind them. Some of the ethnic groups found in our Regiments today were mentioned in the epic Mahabharata some 3500 years ago. The Mahabharata mentions the Dogratas and Tigratas (the Dogras of today) it mentions the soldiers of Mathura (Ahirs, Jats, Yadavas) and Maghada (Bihar).
It also mentions Naga warriors (like Ghatotkach) and warriors from Kamrupa (Assam) who were experts in handling war elephants. The famed fighting ethnic groups like Dogras, Rajputs, Sikhs, Jats, Gorkhas, Garhwalis, Kumaonis, Biharis and Assamese were molded by the British into the European Regimental system. Initially, the British Indian units did their own recruitment. Then a mother or base depot was established to train and supply recruits. These metamorphosed into the Regimental Centers that today train and supply recruits to various battalions of the Regiment (that are generally serially numbered). Thus, depending upon the size of the Regiment, a Centre could feed on six to twenty battalions. The Regimental Centre is the ‘alma mater’; it is the repository of its traditions, trophies, and artifacts. The new recruit joins the Centre, becomes a trained soldier, takes his oath of loyalty and joins his Battalion. Some two decades later he returns to the Regimental Centre for his release and discharge drill. He goes back home as a retired soldier and pensioner. This unique Regimental system creates a mini ethnic-universe of sorts – a cultural microcosm that faithfully replicates and preserves the cultural and ethnic background and context that the recruit comes from. It is the primary system of bonding for combat and creates an extended family system. It gives the recruit and young officer an identity and a deep sense of belonging. It forges the bonds of camaraderie and trust that see the soldier through the stress and trauma of combat.
The recruit is taught to die for the Izzat, the honor, of his Paltan and the Colors of his Regiment. The central credos are ‘Nam’, ‘Namak’ and ‘Nishan’. Nam signifies the good name of the unit, Namak signifies fidelity to the salt and the oath the soldier takes, the Nishan is its sacred flag or emblem that can never be lowered on the battlefield. It must always flutter triumphantly. It is an amazing system for combat motivation and bonding. The Regimental system has stood the test o repeated wars and conflicts.
Indian Regiments have performed superbly in the first and Second World Wars in diverse battlefields over the whole world. Post-Independence they have kept up this sterling performance. The most recent test of the Regimental system came with Kargil and once again the sterling worth of the Indian Regimental system and the ethos it generates was proved beyond a shadow of a doubt. The CNN, BBC, Star TV, and other channels put martial India on telematic display for the whole world to see. The Regimental system, in essence, is the primary basis for combat motivation in the Indian Army. It provides a sense of military identity – through unique and colorful uniforms and accouterment – hackles, lanyards, cap badges, and shoulder flashes and ornate turbans that tie the recruit to centuries of martial traditions of bravery and sacrifice as a way of life. Regiments have their Colors, their sacred Flags. They have their battle honors, their rich customs and traditions, and rituals. Rituals tie us to our origins. These weave the skein of a distinct ethnic identity dedicated to fostering combat bonds, cohesion, and tremendous motivation. On Republic Day the Indian Regiments present a carnival of colors, pomp, and pageantry. Beyond these colors and ceremonials, however, lies a matchless system for combat bonding and combat motivation that has stood the test of time. This Rainbow of Regiments has served India very well in all her wars. These have become unique and immortal national institutions beyond compare. These must be nurtured and preserved. The Indian Army has three types of Regiments:- · Single Class: Like the Sikhs, Dogras, Jats or Garhwalis. These have troops from a single class. · · Fixed Class: Regiments like the Grenadiers, Rajputana Rifles, Rajputs or Kumaonis have fixed ethnic groups, viz Dogras, and Jats, Jats and Rajputs, or Ahirs and Kumaonis or Dogras and Sikhs or Rajputs and Gujjars etc. · · All India All Class: These were generally raised in the post-independence period and contain a heterogeneous mix of all Indian classes. Stellar examples are the Guards and Parachute Regiments or the Mechanized Infantry Regiment. From these simple organizational ingredients has been born a tremendous system of combat cohesion, combat bonding, and combat motivation. Men do not sacrifice themselves on the battlefield for the pay they get. Many years ago Philip Mason had written: “Men may come to the colors for pay, but it is not for the pay alone that they win the Victoria Cross”. The Regimental system motivates them to make the supreme sacrifice. In the pages that follow, the colorful Regiments of the Indian Army are presented in brief outline.
The Brigade of the Guards
Garud Ka Hun Bol Pyare
The first all class mixed regiment was raised in August 1949, by grouping the senior most battalions from four senior infantry regiments. The Regiment was accorded the senior position in the infantry and takes the first rank in the arm. Punjab, Grenadiers, Rajputana Rifles, and Rajput Regiments provided the battalions that started the Brigade of the Guards. Succeeding battalions were raised by direct recruitment. Its battalions have formed part of United Nation forces in Gaza (Middle East) and Angola. The Regiment is to wholly convert to Mechanized Infantry role. One of its battalions is operating anti-tank guided missiles at present while four of its battalions are in Recce & Support role.
The Guards have made a special name for themselves in the Indian Army, by their combat record and excellence in almost all fields of war and peace. The regimental insignia is the mythological eagle king, Garuda. The Regimental Centre is in Kamptee, near Nagpur, in Maharashtra. The Chief of Army Staff is the Honorary Colonel, and President of India is the Colonel in Chief. 4 Guards Mechanized (1 Rajput) has the unique distinction of having an extra Junior Commissioned Officer on its establishment to carry the Honorary Color (the only battalion in the entire Commonwealth awarded this honor for collective gallantry).
Pre-Independence. Delhi 1803; Egypt 1876-1917; British East Africa 1878; Afghanistan 1878-80; Kandahar 1880; Burma 1891; China 1900; East Africa 1914-1916; Mesopotamia 19141918, Egypt 1915, Gallipoli 1915, France and Flanders 1915, Kutal Amarah 1915; Palestine 1916-1918; Tigris 1916; Macedonia 1918; Afghanistan 1919; Donbaik 1943; Italy 1943-1945; Burma 1945; J&..K 1947-1948; Selinghar; Carnatic; Mysore; Ava; Pegu; Suez Canal; Neils, Krithia; Loos; Aden; Point-551; Kanghaw; Naushera; Mangalore; Hyderabad; Gaza; Megiddo; Nablus; Curais; Seringapatnam; Beurabone; Punjab; Multan; Persia; Reshire; Khooshab; Central India; Basra; Shaiba; Ctesiphon; Defence of Kut-AI-Amarnath; Sidi Barrani; Keren; Cassino; Castele Hill; Leswarree; Deig; Bharatpore; Khelat; Mahrakpore; Chillanwallah; Gujarat and Punjab. Post-Independence. Akhaura, Burki, Gadra Road, Hilli, Naushera, Gurais, Shingo River Valley, Sylhet, and Ganga Sagar. Theatre Honors. J&K 1947-1948, Rajasthan-1965, Punjab-1965, East Pakistan-1971, and J&K-1971.
The Parachute Regiment
50 Independent Parachute Brigade was the first Indian airborne formation. It was raised in 1945. Subsequently, 51 Parachute Brigade was also raised in 1965 but converted in 1976 to an infantry brigade. The Paratroopers saw their first airborne action in 1945 when a battalion group was dropped at Elephant Point for the battle of Rangoon. After Independence, in 1952, these specially trained Parachute Units from The Punjab, Maratha and Kumaon Regiments were transferred to the newly raised Parachute Regiment. These formed the 1 Para (1/2 Punjab) 2 Para (3 Maratha) and 3 Para (1 Kumaon). Subsequent to this, five Parachute Battalions and two Parachute (Commando) Battalions were raised. However, 8 Para was converted in 1976 and converted to 16 Mahar and later to 12 Mechanized Infantry.
The Parachute Regiment undertook its first post-independence airborne operation when 2 Parachute battalion group was dropped near Tangail in Bangladesh on 11 December 1971 and was also the first unit of the Indian Army to enter Dhaka. The 9 and 10 Para Commandos proved their mettle in 1971 by conducting lightning raids in Mandhol (across Munawar Tawi) and in Chachro (Sind) respectively. The Parachute Regiment took an active part in the liberation of Goa in 1961 and in Operation Pawan (Sri Lanka) with nearly 80% of the Regiment deployed in the Island in 1987-89. 3 Para and 6 Para conducted air landed operations in aid of the Government of Maldives. The Parachute Battalions have in addition to their participation in other campaigns, formed part of United Nations Operations in Gaza and Korea. Today, the Parachute Regiment is perhaps the only Regiment to have taken part in every theatre and every operation in and outside the country. Recently, the Parachute Commando Battalions of the Regiment have been redesignated as the Parachute (Special Forces) Battalions. On 1 February 1996, 21 Maratha Light Infantry joined the Regiment designated as 21 Parachute (Special Forces). As a recognition of its distinguished service, the Regiment was presented its new colors by the President on 6 Oct 1967.
Pre-Independence. Lucknow, Sholinghur, Carnatic, Mysore, Mehidpore, Nagpur, Nowah, Central India, Ava, Pegu, Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Burma, China, Helles, Aden, Megiddo, Baghdad, Basra, Laos, Suez Canal, Egypt, North West Frontier, Mesopotamia, East Africa, Defence of Kut-AI-Amara, Khan Baghdadi, Persia, Shaiba, Ctesiphon, Tigris, Sharon, Palestine, Nablus, British Somali Land, Pratelle Pass, San Martino Sogliano, Barbera, North Africa, Shweli, Keren, Mersa Matruh, Monte Cavallo, Monte Farneto, lleastello, Monte Della Gorace, Indica Bridge Head, Italy, Magwe, Kama and Sittang. Post-Independence. Bridge and Chachro, Shelatang, Naushera, punch, Jhanger, Jammu & Kashmir, Hajipir, Poongli, Bridge and Chachro.
The Mechanized Infantry Regiment
Bol Bharat Mata Ki Jai
It is the youngest regiment of the -Indian Army and is a unique blend of military heritage originating since 1776 and the latest state of the art equipment profile. After the 1965 Indo-Pak war, a need was felt to provide matching mobility to infantry units operating with Armoured formations. In 1969 some of the oldest battalions from various infantry regiments were equipped with Armoured Personnel Carriers (APCs), TOPAZ, SKOT, and BTR-60. These battalions remained affiliated with their erstwhile Infantry Regiments and Regimental Centres. Fourteen old infantry battalions which were mechanized are 1 Madras (raised – 1776), 1 Jat LI (raised 1803), 1/8 Gorkha Rifles (raised 1824), 1 Sikh (raised 1846), 14 Kumaon (raised 1832), 1 Garhwal Rifles (raised 1886),1 Dogra (raised 1887), 7 Punjab (raised 1941), 7 Grenadiers (raised 1949, 20 Maratha LI (raised 1949), 18 Rajputana Rifles (raised 1941), 16 Mahar (raised 1965), 18 Rajput (raised 1941) and 16 JAK Rifles (raised 1976).
In 1977-78 Mechanized Infantry units were equipped with BMP-1 Infantry Combat Vehicles (lCVs). To fulfill the requirement of the common battle and training philosophy of mechanized warfare, the Mechanized Infantry Regiment was raised on 2 April 1979 and the affairs of the regiment were transferred from Directorate General of Infantry to Directorate General Mechanized Forces. The Regiment was raised and nurtured under the watchful eyes of its first Colonel of the Regiment, General K Sundarji, PVSM, ADC. New Battalions were raised by pooling in manpower from old battalions. The Regimental crest is a rifle bayonet mounted on the’ BMP1, depicting the infantry and mechanized facets of the Regiment. The President conferred Colors to the Regiment on 24 February 1988 at Mechanized Infantry Regiment~1 Centre (MIRe), Ahmednagar, in a unique parade where 14 Colors were laid down and 24 Colors presented. The Regiment has actively participated in ‘Operation Pawan’ in Srilanka, ‘Operation Rakshak’ in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir and ‘Operation Vijay’ in Jammu & Kashmir. The Regiment has the unique distinction of operating in the High Altitude Areas of Ladakh and Sikkim. It also specializes in amphibious, heliborne and Airborne Operations. The Regiment has successfully participated UN Peace Keeping Operations in Somalia, Angola and Sierra Leone. The Regiment is affiliated to the Indian Naval Ship Gharial.
THE PUNJAB REGIMENT
Bole So Nihal Sat Sri Akal, Durga Mata Ki Jai
The Punjab Regiment is one of the oldest regiment of the Indian Army. It traces its origin to 1761 when the first battalion was raised at Trichinopoly. The first four battalions of what later became the 2nd Punjab Regiment and finally the Punjab Regiment were raised during the hostilities in the Carnatic in South India between 1761 and 1776. The numbers and titles of the battalions changed during the successive reorganizations of the Madras Presidency Army and later of the Indian Army during the 18th, 19th and 20th Centuries. The names changed from Coast Sepoys to Carnatic Battalions to Madras Native Infantry to The Punjab Regiment.
The Regimental Centre was first raised at Loralai and was shifted to Multan in 1922, Meerut in 1929 and its present location in Ramgarh, Bihar in 1976. In 1951, four battle experienced battalions of the former princely states of Punjab joined the Regiment. These were a battalion each from the Jind and Nabha States Forces and the First and Second Battalions of Patiala Infantry. They are now designated as the 13, 14, 15 and 16 Punjab. Additional battalions were raised since 1963. The class composition of the Regiment is Sikh and Dogras at 50 percent each. There are also other Indian classes from north India represented in .some battalions of the Regiment. The Regiment insignia is a Galley, an ancient Greek or Roman warship with a bank of oars and sail. It is perhaps the only Infantry insignia of a naval vessel anywhere. It was awarded to the 69th Punjabis (later 2nd Battalion of 2nd Punjab Regiment) in recognition of the readiness to serve overseas after the battalion had fought in eight overseas campaigns by 1824. In recent years the Punjab Regiment has contributed towards United Nations Peacekeeping Operations by sending two of its battalions overseas, i.e. in Gaza and Angola (3 and 14 Punjab, respectively). First and Second battalion of Punjab Regiment were chosen to form the elite 1 Parachute (Special Force) and 1 Guards, respectively. The motto of the Regiment is Sthal wa Jal, or, By Land and Sea. The Regimental Centre is at Ramgarh, Bihar.
The Madras Regiment today stands firmly and proudly on the deep-rooted foundation of valor and sacrifice displayed by the warriors of South India. The four great Kingdoms of Chalukyas, Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras ruled various parts of South India till the end of 9th Century AD. Medieval India saw the rise of the Cholas whose empire extended from West Bengal in the east to south of Bombay in the west and covering entire South India less the Cheras in Travancore and encompassing the islands of Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Cambodia, and Sumatra. The soldiers of the Madras Regiment are the descendants of the Pallavas, Cholas’ Pandyas, Telugus and Cheras whose history of valor is unparalleled. The origin of the Madras Regiment in Its present form can be traced to the occasion when the levees were organized into companies of 100 men each, and two battalions were thus raised on 4 December 1758 and placed under Command Colonel (later Lord) Robert Clive to defend Fort St George at Madras. Thus, the Madras Regiment became the oldest element of Indian Infantry. The number of battalions of the Regiment soon increased to a maximum of 52 battalions in 1826.
In a significant event, influencing the turn of history, the Madras Native Infantry spearheaded the storming of Seringapatnam Fort in the Fourth Mysore War in 1799. On 23 September 1803, the Madras army under Marquise Wellesley defeated the Peshwa army at a place called Assaye and won the acclaim of all. In recognition of the fierce fighting capabilities displayed during the battle of Assaye, the insignia of an Assaye Elephant was awarded to the Madras Native Infantry and the same is worn on the belt by all ranks of the Regiment to this day. Despite outstanding services rendered during many wars, as part of the overall reductions during the period 1870-1903, the Regiment was reduced to 20 battalions and another 15 battalions were converted to First, Second and Eighth Punjab Regiment. Between 1923-28, on grounds of economy, the Regiment was further reduced to only four Territorial battalions and one University Training Corps battalion. After independence, the Infantry battalions of Travancore, Cochin, and Mysore State forces were amalgamated into the Madras Regiment. Post-independence saw the consolidation of the Regiment and re-affirmation of the versatility and valor of the South Indian troops when the battalions of the Regiment fought fierce battles during J&K operations in 1947-48. Sino-Indian conflict 1962. Indo-Pak War 1965 and 1971. The deployment of as many as seven battalions of the Regiment in Sri Lanka during ‘Operation Pawan’ in 1987-89 was a testimony to the faith the Indian Army reposed in the loyalty, dedication, and valor of the troops of the Madras Regiment. Two battalions of the Regiment have been awarded unit Citation by the COAS in recognition of their splendid service in combating insurgency in J&K/Punjab. Further, two battalions of the Regiment served the nation on the world’s highest battlefield in the subzero Siachen Glacier.
The oldest Grenadier Regiment of the armies in the Commonwealth belongs to the Indian Army. A composite battalion comprising Grenadier companies of Bombay Sepoys won the famous battle of Talegaon in 1778. By 1784, the group of Grenadier companies had been given the title of Bombay Grenadiers. The concept of ‘Grenadiers’ evolved from the practice of selecting the bravest and strongest men for the most dangerous tasks in combat. The Grenadiers have one of the longest unbroken records of existence in the Indian Army.
The Grenadiers have as their insignia, the brass grenade with a white horse worn on the uniform with a white hackle. The motto of the regiment is ‘Sarvada Shaktishali‘ or Ever Powerful. The Regimental Centre is at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Mangalore, Mysore, Seringapatnam, Egypt, Kirkee, Koregaon, Beni AIi, Meanee, Hyderabad, Multan, Punjab, Central India, Abyssinia, Kandahar, Afghanistan 1878-80, Burma 1885-87, Somalil and, Afghanistan 1919, Great War, Egypt, Gaza, Megiddo, Nablus, Palestine, Aden, Tigris, Kut-el-Amara, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, Africa, Kohima, Kalewa, Meiktila, Taungtha and Pwabwe. Post-Independence. Gurais, Asal Uttar, Jarpal and Chakra.
The Maratha Light Infantry
Bol Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Ki Jai
The Maratha military qualities were brilliantly optimized in their historic campaigns against the Mughals and the British, under the leadership of Shivaji and succeeding rulers. Maratha armies, comprising both infantry and light cavalry with the Maratha naval power had dominated the military scene in India for three centuries. One of the famous regiments of the Indian Army, the Maratha Light Infantry is also one of the oldest. Its First battalion, also known as the Jangi Paltan, was raised in 1768 as part of the Bombay Sepoys. The Second Battalion had earned the sobriquet of Kali Panchwin.
The Marathas came to special attention in the Great War and have maintained a record of dependability in war and peace. The class composition of the Regiment is primarily formed by the hardy, frugal, and disciplined people form the former Maratha Empire. The men are drawn from the State of Maharashtra with some percentage from the Marathi speaking areas of Karnataka including Coorg. The Regiment also recruits Muslims from the recruiting areas. The Regimental Centre is at Belgaum, Karnataka. The quick-moving Marathas with their traditions of mountain warfare were ideally suited to and were formed into a light infantry regiment. The Regimental insignia is a bugle and cords with a pair of crossed swords and a shield. They chose the bugle for their insignia, as it best represented the light infantry mode of combat by skirmishers, controlled by orders issued on the bugles. The Regiment wears the insignia with a red and green hackle.
Pre-Independence. Mysore, Seedaseer, Seringapatnam, Beni-bu-Ali, Kahun, Multan, Gujarat, Punjab, Central India, China, Abyssinia, Afghanistan, Burma, British East Africa, Basra, Shaiba, Ctesiphon, Kut-al-Amara, North West Frontier, Baghdad, Megiddo, Sharon, Nablus, Palestine, Sharqat, Mesopotamia, Persia, Tobruk, Keren, Sangro, Tengnooupal, Sangshak, Gothic Line, Ruywa and Senio. Post-Independence. Naushera, Jhangar, Barki, Hussainiwala, Jamalpur, Burj and Sudih.
The Rajputana Rifles
Raja Ram Chandra Ki Jai
The Rajputana Rifles is the senior most Rifle Regiment of the Indian Army. Its first battalion was raised as far back as in January 1775, as it stands today was formed in 1921-22 during general re-organization of the Indian army. the following battalion of Bombay and Bengal Army were grouped together to form the sixth group, the Rajputana Rifles:- · 104 Wellesley’s Rifles – 1 RAJ RIF (1775) · 120 (PWO) Rajputana Infantry – 2 RAJ RIF (1817) · 122 Rajputana Infantry – 3 RAJ RIF (1818) · 123 Outram’s Rifles – 4 RAJ RIF (1820) · 125 Napier’s Rifles – 5 RAJ RIF (1835) · 13 Rajputs (Shekhawati) – 10 RAJ RIF (1835) (The Regimental Centre) · 4th Prince Albert Victor’s Rajputs – 105 INF BN (TA) RAJ RIF (1922) ·
Each of these battalions had long and glorious past. They have taken part in some of the bloodiest battles in many theatres of the world. The Rajputana Rifles has the unique honor of having won the first Victoria Cross of the Indian Army in 1856. This was awarded to Captain John Augustus Wood of the 2nd Battalion in the Battle of Reshire in Persia. During World War II, the battalion of this Regiment fought in every theatre in which the Indian Army was involved. Three of them, the 1st, 4th, and medium Machine Gun Battalion fought in Eritrea in North Africa and Italy as part of the famous 4th Indian Division, whose fighting record was among the finest in World War II. It was in the fighting in Keren in Eritrea that Sub Richpal Ram of the 4th Battalion won a Victoria Cross (Posthumous), the first VC of the Battalion and that of the Division in World War II. The second Victoria Cross of the Regiment, during World War II, was won by Company Havildar Major Chhelu Ram again of the 4th Battalion, at Djembe in Tunisia at the end of the North African Campaign. This battalion alone won nearly eighty gallantry awards including two Victoria Crosses in a five-year campaign. The outbreak of hostilities in Kashmir again saw the Rajputana Rifles in the thick of battle. Company Havildar Major Piru Singh of the 6th Battalion earned for the Regiment its first Param Vir Chakra at Tithwal. During the brief period of the Jammu and Kashmir operations, the Regiment was awarded 1 PVC, 2 MVCs. 14 VrCs and 49 Mentioned-in-Dispatches. In 1970, Captain Umed Singh Mahra of a young battalion the 19th won for the Regiment its first Ashok Chakra in Counter Insurgency Operations.
Pre Independence. Mysore, Seringapatnam. Bourbon, Kirkee 1817. Beni Boo Ali, Meeanee 1943, Hyderabad, Aliwal1846, Multan, Punjab, Reshire, Bushire 1856, Khooshab, Persia, Central India, Kandahar-1880, Chitral, Afghanistan. Burma, British East Africa, China, Afghanistan 1919, Givenchy 1914, Neuve Chapel, Aubers, Festubert, France and Flanders. Egypt, Gaza, Nebi Samweil, Jerusalem, Tel Assur, Megiddo, Sharon, Palestine, Basra, Shaiba, Defence of Kut-al-Arpara, Tigris 1916, Ctesiphon. Baghdad, Mesopotamia, Persia, Abyssinia 1940-41, Syria, 1941, North Africa 1940-1943, Italy 1943-1945, Malaya 1941-42 and Burma 1942-45. Post-Independence. Punch, Asal Uttar, Charwa, J&K 1965, Basantar and Mynamati.
The Rajput Regiment
Bol Bajrang Bali Ki Jai
The Rajput Regiment is from the Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) lineage. 31st Bengal Native Infantry, raised in 1778, later became 3 Rajput. The Rajput Regiment has long beef) praised for its fidelity and courage. 1 Rajput and 2 Rajput (then 2/15th BNI and 1/16th BNI), fought with great courage in the capture of the fort at Bharatpur. The men had loyally retained the Colors which had been shot to pieces in the earlier battles for the fort and stitched it up again to raise it at the fort after it was taken.
The Regiment draws its men from Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Bengal, and Punjab. It thus has almost all classes in it, viz Rajputs, Gujjars, Brahmins, Bengalis, Muslims, Jats, Ahirs, Sikhs (M&.R) and Dogras. The regimental insignia is a pair of crossed Katars (Rajput daggers) flanked by three Ashok leaves on either side. The regimental motto is Sarvatra Vijay, or, Victorious everywhere. The Regimental Centre is at Fatehgarh in Uttar Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Delhi 1803, Laswarree, Deig, Bharatpore, Afghanistan 1839, Khelat, Cabool 1842, Maharajpore, Moodkee, Ferozeshah, Aliwal, Sobraon, Chillanwallah, Gujarat, Punjab, Lucknow (With a Turreted Gateway), Central India, China 1858-59, Afghanistan 1878-80, Tel El Kabir, Egypt 1882, Burma 1885-87, Pekin 1900, China 1900, Afghanistan 1919,Macedonia 1918, Suez Canal, Egypt 1915, Aden, Basra, Kut Al Amara 1915, Ctesiphon, Defence of Kut-Al-Amara, Tigris 1916, Mesopotamia 1914-18, Persia 1915-18, North West Frontier India 1915-17, Donbaik, North Abakan and Pint 551, Defence of Alamein Line, Kohima, El Alamein, Razabil, Nagakyedauk Pass, Relief of Kohima, Taungtha, Sittang 1945, Tiddim Road, Hong Kong, Meiktila, Capture of Meiktila, Defence of Meiktila Rangoon Road. Post-Independence. Naushera, Zoji La, Khinsar, Madhumati River, Belonia, Khansama and Akhaura.
The Jat Regiment
Jat Balwan Jat Bhagwan
The Jat Regiment claims its origins from the Calcutta Native Militia raised in 1795, which later became an infantry battalion of the Bengal Army. After 1860, there was a substantial increase in the recruitment of the Jats in the Indian Army, however, the Class Regiment the Jats was initially created as infantry units in 1897 from old battalions of the Bengal Army. In January 1922, at the time of the grouping of the Class Regiments of the Indian Army, the IX Jat Regiment was formed by bringing under a single regiment, four Active and one Training Battalion.
Jats are known in Indian history for their skill with weapons and in combat. They had formed part of almost all successful armies of Indian feudal states. The Regimental insignia is the Roman numeral nine representing its ninth position in the regimental hierarchy of the Indian Army of the 1920s. The insignia also has a bugle indicating the Light Infantry antecedents of two of its battalions. The Regiment draws its manpower mainly from the peasantry, except a few battalions which have a mixed composition. The Regimental Centre is at Bareilly, UP, one of the few Centres to remain throughout at its place of origin since January 1922.
Pre-Independence. Nagpur, Afghanistan, Ghazni, Kandahar, Kabul, Maharajpur, Sobraon, Multan, Gujarat, Punjab, Ali Masjid, China, Kandahar 1880, Afghanistan 1879-80, Burma 1885-87, China 1900, Afghanistan 1919, La Bassee, Festubert, Neuve Chappelle, France and Flanders, Shaiba, Ctesiphon, Defence of Kut-al-Amara, Tigris, Khan Baghdadi, Mesopotamia, North West Frontier. Razabil, Kanglatongbi, Kampar, Malaya, Burma, Nungshigum, Jitra, Muar and North Africa. Post-Independence. Zoji La, Rajauri, J&K 1947-48, Ladakh, Phillora, Dograi, Punjab 1965, J&.K 1971 and East Pakistan 1971.
The Sikh Regiment
Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal
The SIKH Regiment is one of the highest decorated regiments of the Indian Army, with 72 Battle Honors, 15 Theatre Honors and 5 COAS Unit Citations besides 2 PVCs, 14 MVCs, 5 Kirti Chakras, 67 Vir Chakras, and 1596 other gallantry awards. The chequered history of the Regiment spanning 154 years is bloodied with heroic deeds of valor and courage which have few parallels if any. Although the Regiment’s official history dates back to 1846, the biological heritage has its roots in the noble teachings and sacrifices made by the ten Gurus. The SIKH Regiment of today has imbibed the culture and chivalry of Sher-e-Punjab Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s erstwhile KHALSA Army. The ethos and traditions of the Regiment got formalized with the raising of ‘Regiment of Ferozepore SIKHS’ and ‘Regiment of Ludhiana SIKHS’ on 1 August 1846 by Captain G Tebbs and Lieutenant Colonel P Gordon respectively. A major portion of the substance of the Regiment traces its origins to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Army. With a humble beginning of two battalions in 1846, today the SIKH fraternity has grown 20 battalions strong.
The Battle of SARAGARHI fought by 36th Sikh (now 4 Sikh) in 1897, is an epitome of VAL OUR, COURAGE, BRAVERY and SACRIFICE. Havildar Issar Singh with 21 Other Ranks made the supreme sacrifice repulsing 10,000 of the enemy. This sacrifice was recognized by the British Parliament when it rose to pay its respects to these brave young soldiers. All 22 were awarded the Indian Order of Merit, the then highest decoration for the Indian soldiers. This ‘Kohinoor’ of the SIKH Regiment is one of the ten most famous battles of the world. Even to this date, this battle forms part of the school curriculum in France. 12th September 1897, the day of Battle of SARAGARHI is celebrated as the REGIMENTAL BATTLE HONOURS DAY. The Regimental insignia comprises the sharp-edged quoit or Chakra which the Khalsa armies had used in combat. The Chakra rings on lion, symbolic of the name (Singh) every Sikh carries. The Regimental motto is Nische Kar Apni Jeet Karon, (Resolved to Win) taken from the Sikh warrior’s I prayer before battle. The Regiment draws its men I from amongst the hardy Jat Sikhs. The Regimental Centre is at Ramgarh Cantt (Bihar).
Pre Independence. Arrah, Behar, Lucknow, China, Ali Masjid, Ahmed Khel, Kandahar, Afghanistan, Suakin, Tofrek, Chitral, Samana, Tirah, Malakand China 1900, NW Frontier, La Bassee, St Julien, Armentieres, Aubers, Givenchy, Tsing-Tao, Neuve Chappelle, Festubert, Yepares, Tigris, Suez Canal, Sari Beir, Helles, Krithia, Suvla, Gallipoli, Egypt, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, Kut el Amara, Sharqat, Megiddo, Persia, Sharon, Afghanistan t 919, Mersa Metruh, Omars, Deir ul Sein, North Abakan, Buthidaung, Kangala Tongbi, Nyangyu, Irrawaddy, Shandatgyi, Keren, Sittang, Kauntan, Niyor, Coriano, Paggio san Giovanni Gothic Line, Monte Calvo, San Marino, Agordat, Kama and Saragarhi. Post-Independence. Sri Nagar, Tithwal, Raja Picquet, Barki, OP Hill, Parbat AIi, Punch and Siramani.
The Sikh Light Infantry
Bole So Nihal, Sat Sri Akal
The Sikh Light Infantry finds its origins in the Sikh Pioneers raised in 1857. ‘Sikh Pioneers were used in various campaigns in India and abroad, and highly regarded for their determined resolve to complete the assigned tasks against all opposition. The Sikh Pioneers were later merged with the Sappers and Miners. The World War and its need for additional troops saw the rise of the Mazhabi and Ramdasia Sikhs as a regiment in 1941.
This designation was changed to the Sikh Light Infantry in 1944. In view of its linkages with the Pioneers, the Sikh Light Infantry received its earlier seniority after the Sikh Regiment. The Sikh Light Infantry draws its manpower from the Mazhabi and Ramdasia elements -amongst the Sikhs. They had long formed part of the armies of the Sikhs’ Tenth Guru and in later Khalsa armies. The regimental insignia is the quoit or the chakra used by the Sikhs in combat, mounted with a kirpan the Sikh dagger. The regimental motto is Deg Teg Fateh (prosperity in Peace and Victory in War), a phrase taken from the Sikh scriptures. The Regimental Centre is at Fatehgarh, Uttar Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Taku Forts, Pekin, Abyssinia, Peiwar Hotal, Charasia, Afghanistan, Kabul, Kandahar, Chitral,’ Egypt, Gaza, Megiddo, Sharon, Nablus, Palestine, Aden, Meiktila, Burma, Rangoon Road, Paybwe and Sittang. Post-Independence. OP Hill, Kalidhar, Fatehpur and Parbat Ali.
The Dogra Regiment
Jawala Mata Ki Jai
The Regimental insignia is the tiger, revered as the mount of Goddess Durga, who is a widely worshipped deity in the Dogra hills. The Regimental motto is Kartavyam Anvatma (Duty before Self). The Regimental Centre is at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh. The Dogras who form the hardy and loyal population of the hill regions of Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and J&.K have a lot of traditional soldiering. They had been in the service of the British for some years as part of the Frontier Force. The Dogras formed into a regiment in 1887, and three Dogra Regiments were raised as part of the Bengal Infantry.
During the World. War, more Dogra battalions were added and after 1947 the Dogra Regiment gained further in the additional battalions raised as part of the Army’s post-1962 expansion. The Dogra Scouts come under the aegis of the Dogra Regiment. The Regiment has earned respect as a disciplined and dependable group of Infantry. Enrolling in the army has long been the ambition and career motivation of the hill regions of the Dogras. The earnings from the military service have been well spent for over a century in the otherwise economically backward hill region of the Dogras. Soldiering not only became a substantial part of the economic structure of the Dogra Hills but created social and cultural traditions built on the people’s association with the army. The Regimental insignia is the tiger, revered as the mount of Goddess Durga, who is a widely worshipped deity in the Dogra hills. The Regimental motto is Kartavyam Anvatma (Duty before Self). The Regimental Centre is at Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Chitral, Malakand, Punjab Frontier, La Bassee, Fesulbert, Givenchy, Neuve Chappelle, Aubers, Egypt, Megiddo, Nablus, Palestine, Tigris, Kut el Amara, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, North West Frontier, Afghanistan, Kota Bahru, Donbaik, Nungshgum, Kennedy Peak and Magwe. Post-Independence. Jhangar, Rajauri, Uri, Asal Uttar, Haji Pir, RajaPicquet, OP Hill, Punjab 1965, Siramani, Saudih, Dera Baba Nanak, Chandgram and Punjab 1971.
The Garhwal Rifles
Badri Vishal LaI Ki Jai
The Garhwal Himalayas form a stark and rugged terrain. The people inhabiting the area are equally rugged and frugal and provide fine military and infantry material to the army. Serving in the army has been a long tradition in the Garhwal hills. Families have sent their sons to the army for generations. In the remote areas of the hills, earnings of the soldiers have sustained the local economy for years. Garhwalis were taken in military service by the British as early as 1815. They had, however, been enlisted in the five regiments of the Gorkhas belonging to the Bengal Infantry and the Punjab Frontier Force. In April 1887, the raising of 2nd Battalion the 3rd Gorkha Rifles was ordered with a class composition of Six Garhwali and two Gorkha companies.
In 1891, the two Gorkha Companies were separated and the remaining six Garhwali companies were redesignated as 39th the Garhwal Regiment of the Bengal Infantry. Another battalion was added to the Regiment and both took part in the Great War. The Garhwalis were the ‘find’ of the period and proved themselves in Flanders and other battles in Europe, despite the heavy casualties suffered. Later these battalions also served in Mesopotamia and Salonika. After independence, the Regiment gained in strength and proved itself in many campaigns. The Regimental insignia is the Maltese Cross. The Regimental Centre is at Lansdowne, Uttar. Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. La Bassee, Armentiers, Festubert, Neuve Chappelle, Aubers, Egypt, Khan Baghdadi, Sharquat, Mesopotamia, Macedonia, Afghanistan, Gallabat, Barentu, Keren, Massawa, Amba Alagi, North Africa, Malaya, Citta di Castello, Yenaungyaung, Monywa, North Abakan, Ngakyedauk Pass, Ramree, Taungup, Burma, Punjab Frontiers, France and Flanders and Kauntam.
The Kumaon Regiment
Kali Mata Ki Jai, Bajrang Bali Ki Jai, Dada Kishan Ki Jai, Jai Durge Naga
The Kumaonis, like the Garhwalis, had been in British military service since the early 19th Century. As part of the North Indian class, who had joined the military of the East India Company’s forces, the Kumaonis had moved to other states in search of military service. They thus formed part of the Hyderabad Contingent, which was raised, trained and led by British officers under Henry Russell, but paid by the Nizam of Hyderabad.
After 1857, in keeping with the class-based composition of the infantry, the Regiment comprised Rajputs, Jats, and Muslims. After the Great War, some Kumaoni battalions were raised separately, but the Hyderabadis continued and fought with distinction in the World War. The Muslim composition of the Hyderabadis had been discontinued in the mid-1920s. The troops were mostly from the area which is today Uttar Pradesh. In 1945, the Hyderabadis became the Kumaon Regiment. When the Naga Regiment and the Kumaon Scouts were raised, they came under the aegis of the Kumaon Regiment. The regimental insignia is the demi-rampant lion, which formed part of the arms of the Russell family, whose ancestor had started the body of troops now formed into Kumaon Regiment. The class composition of the Regiment is 75 percent Kumaonis and 25 percent Ahirs/Rajputs. The Regimental Centre is at Ranikhet, Uttar Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Nagpur, Mehidpore, Nawah, Central India, Burma 1885-87, China, Megiddo, Sharon, Palestine, Tigris, Khan Baghdadi, Mesopotamia, Persia, North West Frontier, East Africa, North Africa, Malaya, Slim River, Bishenpur, Kangaw, Shweli, Magwe, Kama and Sittang. Post-Independence. Srinagar (Badgam), Rezangla, Gadra City, Bhaduria, Daudkandi, Sanjoi Mirpur and Shamsher Nagar.
The Assam Regiment
The Regiment was raised on 15 June 1941 to meet the claim by the then undivided State of Assam for its own fighting unit to counter the threat of the Japanese invasion of India. The young Regiment soon proved its capabilities within three years of its raising, at the consecutive battles of Jessami, the epic defense of Kohima and capture of Aradura, all of which were awarded as Battle Honors to the Regiment. The Regiment earned high praise for its combat skills in World War II. After Independence, the Regiment gained in strength and its battalions have taken part in all wars and counter-insurgency operations with distinction. It was awarded a Battle Honor for its tenacious defense at Chamb (1971).
Two battalions were part of the Indian Peace Keeping Forces in Sri Lanka in 1988 and a battalion sent to Cambodia in 1993 as part of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. A Territorial Army battalion and a Rashtriya Rifles battalion are affiliated to the Regiment. The class composition of the Regiment includes Nagas, Mizos, Assamese, tribes of Arunachal Pradesh and other North Easterf1 tribes. Two battalions also have Dogras, Garhwalis, Gorkhas and South Indian classes. The unique cultural and tribal character of the Regiment makes for a fine combination of cheerful, tough and willing soldiers who excel in’ 9perations in mountainous and jungle terrain. The Regimental insignia is the single-horned Rhinoceros of Assam. The Regimental motto is Asam Vikram (Unique Valour). The Regiment colors are Black and Gold (State colors of undivided Assam) and Scarlet (the color of the Infantry). Badges of rank are Silver and Black. The sidearm is the ‘dah’. Its Regimental language is Hindi. The Regimental Centre is at Shillong.
Bihar is the cradle of ancient Indian civilizations and empires. Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim influences intermingled to produce a soldiery which was traditionally arms bearing, disciplined and deeply religious. The Bihar Regiment claims its origins from the Sepoy battalions raised in 1758 by Clive at Patna. These were formed by the men from the Bhojpuri region of Bihar. Their success in combat had impressed the local ruler Mir Kasim, to begin raising units trained in western combat techniques.
The Bihari battalions raised by Mir Kasim had not only done well but beaten the British in some engagements. The Bihari, of, poorbiaj purviah soldier thereafter continued to provide the backbone of the Bengal Infantry of the British. The Bihari – particularly the Brahman – was not only an excellent soldier, but he was also quick to learn and apply the tactical drills with an initiative. He was disciplined when led by good officers, but capable of hostility when his beliefs and customs were disregarded. The 1857 revolt against the introduction of greased cartridges, was led by the Bihari troops, who preferred being blown by the guns to losing their faith. Biharis thereafter were not encouraged to enter military service until after the Great War, when they were accepted in the Hyderabad Regiment which later became the Kumaon Regiment. 1st Bihar Battalion owes its origins to the Kumaonis. The 2nd was raised in 1942 as part of the Bihar Regiment. The regimental insignia is the Ashoka Lion. The Regimental Centre is at Danapur, Bihar. The Regimental motto is Karam Hi Dharam.
Pre-Independence. Haka and Gangaw. Post-Independence. Akhaura
The Mahar Regiment
Bolo Hindustan Ki Jai
Mahars have a long and proud tradition of bearing arms. They were the respected members of Shivaji’s and later of the Maratha armies. After the British trained and drilled Indian Infantry was formed in the early 19th Century, Mahars formed part of the Bombay Presidency Army. They had particularly distinguished themselves in the battle for the defense of Koregaon in 1818. A Mahar battalion was raised in 191 7 and took part in the Great War, but was later merged with another regiment. Between the two wars, the Mahars .had persistently sought a regiment for themselves for service in the army. These efforts, marked by the quality and level of arguments advanced by the Mahar leader, Dr. BR Ambedkar, resulted in the Mahar Regiment being raised in 1941.
The Regiment fought in Burma, Persia, and Iraq in the World War. In 1946, the Regiment converted to the specialist role of fielding medium machine guns, and for a decade and a half rendered most effective support in combat. The men carried the heavy weapons in every terrain and never failed to hold their ground in Defence. During the disturbed conditions in the aftermath of partition, the Regiment helped in the safe transfer of lakhs of refugees, in the face of violent armed mobs. In 1956, the Regiment absorbed three battalions of the Border Scouts, which had been earlier raised for manning the disturbed Punjab border. The class composition of the Regiment changed over the years, to accept men from all states and classes while retaining basic Mahar composition in some battalions. The regimental insignia is a pair of crossed Vickers medium machine guns with a dagger. The regiment motto is Yash Siddhi (Success &. Attainment). The Regimental Centre is at Saugor, Madhya Pradesh.
It is a historic Regiment (dating back to 1821) that was not raised by the British but by an intrepid Indian ruler called Gulab Singh. Gulab Singh was one of the ablest Generals of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and later became the rule of the Jammu and Kashmir State. He and his legendary General Zorawar Sing led many spectacular campaigns to add Ladakh, Baltistan, Hunza, and Skardu to the State territories.
Zorawar Singh mounted a breath-taking invasion of Tibet in 1841. The state force fought as Imperial Service troops in both the World Wars (under their own native officer). They distinguished themselves in East Africa, Palestine, and Burma. Their grimmest hour came in the 1947-48 Pakistani invasion of Kashmir. It was their heroic stand that gained time for the entry of the Indian Army and thus saved the Vale of Kashmir. They paid a steep price in blood and sacrificed over 76 officers, 31 JCOs and 1,085 Other Ranks. For their gallant stand, they earned three Maha Vir Chakras, 20 Vir Chakras and 52 Mentioned in Dispatches. The J&K State Forces are the only erstwhile Princely State Forces of India to be absorbed en bloc into the Indian Army as a distinct and separate Regiment. In 1963, the designation was changed to Jammu and Kashmir Rifles. After conversion, the Ladakh Scouts came under the aegis of the Regiment. During the recent Kargil conflict, they created an unprecedented record of sorts, when 18 J&K Rifles won two Param Vir Chakras in a single campaign. Ladakh Scouts has recently acquired the status of a Regiment. The Regiment has a class composition of 75 percent Dogras with Gorkhas, Sikhs, and Muslims forming the other 25 percent. The Regimental insignia is an oval around the stat emblem of the sun. The Regimental motto is Prashasta Ranvirta (Valour in War is praiseworthy) The Regimental Centre is at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh.
The Naga Regiment is the youngest Regiment of the Indian Army. The Nagas were quite well represented in the Assam Regiment and they also had access to other Arms and Services. During 1960, the delegation of the Naga Peoples Convention put forward the proposal for a separate regiment to fulfill their desire of playing a greater role in the Defence Forces of India. First Battalion (1 Naga) of the Regiment was raised at the Kumaon Regimental Centre, Ranikhet on 1 November 1970 under the Command of Lt Col RN Mahajan, VSM. Being the only battalion, it was then designated as the NAGA Regiment. The manpower to raise this battalion was provided by battalions of Kumaon, Garhwal, and Gorkha (3 GR) regiments. 69 Naga enrolled directly from rehabilitation camps of underground Nagas.
However, the Regiment was to comprise 50 percent Nagas and remainder 50 percent of an equal number of Kumaoni, Garhwali, and Gorkhas. Since many Kumaon battalions had been associated with Nagaland, particularly in the years preceding the raising of Naga Regiment, it was affiliated to the Kumaon Regiment for all regimental matters. The second battalion (2 Naga) was raised on 11 February 1985 at Haldwani. The traditional Naga weapons viz the Dah, the Spear and the prestigious Mithun have been integrated into the Regimental Crest. The Regiment’s colors are Gold, Green and Red, the gold of the rising sun, the green of Infantry and red the color of authority among Nagas. 1 Naga was presented with ‘Colors’ on 6 May 1978 at Dehradun by Shri Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy, the President of India and 2 Naga was presented with ‘Colors’ on 10 May 1990 by Gen VN Sharma, PVSM, ADC, the Chief of the Army Staff. 1 Naga took part in Bangladesh operations and earned a name for the Regiment. It was awarded one Vir Chakra and three Sena Medals. The battalion was the first one to be inducted into Op Vijay in Drass Sector on 11 May 99. During this operation, the battalion captured Black Rock, Thumbs Up, tyramid (all part of Point 5140), Pimple Hill (later named as Naga Hill) and Point 5060. The battalion was awarded two Vir Chakras and two Sena Medals for their outstanding performance during this operation. 2 Naga has been awarded ‘COAS Unit Citation’ twice and both times for valor and chivalry in the face of the enemy. This battalion also took an active part in ‘Op Vijay’. The battalion has earned one MVC, two VrC, one YSM, one VSM, and nine Sena Medals.
The Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry
Bharat Mata Ki Jai
India’s first Light Infantry Regiment was born out of the peoples’ response in 1947, to the invasion of Kashmir by Pakistan. In the difficult days of the invasion, the population formed local Defence groups.
These were later organized into militias responsible for specific sectors, e.g.; Leh, Nubra, Jammu, Punch etc. Over a period, these were grouped into Militia battalions. Two of these were later converted into the Ladakh Scouts. The militia battalions operated with skill on the Line of Control, and III the 1971 War with Pakistan earned three battle honors in 1972, the militia battalions were brought on par with the army units, and in 1976 designated the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry. Since then, battalions of the Light Infantry have served with honor in different parts of the country, in Sri Lanka and part of the United Nations Force in Somalia. Appropriately, a battalion of the Regiment earned great honor in operations at 21,000 feet in the Siachen Glacier sector of Jammu and Kashmir. The Regiment has 50 percent Muslims and 50 percent of the other ethnic groups of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The insignia of the Regiment is a pair of crossed rifles. The motto of the Regiment is ‘BaHdanam Vir Lakshanam’. The Regimental Centre is at Srinagar.
Post-Independence. Laleali, Picpuet 707, Shingo River Valley and Gutrain.
1 Gorkha Rifles
Gorkhas from Nepal had extended their empire into Kumaon, Garhwal and Kangra hills by the mid- 18th Century. The Gorkha War of 1815 was the result of the interface between the Gorkhas and the British at the time. Always on the lookout for reliable soldiers, the British started a Gorkha (Nusseree) battalion in the Shiflla hills.
Before long, this battalion had made its mark in the battle for Bharatpur in 1826. In 1850, the battalion was termed 66th Gorkha Light Infantry and later the First Gorkha Light Infantry. It became the First King George’s Own Gorkha Rifles in 1910 (Malaun Regiment). After independence, the designation I changed to the present one. The Regiment’s other battalions were raised after 1959. The Regiment has a proud combat record 1 and has always lived up to its reputation. The Regiment draws its manpower from the Gurung and Magar clans of the Gorkhas. The regimental insignia is a pair of crossed kukris with the numeral 1 above. The Regimental Centre is at Sabathu, Himachal Pradesh, where the First Battalion was raised in 1815. The motto of the regiment is ‘Kayar Hunu Bhanda Marnu Ramro’ (It is better to die than to be a coward).
Pre-Independence. Bharatpur, Aliwal, Sobraon, Afghanistan 1878, Punjab Frontier, Tirah, Givenchy, Neuve Chappelle, Ypres, St Julien, Festubert, Loos, Megiddo: Sharon, Palestine, Tigris, Kut-al-Amara, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, France and Flanders 1914-15, NW Frontier, Afghanistan 1919, Jitra, Kampar, Shenam Pass, Bishenpur, Myinmu Bridge Ukhrul and Kyaukse. Post-Independence. Kalidhar and Darsana.
3 Gorkha Rifles
1st Battalion, 3rd Gorkha Rifles was raised on 24 April 1815 as “Kumaon Battalion”. In 1907, The Regiment was redesignated as 3rd Queen Alexandra’s Own Gorkha Rifles. The Regiment presently comprises five battalions. During the First World War, the Regiment distinguished itself in France, Gaza, and Palestine and won 18 battle honors.
During the Second World War, the Regiment fought in Burma, Malaya, Java, Indonesia, Iraq, Persia, Palestine, North Africa, and Cyprus and again proved its mettle. Past-Independence, the Regiment won the Battle Honor “Pir Kanthi” in Uri Sector in 1948 and “Shingo” in the Kargil Sector in 1971. 1/3 GR has the distinction of being the first battalion in the past-Independence period to carry out amphibious operations during the 1971 operation. Colonel JR Chitnis, CO 1/3 GR was honored with the Ashoka Chakra (Posthumous) in Nagaland in 1956. The Regimental Centre combined with that of 9th Gorkha Rifles is located at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. The Regiment draws its manpower from the Gurung, Thapa, Magar and Pun clans of Central Nepal and from the Indian Domiciled Gorkhas.
Pre-Independence. Ahmed Khel, Afghanistan, Burma, Chitral, Terab, Punjab Frontier, La Bassee, Armentieres, Givenchy, Festubert, Neuve Chappelle, Aubers, France, Banders, Egypt, Gaza, EI Mughar, Nebi Samwil, Jerusalem, Tell Assur, Megiddo, Sharon, Palestine, Sharqat, Mesopotamia, Dierel Sheing, North Africa, Sittang, Kyaukse, Tuitum, Imphal, Bishenpur, Sakwang, Shenam Pass, Tengaupal, II Castella, Mante Della Gargancce, Mante Farneta, Mante Cavallo., Italy, Defence of Mel<tila, Rangaan Raad, Paybwe and Pegu. Post-Independence. Pir Kanthi and Shinga River.
4 Gorkha Rifles
Forty years after the first three battalions of Gorkhas were raised, ‘extra’ battalions were raised and named as such. 33 Extra Gorkha Regiment was raised in 1857 at Pithoragarh. It became the Fourth Gorkha Rifles of the Bengal Infantry and after the Coronation Durbar at Delhi, became the Prince of Wales’ Own 4th Gorkhas.
After independence, it is known as the 4th Gorkha Rifles. It operated in the Lushai hills in 1871, in China in 1900, and in Europe and Mesopotamia during the Great War. There were four battalions of the Regiment in the World War. One of the battalions formed part of the Chindits under Wingate. The third Battalion fought a fine action at Bilafond La, at heights of nearly 20,000 feet in 1987. Major Jackson in his book on the British Indian Army has called Fourth Gorkhas as the most traveled in the Indian Army. The Regiment’s manpower is from the Magars and Gurungs of Nepal. Its Regimental Centre is at Sabathu, Himachal Pradesh. The Motto of the Regiment is ‘Kayar Hunu Bhanda Marnu Ramro,(It is better to die than to be a coward).
Pre-Independence. Ali Masjid, Kabul, Kandahar, Afghanistan, Waziristan, Chitral, Tirah, Punjab Frontier, China, Afghanistan 1919, Givenchy, Neuve Chappelle, Ypres, St Julienne, Aubers, Festubert, France and Flanders 1914- 15, Gallipoli, Egypt, Tigris, Kut al Amara, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, North West Frontier, Baluchistan, Iraq, Syria, The Cauldron. North West Frontier, Baluchistan, The Cauldron, North Africa, Trestina, Monte Cedrone, Italy, Pegu, Chindits, Bishenpur, Shwebo. Mandalay and Burma.
5 Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force)
5 Gorkha Rifles was originally raised as 25th Punjab Infantry or The Hazara Gorkha Battalion on 22 May 1858 at Abbottabad. Later rechristened as 5th Gorkha (Rifle) in 1891, the Regiment has since acquitted itself with a dazzling record of military victories, valor, an array of awards not forgetting the unique feature of winning two VCs on a single day. It is the only Regiment to have won nine VCs in the Great Wars and has 49 battle honors to its credit. It saw hard fought actions in the scorched deserts of Gallipoli and Mesopotamia and rugged climate of Afghanistan during the First World War with an enviable martial account.
The British conferred the title ‘Royal’ on the Regiment in 1921 in recognition of its superlative combat services in the World Great War. The Second World War too bore the testimony of sustained military glories with the ‘Fighting Fifth’ fighting their way through Iraq, Iran, Palestine, Italy, Lebanon, Burma, Java, Malaya, and Siam. In the post-independence era, the battalions of the Regiment continued with their forays in all the wars with élan and heroism now typical to the Regiment. In the Hyderabad Action, the Regiment claimed one Ashok Chakra. Zojila pass was captured paving the way for the link up with Leh in 1948 and Dera Baba Nanak Bridge was captured in 1965. The 1971 war with Pakistan yet again endorsed the stoic resilience and fortitude of the Regiment when a battalion executed the first ever heliborne operations well behind the enemy lines, where it fought one of the fiercest battles in Sylhet. Concurrently, another battalion captured ‘Sehjra Bridge’ in Bangladesh. On the Western frontier, infiltration was undertaken in the Chicken Neck Sector with a masterly technique that completely surprised the enemy. The Regiment was honored with 4 MVCs together with 5 Battle Honors. In Sri Lanka, the Regiment earned one MVC and two VrCs. The eminent personalities associated with the Regiment include Lt Gen ZC Bakshi, PVSM, MVC, VrC, VSM, till date considered one of highly decorated fighting Generals and Lt Gen SK Sinha, PVSM, ADC the former Vice Chief of Army Staff, Ambassador of Nepal and Governor of Assam.
Pre-Independence. Peiwar Kotal, Charasia, Kabul-1879, Kandahar-1880, Afghanistan 1878-80, Punjab Frontier, Helles, Krithia, Suvla, Sari Bair, Gallipoli, Suez Canal, Egypt-1915-16, Khan Baghdadi, Mesopotamia-1916-18, NW Frontier-1917, Afghanistan-1919, NW Frontier-1930, Sangro, Caldari, Cassino II, St Angelo in Teodice, Rocca D’Are, Rippa Ridge, Femina Morta, Monts San Bartolo, Sittang, Kyaukse, Yenangyaung, Stockades, Buthidaung, Imphal, Sakawng, Bishenpur, Shenam Pass and Irrawaddy. Post-Independence. Zoji La, Kargil, J&K 1947-48, Charwa, Sehjra, Sylhet, J&K 1971 and East Pakistan 1971.
8 Gorkha Rifles
The Shiny Eight, popularly known in the Gorkha fraternity of the Indian Army, finds its roots of lineage to 16 Sylhet Local Battalion raised in 1824 and since then the identity of the Regiment has undergone transitions over the period to its present designation as the Eight Gorkha Rifles in 1907. The chronicles of the Regiment, spanning 176 glorious years, are replete with astonishing tales of heroism, guts, and sacrifice. Little wonder that the Regiment has acquired an enviably long tally of 56 Battle Honors, 4 VCs, 1 PVC, and 4 ACs. Military assignments commenced as soon after the raising of the Regiment when the first battalion formed the spearhead for operations in Burma War of 1824-25. The services of the Regiment were to be requisitioned again when the British went to War with Bhutan in 1864. Two battalion columns of the Regiment sallied forth, shoulder to shoulder to crush the Bhutanese revolts and the stronghold of Devnageri.
The first VC came to the Regiment in October 1879 in its first-ever operational mission when its units were summoned to deal with Naga rebels. This was the first time that a regular army unit was ever employed in the Naga Hills. The Young Husband Expedition of 1904 was another jewel in the crown that brought VC again to the Regiment. Braving the high altitude climes of Tibet, the expeditionary force successfully stormed through the Tibetan fortress of Gyantse at 19000 feet. World War I testified the enigmatic valor and heroism of the Regiment during the course of combat services in Italy, France, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. 15 battle honors were earned during the period. 8 GR battalions also saw active overseas actions in Iraq. Egypt, Libya, Tobruk, EI Alamein, and Burma during World War II where the Regiment earned one VC and 22 Battle Honors. Soon after partition, the First battalion saw action in the J&K operations of 1948. When the Pakistanis were all out to seize Kashmir by brute force, Lt Col Hari Chand with a handful of men marched on an unconventional route from Kulu to Leh at an altitude of 18,000 ft. and destroyed enemy guns, which forced them to withdraw from this sector and saved Leh from falling into enemy hands. For this dauntless and gallant action, Lt Col Hari Chand was awarded Maha Vir Chakra. In the Chinese aggression of October 1962, Maj Dhan Singh Thapa, earned laurels for the Regiment while defending Pangong Lake (Ladakh Sector) with ferocious tenacity and held on magnificently against Chinese human wave attacks. Maj Dhan Singh Thapa was honored with the PVC for his steadfastness and valor in this operation. The Regiment also exhibited sterling combat performances during 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak conflicts during which 4 MVCs and Battle Honors came its way. The Regiment was also actively involved in the operations in Sri Lanka and brought home one MVC and four VrCs. The 7th Battalion was raised on 1 July 1979 at Shillong, consequent to the 15t Battalion becoming Mechanized. Field Marshal SHFJ Manekshaw, MC, is the most celebrated personality of the Regiment. His contribution in the Indo-Pak War of 1971 is now a legend in the military history of the Indian Armed Forces.
9 Gorkha Rifles
The history of the 9 Gorkha Rifles dates back to 1817 when it was raised as Infantry Levy at Fatehgarh. In 1823, it became a regular unit as part of the Bengal Native Infantry. After the reorganizations post-1857, the designation was changed to 9 Bengal Native Infantry with one of its companies formed by Gorkhas and other hillmen.
By then the Regiment had fought at Bharatpur and in the difficult battle of Sobraon in the Anglo Sikh War. In 1893, the Regiment became a wholly Gorkha unit of Khas Gorkhas, i.e.; those who were more closely linked to Hindu ways as compared to the Buddhist ways of other Gorkha clans. In 1901, the Regiment was designated 9 Gorkha Rifles. 9 GR fought in the Great War in Europe and in the inter-war years took part in the operations in the North West Frontier. In World War II, it fought in Italy and North Africa. The 3rd and 4th Battalions formed part of the Chindits in Burma and earned a high reputation in Long Range Penetration operations. In 1962, 1/9 GR fought under the most demanding conditions on Namka Chu in NEFA (Arunachal Pradesh). The Regiment continued the fine traditions in 1965 and 1971 and earned Battle Honors and gallantry awards. The Regiment recruits the Chhetri, Khatri, and Thakurs from Nepal. Domiciled Indian Gorkhas are also taken, who form about 20 percent of the strength. The Regimental Centre is at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh.
Pre-Independence. Bharatpur, Sobraon, Afghanistan (1879-80), Punjab Frontier, La Bassee, Festubert, Armentiers, Givenchy, Neuve Chappelle, Aubers, Loos, France and Flanders, Tigris, Kut-al-Amara, Mesopotamia, Djebel-el-Maida, Djembe Garcia, Ragoubet Souissi, Chindit, Tavoleto, Hangman’s Hill, San Marino, Baghdad and Cassino. Post-Independence. Phillora, Kumarkhali and Dera Baba Nanak.
11 Gorkha Rifles
Jai Mahakali Ayo Gorkhali
First Raising. The history of 11th Gorkha Rifles, in fact, dates back to the year 1918. Four battalions were raised in Mesopotamia and Palestine in May 1918 by pooling companies from other Gorkha Regiments and Garhwal Rifles. These battalions also saw action in the Third Afghan War. The battalions were later demobilized from the Indian Army. The Second Raising. At the time of Independence, when the division of the Indian Armed Forces was being done, the question of the future employment of Gorkha troops also came up. At that time there were ten Gorkha Regiments in the Indian Army, each with two battalions. To settle the issue the Govt of India, Nepal, and Britain considered the matter and a Tripartite Agreement was signed on 9 November 1947.
As per this agreement the 2nd, 6th, 7th and 10th Gorkha Rifles were transferred to the British Army while the remaining six Gorkha Regiments were to continue service with the Indian Army. Troops of the 7th and 10th Gorkha Rifles hailed from Eastern Nepal and were of mainly Rai and Limbu castes. Transfer of troops to the British Army was to be on a purely voluntary basis. A referendum was held in the presence of representatives of the India and Nepalese Governments. Troops from the 7th and 10th Gorkha Rifles opted against transfer to the British Army in large numbers. 2/7 GR located at Santa Cruz Bombay as a whole opted against transfer to the British Army. There was no Gorkha Regiment, left in the Indian Army with troops from Eastern Nepal. Keeping in mind the large numbers of non-optees and their fighting qualities it was decided to re-raise the 11th Gorkha Rifles. Thus on 1 January 1948, the Regimental Centre and 3/11 GR (with strength from 2/7 GR) were raised at Palampur and Santa Cruz, Bombay, respectively. In 1948, as the number of non-optees increased the Fourth and the Fifth were also raised. Later the First and the Second were raised on 1 September 1960 and 11 January 1963. The 107 Inf Bn (TA) Affiliated to the Regiment was raised on 1 October 1960. The Sixth and Seventh were raised after the 1962 Chinese invasion. Battalions of the 11the Gorkha Rifles gave participated in practically all operations undertaken by the Indian Army since Independence, I.e. Hyderabad (1948), J&K, 1948, 1965, Chola (1967) where the seventh fought a gallant action against the Chinese in a localized border engagement and 1971. The First and Second battalions of the Regiment have operated with distinction in anti-militant operations in Assam and J&K, respectively, and won unit citations with the COAS Scroll of Appreciation.
THEERTHAM, TIRTHA, TIRTHA SNAAN – SANATANA DHARMA OF INDIA
The ancient traditions of India are often described as ‘Sanatana Dharma’. Indians for a very long time recognized the significance of Water and use it in various rituals, particularly for the purification of the human body which is prone to sickness or illness attributed to sinful thoughts, words, and actions. The term ‘Theertham’ refers to water that is sanctified by prayerful thought and by using it in the devotional worship of God. The term ‘Tirtha’ refers to a body of water such as a well, pond, lake, river, or sea which gets an elevated status because of its geographical association with a physical location, place, or position named ‘Sthan’ or ‘Kshetra’. The physical journey to visit the place of Tirtha Sthan is called Tirtha Yatra. The act of taking a bath or dipping into the water at a Tirtha Sthan is called Tirtha Snaan.
I ask my readers to reflect on the divine attributes of the Water Molecule. The original, sweet taste of fresh water cannot be discovered by the study of the properties of the Chemical Elements, Hydrogen and Oxygen which combine to form the Chemical Compound called Water. Man, like several other terrestrial creatures, depends upon Fresh Water delivered from ‘Heaven’.
Kumbh Mela: Millions of Indians take a holy dip – BBC News
Millions of people have taken to the waters at the confluence of India’s sacred Ganges and Yamuna rivers as part of the Kumbh Mela festival – humanity’s largest gathering.
Officials told the BBC some 15m people bathed on Tuesday. They expect about 120m visitors over 49 days.
Hindus believe bathing at the rivers will cleanse their sins and bring salvation.
The holy men were among the first procession to arrive early Tuesday.
Sadhus – or ascetics – smeared ash on their bodies as they came out of the water and chanted “Har Har Gange”, or “Mother Ganges”, and danced while posing for photographers.
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas
The Naga sadhus are the biggest draw of the festival – held in the northern city of Allahabad, recently renamed Prayagraj – and arrived early in the morning in massive colorful processions.
Thousands of the Sadhus – naked and wearing marigold garlands around their necks – were escorted by police to the river as they chanted slogans invoking Shiva, the Hindu god of destruction. Many were waving tridents and swords.
At the last Kumbh in 2013, female ascetics were allowed to bathe at the confluence of the rivers – known as the Sangam – for the first time. A few hundred transgender people were among those who bathed on Tuesday morning.
More than a million foreign pilgrims will also take part in the festival, senior administration official Rajeev Rai told the BBC.
He and other organizers had been preparing for more than a year for the event, which dwarfs the annual Hajj pilgrimage to Islam’s holiest sites in Saudi Arabia.
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas Image caption Religious sects arrived in processions to take a dip
The mela (meaning “fair” in Hindi) has been held in Allahabad for centuries now, but it has grown into a mega event in the past two decades.
Image copyright Getty Images
This year the gathering will be particularly huge and many believe India’s Hindu nationalist government has organized it with an eye on key general elections due in the summer.
Massive billboards of Prime Minister Narendra Modi dot Allahabad city and the Mela ground. Huge cardboard cut-outs have been placed strategically at the bathing areas.
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas
A temporary tent city spread over 32 sq km (12 sq miles) has been set up to accommodate the masses, complete with hundreds of kilometers of new roads. Hospitals, banks, and fire services have been set up just for the festival, along with 120,000 toilets.
Hundreds of new train services are running to and from Allahabad to tackle the rush of pilgrims and more than 30,000 police and paramilitaries have been deployed to provide security and manage the crowds.
In the run-up to the festival, religious sects held daily processions marked by much pomp and show.
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas
At one such procession on Sunday night, there were elephants, camels, and horses. Brass bands and drummers played, as religious leaders sitting atop several vehicles threw marigold flowers to thousands of devotees.
On Monday – a day before the official start of the festival – tens of thousands of pilgrims bathed at the Sangam. Some then lit clay lamps and floated them along with flowers in the Ganges.
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas
Image copyright Ankit Srinivas
The atmosphere at the mela is festive, and the authorities have announced a calendar of music and dance performances. But there’s plenty of impromptu entertainment taking place by the roadside, with children performing rope tricks and shows by drummers and ballad singers.
Most pilgrims, however, say they are here to “answer the call of Mother Ganges”.
“We believe that bathing here will destroy our sins,” farmer Pramod Sharma said.
“The waters here have regenerative properties. Bathing here can cure your ailments. It also removes obstacles from your way,” Shahbji Raja said.
Kumbh Mela at a glance
A pilgrimage in which Hindus gather at points along the Ganges, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati rivers
This year’s event expects 120 million visitors over seven weeks, dwarfing last year’s Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia which drew about 2.4 million
Astrology determines most aspects of the festival, including its date, duration, and location
The most recent full Kumbh, held in 2013 in Allahabad, was also a Maha (or great) Kumbh, which happen every 144 years. It attracted an estimated 100 million visitors
A lost-and-found camp was set up in 1946 and has since helped reunite countless family members and friends who get separated in the vast crowds
This year, 15 lost-and-found camps have been set up. These computerized centers are interconnected and their announcements will be heard across the Mela grounds. Details will also be uploaded on Facebook and Twitter to help trace the missing
MAKAR SANKRANTI, MONDAY, JANUARY 14, 2019. THE GRAND ILLUSION GOVERNS THE HUMAN EXISTENCE
Man’s mortal journey on Earth’s surface is measured by the duration of Sun’s apparent motions across sky which is experienced as Day and Night while Sun shines all the time without performing movements characterized as Sunrise and Sunset. Man blissfully exists without ever experiencing true motions of Sun around Milky Way Galactic Center. The Grand Illusion, the apparent motion of Sun and other heavenly objects across the sky is the fundamental basis of Biological Rhythm that governs the man’s living functions.
MAKAR SANKRANTI, MONDAY, JANUARY 14, 2019. THE PERCEPTION OF CHANGING SEASONS
Whole Concept – The Perception of Time and Unchanging Reality: Happy Makara Sankranti to all of my readers. Indians observe and Celebrate the Movement of Sun across the Celestial Sphere. Human Existence is conditioned by Illusion; the Apparent Motions of Sun and not the Real Motions of Sun influence the experience of Life on Earth.
UNDERSTANDING TIME AND THE CONCEPT OF UNCHANGING REALITY:
Makar Sankranti, Monday, January 14, 2019. Earth’s Rotational Spin provides experience of Time by causing changes in the environment which Man perceives as Day and Night. This cyclical change of alternating periods of Light and Darkness is synchronized with Man’s Biological Rhythms.
Time is defined as the period or interval between two events or during which something exists, happens, or acts; the duration is a measurable interval. Indian thinkers have described ‘Time’ or ‘KAALA’ as a Power or a Force that is eternal suggesting that ‘Time’ existed before the formation of this created universe, Time operates during the existence of this created universe, and Time remains after the total dissolution of this created universe. ‘Things in Nature change with Time’. Does Time exert a force entirely of its own to change things in Nature? If Time is viewed as a Power or Force, who controls this Force and what are the Laws that operate this Force?
Makar Sankranti, Monday, January 14, 2019.The Subjective Reality of Man’s physical existence is operated by the Biological Clock which may have a plan for Man’s Dissolution.
Everything that is born, everything that has come into existence, and everything that is conditioned arrives with its own plan for dissolution. Whosoever had arrived on this planet Earth, is sure to depart. Time operates this plan for dissolution. Time has the power to cause dissolution of the animate as well as the inanimate world and the physical universe. Whatever qualities, or attributes such as material wealth, social status, social position, and physical state of well-being that man cherishes and desires most would be dissolved and would be rendered useless by the effects of Time. Humans lack the material, and the biological abilities to transform their physical beings into sources of perpetual enjoyment. Time with its Power of Dissolution would eventually compel us to investigate and to explore the concept of Absolute and Unchanging Reality. This Subjective Reality of Man’s existence on this planet Earth which is a member of the Solar System would be dissolved by the influence of Time. Dissolution of Sun and the Solar System would not lead to dissolution of this universe that we currently know and understand. Even when man is dissolved, the conditioned reality of this physical universe will continue and remains as before as Earth and Sun do not describe the total reality of this conditioned universe.
THE PERCEPTION OF CHANGE AND HUMAN CONCEPTS ABOUT TIME:
Makar Sankranti, Monday, January 14, 2019.The Moving Train and the Perception of changing landscape. Photo Credit: Indyeahforever.
Many of you who learned Physics understand the term Speed and Velocity. A person riding in a train or any other moving object could perceive a change that is caused by the motion. The nature of this perception depends upon the Speed or Velocity of that moving object. If the person jumps out of the train, the change that he has been perceiving immediately stops. There would be no changing landscape. As the speed of train increases, perception of change also alters and at very high speeds man loses the ability of visual perception. The visual image becomes a blur. If man is viewing a Motion Picture, his visual ability to view the Picture could be destroyed by simply increasing the speed of the Projector.
Any given point on the surface of the Earth moves with the Speed of the Earth. Earth is moving at a great speed and man has no ability to perceive this motion or the speed. Man perceives a change in his environment and calls it day and night.
We run our lives by numbers on clocks and calendars. The clocks and calendars create the illusion that we live in a world of mathematically measured segments of time. Time is looked upon as a flow like a river. Sir Isaac Newton (1687) stated that the flow of Time is absolute; “It flows equably without relation to anything external.” In 1905 while postulating the Theory of Relativity, Albert Einstein had observed that Time is not absolute, and measurement of Time is affected by the motion of the observer. The Relativity of Time becomes significant only at great speeds. Gravity affects both Light and Time. Gravity bends both Space and Light. Time is affected by the gravitational field of each celestial body. Time is unique to any one spot in the universe. If you and I do not exist at the same spot in the universe, our experience of Time will not be the same. Thus, experience of Time on this planet is an illusionary experience and is not an absolute experience.
‘KAALA CHAKRA’ OR THE CYCLICAL FLOW OF TIME:
Makar Sankranti, Monday, January 14, 2019.The Cyclical Flow of Time brings Cyclical Changes called ‘Seasons’ at expected Time intervals. Life exists because of the Cyclical Flow of Time.
Herman Minkowski, a mathematician, added Time as the Fourth Dimension of Three-Dimensional Space. Time is seen as a Dimension as it gives meaning to events and the order in which they occur. Physicists describe Time and Space as the building blocks of this universe. Biologists see Time in the internal clocks that keep all living entities in sync with Nature.
Human existence and the existence of all other living entities depend upon this illusionary experience of Time. Life exists and operates only if Time flows in a cyclical manner just like a wheel that moves, rotates on an axle or axis. Man needs this experience of day and night during his entire life journey. Man needs the changing Seasons with its cyclical regularity.
Just imagine the consequences to human existence if Spring Season does not arrive at the Time it is expected. Planet Earth is not at the same location or place in Space as Time flows. Last year, we had experienced the Spring Season while Earth existed at an entirely different location and we look forward for the arrival of a new Spring Season despite the Change in the position. Despite Changes in location or position, in relative terms, the Spring Season is the Unchanging Reality of the Conditioned State of Human Existence.
Because of the Conditioned nature of Human Existence, Man always looks forward, and hopes that Time would flow in a cyclical manner bringing cyclical changes. Biologists describe Life in terms of Life Cycles. All living functions have a rhythmic or cyclical quality. The exchange of gases during a cycle called Respiration involves the cyclical events of Inspiration and Expiration. The vital functions sustained by Circulation demands cyclical flow of Blood. The Individual and his State or Condition of Individuality remains existing as an Unchanging Reality if he experiences the cyclical changes in his bodily functions and in the environment in which he exists.
I am that Unchanging Reality; the Reality of my Identity and my Individuality remains unchanged as my physical body experiences cyclical changes in its appearance and in the environment where it exists. My phenotype or morphological appearance or outward appearance undergoes a constant change and this change is synchronized with the cyclical change called alternating periods of Day and Night. The Biological Clock precisely measures this Time interval or duration of my existence relative to the illusionary change; the Sun is always shining with all His brightness with no significant change that I can perceive.
THE GOD CONNECTION:
Makar Sankranti, Monday, January 14, 2019. Face Recognition Technology helps Identification of an Individual. Under the influence of Time, the outward appearance undergoes changes all the time during Life’s Journey and yet Identity and Individuality survives the Time’s Power of Dissolution.
My Identity and my Individuality is the Unchanging Reality of my conditioned state of human existence. I had explored the Nature of this Unchanging Identity and Individuality. This Unchanging Reality of Identity and Individuality exists during the Time interval or duration of my God Connection. I know that Time existed before my creation, Time is operating during my existence as a created being, and Time would continue to operate after my physical dissolution. Time with its great power of Dissolution could not change my perception about my Unchanging Identity and Individuality because of my God Connection. It is rational, it is logical, and it is reasonable to reflect upon Absolute and Unchanging Reality as long as I maintain my Identity and Individuality which cannot be changed or altered by the flow of Time.
ON THE TENTH DAY OF JANUARY, SEPTUAGENARIAN DISCOVERS THE SEPTUAGINT
On the tenth day of January, Septuagenarian Discovers the Septuagint.
I acknowledge the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy on the Tenth Day of January 2019. At any given place, and time, the external circumstances impacting our living conditions vary as all of us have individualistic life experiences even while sharing common living environment.
I seek Emotional Equilibrium or Emotional Balance or Mood Balance while preparing to face challenges posed in the new year of my life. I seek Wisdom shared by Septuagint, the Greek version of the Bible known to Jesus during His lifetime. He cautions people about hardened hearts, spiritual blindness, and deafness that makes people unresponsive to human pain and suffering. I should not hope or desire to find people who have the heart to know my problems, who have eyes to see my difficulties, and who have ears to listen to my pitiable groans.
It helps me to secure my Emotional Equilibrium by knowing Septuagint, particularly, the ideas shared by Prophet Isaiah which guided Jesus during His very difficult Life Journey.
I am not surprised to find that people do not understand the pain that I reveal in my writing. I am not surprised to find that people do not perceive the hardships that I endure. I am not surprised to find that people cannot hear my voice filled with desperation.
I am not perturbed for I live among people whose hearts have become dull. At least for now, I must live without the benefit of healing promised by Jesus.
Jesus speaks of conversion that leads to healing of hearts. Time has healing power of its own. Both physical wounds and emotional injuries heal under the influence of Time. In 2019, I need to wait with patience and ask for blessings of perseverance for the healing process to manifest its results.
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA 48104-4162
In my Theory of Man, I describe the Seven Dimensions of Man, the Physical, the Mental, the Social, the Moral, the Spiritual, the Rational, and the Creative that constitute the Singularity that is recognized as Man. For the he Man’s Existence can only be accounted as a creative event, the problem of Despair can be outweighed by placing the Trust in the LORD God Creator.
In my rational analysis, the Subjective and the Objective Reality of the Man’s Existence in the Physical World can only be accounted by the Unity between Man and his Creator. The Man-God Connection, Relationship, Partnership, Association, Coming Together, Bonding, and Yoking is the fundamental basis of Human Existence at any stage of existence, at any given time, and any given place.
I acknowledge the problems of extreme hardship confronting me from various directions and yet they cannot totally crush my Spirit. I am perplexed but not destroyed.
It gives me pleasure to dedicate this blog post to the memory of Aristotle, the Father of Highest Science, First Philosophy, and Theology.
ARISTOTLE- born 384 BC and died 322 BC. His Metaphysics brings about the convergence of Philosophy, Religion, and Science.
Aristotle surveyed the whole field of human knowledge as it was known in his day. He was at the Athenian Academy of Plato for 20 years. In 335 BC, he opened the Lyceum in Athens, a Center for speculation and research in every department of human inquiry. He became an authority for all philosophers, especially in Logic and in Natural Sciences. Logic, the theory of formal truth and validity originated in reflections on the practice of Dialectic introduced by Plato. For scientific knowledge, we need to know the governing principles of a subject and deduction from these principles provides not only the knowledge that something is true but also the reason as to why it is true. Aristotle is recognized as the Father of Science and he defined Science as a deductive system based on evident axioms.
ARISTOTLE’S METAPHYSICS – FIRST PHILOSOPHY, HIGHEST SCIENCE, AND THEOLOGY:
What a great Scene in the history of Man? If Plato and Aristotle come together, Reason and Faith also come together. The Scene at the Athenian Academy of Plato depicts the confluence of Religion, Philosophy, and Science.
Aristotle’s Metaphysics, and Plato’s Dialectic describe a method of inquiry that deals with the nature and relation of things – What each is, how it differs from others, what common qualities all have, to what kind each belongs, and in what rank each stands in its kind and whether its being is real-being, and how many beings there are, and how many non-beings to be distinguished from beings. Metaphysics is concerned with the primary axioms, the universal principles applicable to all existence, and the transcendental properties of being. Aristotle claimed, “There is a Science which investigates being as being and the attributes which belong to being in virtue of its own nature.” The First Philosophy described by Aristotle speculates about being and its subject matter includes all existing things as existing, and involves not only the question how anything which exists, exists( i.e., the properties of being ) but also the question whether certain things, whose existence can be questioned, do in fact exist. In the words of Francis Bacon, we can make a distinction between Physics and Metaphysics. Bacon stated that Physics inquires into efficient and material causes; Metaphysics inquires into formal and final causes. For Aristotle, Science means the demonstration of universal and necessary conclusions from self-evident principles. The modern conception of Science is that it represents knowledge founded upon experiment and extended observation. For example, Isaac Newton in his book ‘OPTICS’ proposed to explain the properties of Light by using reason and experiments.
MAN’S ESSENCE – ‘KNOW THYSELF’:
What is Man’s Essence? This tradition of Knowing Oneself is a longer tradition than any other Science. Socrates tells his friends gathered in the prison cell where he is to drink the hemlock, “True philosophers are ever seeking to release the SOUL and are always occupied in the practice of dying.”
The tradition of knowing oneself is the oldest established tradition in the history of man and it is a longer tradition than any other science. “Know Thyself” describes a study in which the Knower and the Known are One; the object of the Science is the Nature of the Scientist. In the Indian tradition, “PURUSHA” is the Man or the Knower, and his body or “KSHETRA” is the object of Inquiry, and the Knowledge that is discovered is known as “Kshetra Jnana.”
ARISTOTLE – NATURAL SCIENCE AND THE SCIENCE OF SOUL:
What is Soul? can Science investigate or inquire about the existence of Soul? Does this organism, known as Amoeba proteus has a Soul? What is its animating Principle?
The Soul is the vital principle which moves and animates all life. Aristotle describes corporeal substances are composite of two principles; 1. Form and 2. Matter. What is called matter is a potentiality, what is called form is an actuality. In the above image of Amoeba proteus, its matter is constituted by its protoplasm, the living substance, and its actuality is recognized by the scientist when he observes its form. The existence of Amoeba proteus is known to man as it is made of two principles, the form, and the matter. The Natural Sciences are concerned with natural objects that are characterized by the fact that they are subject to change. Change is, therefore, the basic phenomenon. Matter and Forms are the Material and the Formal Cause respectively, of what comes to be. Aristotle distinguishes four kinds of Causes. For example, a Building or a Thing comes into being because of the Builder, or the Creator known as Efficient Cause. Formal Cause describes the Structure by virtue of which it is the Building or the Thing. Material Cause describes the matter such as stones or wood that has received the Structure. The end or purpose for which the structure, the Building or the Thing exists is known as the Final Cause. A building or a house provides a place of safety for the man who lives there. The purpose or the end of a life form is to sustain its state of living. Aristotle calls the forms of living things as “Souls”. “The soul is in some sense the principle of animal life.” As per Aristotle, “the study of the Soul falls within the Science of Nature.” The Greek inquiry into the soul extends beyond man, to all living things. So, it is relevant to investigate or inquire about the Soul that describes the Form known to us as Amoeba proteus.
ARISTOTLE’S TREATISE – “ON THE SOUL”: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE: THE CONFLUENCE OF INSPIRED KNOWLEDGE, SPECULATIVE KNOWLEDGE, AND INFERENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:
Lord Rama and Spirituality Science. The Lord provides inspired knowledge, philosophy provides the speculative knowledge and Medical Science and other Natural Sciences provide the inferential knowledge to explore and investigate the connection between man and his Creator.
For Aristotle, the Soul rather than Man is the object of Science. He described three kinds of Souls: 1. Vegetative(plants), 2. Sensitive(animals), and 3. Rational(human beings). He believed that the Soul is merely a set of defining features. He did not regard the Body and the Soul as two separate things that mysteriously combine to form an organism. If Soul is defined as the Immortal part of Man as distinguished from his Body, that kind of definition would suggest that Man is composed of two kinds of substances; a corporeal substance, and a non-corporeal substance. In my discussion on this subject, I tend to agree with Aristotle and suggest that Man is composed of one kind of substance and Man may not be divided into Body and Soul. However, I would like to discuss the issue of Man’s Essence, his Identity, and Individuality in relation to Soul after this review of Aristotle’s ideas about material and immaterial substances. Aristotle tells us that to understand Substance, it would be necessary to consider immaterial substantial forms, like Soul and God. Only then can Man understand what it is to be a Substance, and what it is to Exist. He further described two parts of Man’s Soul; the intellectual virtue corresponds to the rational part of the Soul, and the moral virtues such as justice, courage, and generosity belong to the irrational part of the Soul which is subject to reason and has reasonable desires and feelings. I divide Man into two categories and these are, 1.’The Self’ and 2. ‘The Knowing-Self’. The first category describes Man as a Physical, Mental, and Social Being, and the second category describes Man as a Moral, Rational, Spiritual, and Created Being. The study of Metaphysics eventually becomes the study of immaterial substance, immortality, and God.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE CONVERGENCE OF RELIGION, PHILOSOPHY, AND SCIENCE:
The Bhagavad Gita is the source of Inspired Knowledge, my internal reflection is the source of Speculative Knowledge, and the Medical Science and Natural Science is the source of Inferential Knowledge to establish Spirituality Science as a method of Inquiry to investigate man’s relationship, partnership, association, and connection with his Creator.
Aristotle tried to define and establish a branch of Science which contributes Wisdom to deal with the first causes and the principles of all things. “There are other theoretical sciences, such as Physics and Mathematics which investigate causes or deal with principles, but they do not reach to the highest causes or first principles, nor do they take all things in their most universal aspect as the object of their inquiry. Physics deals with material things in motion, and the Mathematician investigates abstractions.” Aristotle claimed that Mathematics could be certain without telling us anything about Reality. He states that “If there is something which is eternal and immovable and separated from matter, clearly the knowledge of it belongs to a theoretical science not, however to Physics nor to Mathematics, but to science prior to both.” He gives two names to the highest of theoretical sciences. He denominated it both from the position it occupies in relation to all other disciplines and in terms of the kind of substance which it alone investigates. A substance which is formed by Nature will be explored by Natural Science. If there is an immovable, immutable, immaterial, or eternal substance, the Science of that substance is the highest Science and it deserves to be called “Theology” as well as “First Philosophy”. I propose to study and investigate the immaterial substance or principle and name the Science of that Substance as “Spirituality Science.” If Divine is present everywhere at the same time, the Divine is present in both material and immaterial substances.
Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE: The term “Whole Christ” refers to Jesus before His human birth, during His earthly existence, after His Resurrection, and to the Hope of His Second Coming to establish the ‘Kingdom of Heaven on Earth’.
The term “Whole Love” describes God’s Unconditioned Love that is not determined by human knowledge and rationality. The Birth of Jesus cannot be fully accounted by human knowledge and rationality for man lacks the ability to account for his own existence.
The word Christ (Greek. Christos) refers to the Messiah whose appearance is prophesied in the Old Testament and is used as a title to describe Jesus of Nazareth. I am using the phrase “WholeChrist” to describe Jesus before His human birth, Jesus during the years spent on this Earth, Jesus after His Resurrection, and Jesus who gives the Hope of the Second Coming to establish ‘The Kingdom of Heaven on Earth’. The word Christ may not communicate the entirety of Jesus and in the four Gospels, we do not obtain the full picture as the event called ‘The Second Coming’ has not yet taken place. The word “Love” (Hebrew. ‘Ahavah’, Greek. ‘agape’) is presented in Scripture as the very nature or essence of God, the supreme attribute in which all other attributes are harmonized. Love is a bond that unites all virtues. I consider the Power/Force/Energy of Mercy, Grace, and Compassion as the operating mechanism of God’s Love and could be simply called Divine Providence. I am using the phrase “whole love” to describe God’s Unconditioned Love that is not determined or fully accounted by human knowledge and human rationality. In other words, I have no ability to empower myself to receive Unconditioned Love. I cannot manipulate God’s Whole Love through my actions, behavior, or even prayers. I can experience Whole Love but, I cannot explain or fully account for the existence of that Love.
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE CREATION: THE BIRTH OF JESUS:
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Creation: The Birth of Jesus as a Spiritual Being cannot be fully accounted for by using human knowledge and human rationality.
Man must try to know and understand as to where he exists and as to how he exists. God uses the dimension called WholeLove to bring Unity and Harmony between the dimensions of Matter, Energy, Time, and Space to create man and the World in which man exists.
Man cannot explain the Birth of Jesus using his scientific knowledge. The Birth of Jesus can only be understood as a fact of Creation, a creative event. It should not come as a surprise as each human being who took birth on Earth has always arrived as an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of object with a genome that never existed in the past and would also never exist again in the future. Each man is born as a created being and the birth of Jesus as a singular event reveals a creative mechanism not known to man and not subject to the limitations of man’s rational power. God uses the dimension called WholeLove to bring Unity and Harmony between the dimensions of Matter, Energy, Time, and Space to create man and the World in which man exists.
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE EXISTENCE:
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: The Birth of Jesus and His earthly existence describes the operation of a Supreme, Spiritual Whole Law that harmonizes all Laws of Nature that operate in the physical world to establish Whole Existence which may be stated as a Law of Conservation:” Matter is neither created nor destroyed.” Similarly, it can be stated: “Life is neither created nor destroyed.”
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: God Exists. Very often people raise the question about God’s place of existence in this vast universe of unknown dimensions. Where does man exist? How could the man be certain about the location of his own existence in this universe which is constantly moving every instant?
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Existence: Where does man exist? It is easy to describe man’s place of existence in the Solar System, and Milky Way Galaxy. In reality, man exists in Space without any awareness of his position that is changing every instant. No object that is known in this universe continues to exist in the same position at two different instants. Man exists in a restless universe under the Blissful influence called Whole Love which shields man from the harsh realities of the physical universe.
To experience the Joy of Christmas, to seek the uplifting power of Jesus Christ, man must know the truth and reality about human existence. Human knowledge and rationality in themselves do nothing to justify human existence or the existence of this universe. To establish the fact of this human existence on one known planet called Earth is beyond the abilities of human cognitive powers. The biological basis of human existence demands the support of Love whose operating principles are Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. This Love is not conditioned by human behavior and human actions and not even prayers. Man cannot empower himself to acquire God’s Love using his free will. The good and evil actions of man, the right and bad conduct of man will be possible if and only if man’s existence precedes his actions and behavior. It is often argued that the evil and suffering in the world seems to count against the existence of God. I have to account for my physical existence before I can share the experience of pain, misery, disappointment, frustration, and suffering of my life’s condition. The fact or the reality of human pain and suffering cannot exclude the fact of God’s existence. The man at any given age and any given stage of his existence, from conception, physical birth, infancy, youth, adult, old age and death, in ill-health or good health depends upon an Unchanging Spiritual Principle to bring Unity and Harmony to maintain that condition or state called existence. This concept of God’s Unconditioned Love or WholeLove for man is shared by the Birth of Jesus. When I think of this Whole Love, I feel better, my mood gets uplifted, the burden of my painful existence is eased, and I can sense the Joy of the Season.
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE LAW:
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Law: Love is defined by stating its attributes. Love is Patient. Love is Kind. Love does not envy. Love does not boast, it is not proud. Love is not rude. Love is not self-seeking. Love is not easily angered. Love protects, trusts, hopes, always persevere and Love never fails. Divine Mother Mary is seen expressing such Love for her baby Jesus.
Apostle Paul in his First Epistle to Corinthians, in the New Testament Book of 1 Corinthians, Chapter 13, verses #4 to 8 describes the attributes of Love: “Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy. It does not boast, it is not proud. It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. Love always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away.” Jesus Christ while teaching the operating principle called Love, names Love as a Law, a Law above all other laws of nature, and above all other Commandments. In the Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter 22, verses #37 to 40 “Whole Love” is explained as “Whole Law”: Jesus replied:” ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. And the second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two commandments.” Love is the supreme attribute, nature, and essence of God and at the same time, it operates as a Law above all other Laws of Nature and the commandments shared by Prophets. Whole Love can be stated as the Whole Law that governs the existence of man and gives the man the chance to experience Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition.
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE REALITY:
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Reality: The Birth of Jesus Christ. Life is neither created nor destroyed. The term Whole Christ describes Jesus as an eternal, immortal, unborn Spiritual Principle that existed before His birth, that existed in the Middle or during His earthly Life and continues to exist in Future without being influenced by Time.
Apostle Paul in his First Epistle to Corinthians, in the New Testament Book of 1 Corinthians, Chapter 13, verse#13 states the Principle of Conservation: “And now these three remain: faith, hope, and love. But the greatest of these is love.” Man exists in a world that is restless and is constantly changing. The Individual, the created human being, is born, grows and develops, exists with a physical identity that constantly changes under the powerful influence of Time. The event called Death records the loss of that Physical Identity that is never constant at any time of its earthly existence. In the natural world, such changes in appearance are governed by the Laws of Conservation such as the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Momentum. During man’s physical existence, the physical form and appearance change and yet the Spiritual Principles of Faith, Hope, and Love are conserved. Man cannot depend upon his knowledge and rationality as they are always subject to change. To know the Subjective and Objective Reality or the “whole Reality” of his ‘WholeExistence’, man needs to know the Law of Conservation of Faith, Hope, and Love.
WHOLE CHRIST – WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE PRAYER:
Whole Christ – Whole Love – Whole Prayer: The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter 6 gives the account of “Whole Prayer” that is popularly known as ‘Lord’s Prayer’. Father knows what you need before you ask Him. We pray, for His “WILL” be done on earth as it is in Heaven. The ‘Whole Prayer’ gives virtues such as Patience, Perseverance, Tolerance, and Kindness the attributes of ‘Whole Love’.
The word Prayer refers to man’s communication with God. It is a spiritual or devotional communication to make a humble, sincere request. Prayer is the act of supplication and it includes words of praise, words of thanksgiving, words of confession, and words of a plea seeking the sanction of favor to transform a mental desire into a physical reality in the external world. If God is omniscient, He must know of the evil; and if God is omnipotent, He must be able to remove the evil; and if God is perfectly benevolent and is loving, there should be no pain and suffering. To experience pain and misery, to experience suffering, disappointment, and frustration, I have to maintain the condition called existence. At a fundamental level, I have to understand my ability to know things, my power to rule or govern things, and I must know my ability to make choices to change things in my external environment. Jesus in the New Testament Book of Matthew, Chapter 6, verse# 8 instructs: “Do not be like them(pagans), for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.” In Lord’s Prayer, Jesus makes it abundantly clear that the purpose of the ‘Whole Prayer’ is that of asking, “Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.” Using my human knowledge and rationality, I can neither account for my existence nor account for my experience of pain and suffering which describes the nature of my existence. I describe ‘WholePrayer’ as an act of Faith, and Hope in recognition of the fact or reality called WholeLove that imparts its qualities and virtues such as Patience, Perseverance, Tolerance, and Kindness. Even if I cannot change the circumstances of my life that cause or give the experience of pain, suffering, and misery, the acceptance of Whole Love makes me pain-tolerant and pain-resistant. It gives me the strength called ‘Endurance’ to overcome the challenge called the ‘Stress of Life’.
Whole Christ – Whole Love: “That which is done out of Love always takes place beyond Good and Evil.” (Nietzsche). Man, with his Good or Evil actions and behavior cannot control the flow of God’s Unconditioned or ‘WholeLove’.