LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS. MY MARGINALIZED EXISTENCE IN EXILE
Living Tibetan Spirits who inhabit my consciousness know the experience of my marginalized existence in exile.
I am alive without Freedom or Free Will to choose. I can narrate my story either as a Blessing or a Curse. In my belief, when the man suffers, the Lands gets cursed.
As the desire for Freedom is the root cause of my pain and suffering, how can I receive the Blessings of Peace?
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22
Living Tibetan Spirits
Vanished homelands of Tibet
Meghaa Aggarwal | Updated on October 18, 2019, Published on October 18, 2019
Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.
Uncertain ground: The politics of Tibet’s geography is so contested that even a map of the region could land the publishers in trouble.
Madhu Gurung’s deeply researched anthology Tibet With My Eyes Closed, evokes the history, culture, and identity of a community that is at risk of being forgotten
Sixty years ago, Chinese occupation forced the 14th Dalai Lama to flee Tibet and seek refuge in India. Thousands of Tibetans followed him, giving up a nomadic, agrarian life for a marginalized existence in exile. The 11 stories that make up journalist Madhu Gurung’s anthology Tibet With My Eyes Closed are true accounts of displaced Tibetans trying to find salvation in the midst of heartbreaking loss.
Dehradun-based Gurung has worked with organizations such as Oxfam, UNIFEM, BBC, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Her first book The Keeper of Memories, historical fiction on the Gorkhas, was shortlisted for the Shakti Bhatt First Book Award in 2016. The author, whose mother was Tibetan, seems driven by a passionate need to inform. She begins the book with a background to Tibet, which instinctively makes me seek out a map. That’s when the irony hits home. We are talking of such fraught geography that even an innocuous map of the Tibetan region can land publishers in trouble!
Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.
Tibet With My Eyes Closed: Stories Madhu Gurung Speaking Tiger Non-fiction ₹350
Prayer flags of five colors — blue, white, red, green and yellow — representing the five core elements of space, wind, fire, water, and earth respectively are synonymous with Tibetan Buddhism. The stories in this anthology have been divided under the colors of the prayer flags and have some elements of the colors woven into their background. The author has also added an insightful introduction explaining the significance of the flags and how the elements have inspired her stories. However, the associations feel somewhat tenuous and I found myself wondering whether it was necessary to divide the contents as well as feature an introduction to explain the division. The anthology opens with stories of refugees besieged by memories of home as they try to regain their lives under a foreign sky. It then transitions to the experiences of a new generation of Tibetans born and brought up in India, carving out their paths and identities in the new land. Mid-way, one learns of the tragic guerrilla wars that the Tibetans waged for their homeland from the windswept Mustang Plateau in Nepal. Towards the end, it speaks of the human ability to persevere and dream of possibilities, despite great odds. References to the Chushi Gangdruk, the guerrilla Tibetan army that waged war against the Chinese, and the 22 Establishment, a secret force of Tibetans recruited by India in the wake of its humiliating defeat in the Sino-Indian war of 1962, appear several times across the book. However, sufficient variety is provided by the stories of a Tibetan man’s pursuit of an Indian passport, of a young man who gives up monkhood to embrace his sexual identity and of a grieving old widow who finds solace in stray dogs.
Tibet with my Eyes Closed is not an unputdownable page-turner. It is a compilation of stories laced with facts and observations that compel the reader to pause. The author takes no shortcuts in her effort to build narratives that are not only immersive but also greatly illuminating. However, in places, the details seem extraneous. For instance, in the story, Tibet With My Eyes Closed, the author speaks of Tibetan poet, writer and activist Lhasang Tsering whose poem inspired the title of this anthology. She writes about how he is greatly influenced by the saint and poet Milarepa who is revered in Tibet for his songs. But she doesn’t end there. She writes of how Tsering was born exactly 900 years after Milarepa and how his songs have also been translated in English, in a book called the Shambhala. Such additions appear somewhat forced, as the story would read much the same without them. I was fascinated by the author’s journey to Mustang in pursuit of former Chushi Gangdruk warriors, as documented in the story, In the Footsteps of Buddha’s Warriors. Not only is it a testament to the author’s keen research but also to the undaunted commitment to her subject. Unlike the other stories in this anthology, In the Footsteps of Buddha’s Warriors and Amala, which is a memoir of the author’s mother, are both personal accounts. This prompted me to wonder whether it might have been better to have them as part of a longer introduction that spoke of the experiences driving the author’s writing. These, however, are minor misgivings about this much-feted collection that has been endorsed by several prominent personalities. I just wished, though, that all these endorsements had been kept on the back cover or some of them shifted inside, to leave the reader with more room to admire the striking cover painting and design by Vikram Singh Verma. With the sky and mountains in shades of red against a monastery in tones of black and white, the cover is deeply atmospheric and stirring. If the role of literature is to create empathy and build understanding, Tibet with My Eyes Closed succeeds amply. It is an important piece of literature about a people and region, that, as Shashi Tharoor puts it in his endorsement, ‘are at risk of being forgotten’.
Meghaa Aggarwal works in children’s publishing and writes features on education and the environment
Published on October 18, 2019 bookreview
Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.
His Holiness the Dalai Lama had to flee from Tibet in 1959 for he sensed a threat to his life from the Chinese authority. I joined the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India on September 22, 1971. I experienced threat to my existence on three separate occasions from the Chinese authority that forces the Dalai Lama to live in Exile. The threat posed by China has stolen my freedom.
I have chosen the profile imageof my stolen Indian Army picture ID to describe my plight on account of my stolen freedom. My Indian Army picture ID was stolen in 1972 at Cuttack, near CharbatiaAir Base operated by Aviation Research Centre (ARC). My Indian Army picture ID was purposefully stolen because of my association with The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW), the Intelligence Agency of India which formulated my association with The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). My stolen Indian Army ID of 1972 resurfaced in Indian Movie TE3Nin 2016. It accounts for the loss of my freedom and the fear it arouses in my heart since 1972.
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22
Am a refugee but I enjoy India’s freedom: Dalai Lama
By: FE Online | Published: October 14, 2019, 4:16:48 PM
Dalai Lama has been living in India since 1959. He had to flee Tibet after he sensed a threat to his life from the Chinese authority in the wake of Tibetan uprising. Former Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru offered Dalai Lama to set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh.
Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Sunday hailed India for its freedom and said that he has been here for the last 60 years as a refugee but still enjoys the freedom that this country offers. “We already enjoy freedom in India. It’s been 60 years…one way, I am a refugee, but I enjoy India’s freedom,” he said while responding to a question on his freedom struggle for Tibet. When asked about whether he thinks that Tibetans can get freedom by living in India, Dalai Lama said that he had tried to go back to Tibet but that could not happen because there was no freedom to preserve “our own culture”. The spiritual leader said that he had also appealed to the United Nations in this regard.
“At that time Pandit (Jawahar Lal) Nehru advised me that the United Nations can not do much…sooner or later much better to approach Chinese and talk to China. I think that was realistic advice. And in 74, we decide(ed) not to take independence, (we) tried to remain within the Republic of China but we should have got certain rights (from China) for the preservation of our own culture,” he told news agency ANI.
Lord Gautama Buddha’s simple preachings have generated intense debate and discussion among his followers leading to the creation of different Schoolsof Buddhist Thought, varying traditions, apart from the production of volumes of literature in various human languages.
In my analysis, Lord Gautama Buddha and the various brands of Buddhism with established traditions have failed to formulate a complete ‘Theory of Man’. In my view, Buddhism as such is an incomplete study of the Man for it fails to comprehend the nature of the living matter, the living substance, the corporeal matter described in Biology as ‘protoplasm’ or ‘cytoplasm’ which is found in all living things.
The spiritual inquiry, the spiritual investigation, the spiritual study of the Man demands the learning process called ‘Adhyatma Vidya’, the Knowledge of Self, or the spiritual journey called Self-Discovery to answer the two fundamental questions about the Man. The questions are 1. Who am I? and 2. Why am I like this? Lord Gautama Buddha’s life journey begins with a quest to find answers for the conditioned nature of human existence but his study remains incomplete for he has not studied the human being whose existence is conditioned.
Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche speaks of the salient features of the religion, which originated in India
Beginning his study of Buddhism in the Gadhan Dhechenling Monastery, in Tibet, Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche, came to India in 1959, at the age of 20. He headed the Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, for two terms. A highly regarded scholar of Buddhism, he has held many important positions with academic and administrative responsibilities. A few of them: Member General Body Indian Council of Philosophical Research; member, Governing Council, Asiatic Society, Kolkata; member of the National Advisory Committee for Buddhist Studies; President, Association of Indian Universities; President, Coomaraswamy Centre for Traditional Studies, Lucknow; member, Association of Commonwealth Universities. Member, Governing Body, Krishnamurti Foundation of India, Chennai; member, Expert Advisory Committee, Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche was in Chennai for a short visit. The following are excerpts from an interview with him:
What are the distinctive features of Tibetan Buddhism?
First of all, there is no such thing as Tibetan Buddhism. It is an expression, which Western scholars use, and I do not know why they do. Do you talk of British Christianity or American Christianity? There are different schools of philosophy in Buddhism like Mahayana, Hinayana, etc. But Buddhism is not divided by geography. If at all there is any country to which Buddhism belongs, that is India, because Buddha was born here. It is Indians who can take pride in Buddhism because it originated here.
I stand corrected. Let me rephrase the question. What is special about Buddhism in Tibet?
Buddhism in Tibet is a complete tradition. Educational centers such as Nalanda, Taxila, Bodhgaya, and Sarnath produced Buddhist canonical literature. All of this was translated into the Tibetan language.
How big is this collection of Tibetan works?
We have a compilation of 108 volumes of Buddha’s teachings. It includes 3,000 titles. Woodblock techniques have been used to preserve ancient Tibetan texts. We also have 223 volumes of commentaries of Indian scholars, which include 4,000 titles. The topics range from Mahayana and Hinayana to Ayurveda, dharma, and literature.
Prof. Hahn’s dissertation was on Vrttamalastuti, where each stanza illustrated a different Sanskrit meter. It was a text that was preserved only in a Tibetan translation. And this kindled Hahn’s interest in recovering the Sanskrit literature of Buddhism from Tibetan translations. So, would it be correct to say that Tibetan translations have helped preserve the Buddhist tradition, because of the possibility of re-translations from Tibetan to Sanskrit?
Certainly. Tibetan translations are the most accurate, and the Tibetan collection is also the largest available translation of Buddhist texts. The original texts, which were in Sanskrit were lost when Nalanda University was destroyed. Mahayana texts were in Sanskrit, whereas Hinayana texts were mostly in Prakrit. In Tibet, Mahayana school is followed. So, if we want the original Sanskrit texts about Mahayana, we can now work backward from Tibetan to Sanskrit. So, in that way, the Tibetan translations help us to get back the basic Sanskrit texts.
Hahn was a close friend of mine. But even before Hahn, there were other European scholars who took an interest in Buddhist literature which had been translated to Tibetan. The Italian scholar Tucci, for instance. Tibet enjoys an unbroken lineage of Buddhism, and before the days of Communism, Buddhists from Russia and Mongolia came to Tibet and studied Buddhist teachings preserved in the Tibetan language.
You talk about Mahayana texts in Sanskrit. What about the commentaries? Were they also in Sanskrit?
Yes, but Buddhist Sanskrit is a hybrid Sanskrit. It is a mixture of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabrahmsa, etc. Paninian sutras were not strictly followed.
Why was it a hybrid?
Because the Buddha spoke in a simple language. He wanted his teachings to reach the masses. So, he spoke a language that was easy to understand.
And what about efforts at translation now? Are they continuing?
A lot of translation work has been going on in the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies in Sarnath, Varanasi. It is a deemed University. I was associated with the Institute for 30 years, first as Principal and then director. One hundred Tibetan Buddhist texts have been translated to Sanskrit by the scholars in this University.
Where can we find the largest collection of Tibetan texts?
In the Library of Congress in the U.S.
And in India?
The Institute of Tibetology in Sikkim, the library in Dharamsala, in Sarnath and the Central Institute of Buddhist studies in Leh, Ladakh.
What is the Tibetan way of ordination for monks?
In the bhikshu ordination, mulsarvastivadin school is followed in Tibet.
Does Buddhism in Tibet follow Tantric traditions?
Wherever Mahayana is followed, there is a tantric tradition. So, this is not unique to Tibet.
Does Buddhist art vary according to the school of philosophy followed?
If you observe minutely, there might be some differences. But by and large, art is just an expression of imagination. So, there are only a few minor variations. But mandala constructions are found only in art based on Vajrayana, which is a part of Mahayana.
MY COMMENT ON THE ABOVE INTERVIEW BY MS.SUGANTHY KRISHNAMACHARI WAS NOT APPROVED BY THEHINDU.COM
Buddhism is an incomplete study of the man: I am affiliated to a military organization called Special Frontier force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment where I medically examined hundreds of Tibetan men and women. Lord Gautama Buddha’s preachings are essentially simple. However, they generated numerous interpretations and massive human literature in different languages. He examined the conditioned nature of human existence without fully examining the human being whose existence is conditioned. Buddhism remains an incomplete study irrespective of its various traditions. It is incomplete for it does not study the living matter or the living substance of the man while sharing views on the human condition of the living being with a physical form that we identify as the man.
Ms. Madhu Gurung in her book, “Tibet With My Eyes Closed” takes a fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Review: Tibet With My Eyes Closed by Madhu Gurung
A fresh look at the experience of Tibetan refugees in India
BOOKS Updated: Oct 04, 2019 19:03 IST
Thubten Samphel Hindustan Times
253pp, Rs 350; Speaking Tiger
There is a new interest in Tibet and Tibetan culture amongst the Indian public. This is because of the Dalai Lama’s tireless efforts to reach out to the Indian public to alert them to the relevance of ancient India’s wisdom in our vexing times. There is also whispered foreboding of what would happen to the Tibetan community in India and elsewhere and the fate of Tibet itself when he is no longer what us.
Tibet With My Eyes Closed is a fresh look at the experience of the Tibetan refugees in India and the pain of separation of families and being uprooted from their homeland. It is also of a story of how the community as a whole faced and still faces the challenges of adaption and survival.
In her exploration and discovery of the Tibetan refugee community in India, Madhu Gurung quotes an old Tibetan proverb. “If I tell you my dream, you might forget it. If I act on my dream, perhaps you will remember it, but if I involve you — it becomes your dream too.” Madhu Gurung’s dream of the Tibetan community in exile is a gentle paring of the community’s many layers of strength, weakness, human quirks and the need to survive as an individual and community.
The author kicks off her Tibetan story by narrating in broad contours the birth of the resistance movement in Tibet in the 1950s. This resistance relocated to Mustang in Nepal and then fought in Bangladesh’s war for independence. Some scholars call the Tibetan soldiers who fought in the war “Phantoms of Chittagong.” Sangay, the main protagonist in Gurung’s first story Zinda, was a little boy when members of his family whispered the formation of the resistance in central Tibet. He expressed his wish to join the resistance. He was told to wait till he became thirteen. Then, “You … will be of some use to them.”
Tibetan resistance grew not only because of repression and forced land distribution but also because of the implementation of the Great Leap Forward with its excessive stress on industrialization to the neglect of agriculture and production of food. This created the biggest famine in Chinese history and Tibet was caught up in this man-made disaster.
Madhu Gurung ( Courtesy the author )
Sangay and his father, leaving with excruciating pain other family members, including his mother, behind in Tibet, were able to escape this political disaster and the great famine. In India “everything was strange – the language, the food and the people.” At school, he got a greater shock, a huge dent to his Tibetan pride and sense of self and identity. He discovered that the Tibetans were the ‘nowhere’ people. His schoolmates did not know where Tibet was.
However, during the period of ‘liberalization’ which the post-Mao leader Deng Xiaoping initiated in China and Tibet, Sangay was able to return to Tibet and bring his mother to their new home in Dehradun auspiciously named Zinda. Shakti Gurung informs the readers that Sangay’s home village in Tibet called Zinda which the author says in Hindi means “Alive.”
That Sangay survived all these ordeals is a tribute to his character and his generation of Tibetan refugees. Back in the late 1950s while on their way to Lhasa, someone in his group shouted: “Lhasa is burning.” These days rather than burning Lhasa is drowning in concrete, amazing infrastructure development and the sheer weight of the growing demographic strength of the migrant Chinese workers. Tibet With My Eyes Closed is a cautionary tale for the countries and people strung along the Himalayan belt. You might be next, maybe an exaggeration but exaggeration is not enough to describe the true intentions and scale of the People’s Republic of China’s ambitions. The book is also a cautionary tale for the coming generation of Tibetan exiles. They inherit a cohesive and productive community scattered across the globe, a legacy of the first generation of Tibetan refugees. Keeping its cohesion and productivity will be a huge challenge in the coming years of adversity.
Thubten Samphel is an independent researcher and a former director of the Tibet Policy Institute
YOM KIPPUR 2019 – REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT
Yom Kippur / יום כפור
Yom Kippur (Hebrew: יוֹם כִּפּוּר or יום הכיפורים), Also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days (or sometimes “the Days of Awe”).
Yom Kippur 2019 will start on Tuesday, October 08, 2019. The event doesn’t actually start at the beginning of October 08. Instead, it will start on the evening of the day when sunset is taking place. The holiday will then last into Wednesday, October 09.
Just like with its start, Yom Kippur 2019 won’t be over exactly when October 09 comes to an end. The event will instead come to a close during nightfall on October 09. This is due to Yom Kippur being a holiday that lasts for 25 hours.
I would like to define my Indian Identity in the context of Repentance and Atonement that defines the identity of Hebrew people.
The idea of repentance is well expressed in different Cultures but the interpretation of its consequences is not the same. The Jews associate the idea of repentance with Divine Atonement and Absolution of sins.
Repentance and forgiveness of sins in the name of Jesus is the theme of the Books of The New Testament. Christian faith calls upon man to repent and be converted through the act of Baptism.
In Islam, true repentance means that man must reject all other forms of belief and avoid the worship of false gods. By repenting, a Muslim agrees to truly believe in one and only God(ALLAH) and live in strict obedience to His Five Commandments and other ordinances as revealed in the Holy Scripture of the Quran. Islam also demands that the true believer must ask the non-believer to repent. Islam encourages the idea of harshly punishing all individuals who fail to truly repent.
In India, the Land described as ‘Karma Bhumi’, or ‘Karma Kshetra’, repentance is viewed upon as a personal choice. Repentance could only be used to change one’s own conduct. Most importantly, in the Land of Bharat, the idea of repentance is not associated with the idea of converting the religious beliefs of a man. The idea of ‘repent or perish’ does not define Indian Identity.
JUDAISM AND THE DOCTRINE OF ATONEMENT:
Repentance is a common theme of Old Testament Prophets. Prophet Jeremiah had more to say about repentance than any other Prophet. He called upon Jews to repent and condemned them for their false worship and social injustice.
To Jews, repentance means living in obedience to Yahweh’s Will for the individual and the nation of Israel. For a Jew, atonement is expiation for his own sin in order to attain God’s forgiveness. He may achieve this in various ways, including repentance, payment for a wrong action, good works, suffering, and prayer. Repentance and changed conduct are stressed as the most important aspects of Atonement.
God set up Laws for the Israelites mostly regarding holiness and worship. The Old Testament Book of Leviticus, Chapter 16, verse 34: “This is to be a lasting ordinance for you; Atonement is to be made once a year for all the sins of the Israelites.”
The Day of Atonement or YOM KIPPUR is the most important and solemn of the Jewish holidays. It is the tenth and final day of the Ten Days of Repentance which begins with Rosh Hashanah.
God has issued a lasting ordinance and has called upon the Jews to obtain Atonement once a year. After the destruction of the Second Temple at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Jews discontinued the practice of ritualistic animal sacrifice to make the sin and burnt offerings to seek Atonement.
The observance of Yom Kippur includes a 25 hour period of fasting and intensive prayer. At the end of Yom Kippur, the man considers himself absolved from his sin and is reconciled to God.
Repentance is not a personal choice for the Jews.
THE MESSAGE OF JESUS – THE KINGDOM OF GOD IS NEAR AND THEREFORE REPENT:
“REPENT, FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS AT HAND!” – Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 3, verse 2.
The Baptism of the sinless Man. From that time on Jesus began to preach, “REPENT, FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS NEAR.” – Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 4, verse 17.
Jesus announced the approaching Kingdom of God and therefore called people to repentance. Jesus’ call to repentance is grounded in this message of the approaching Kingdom of God. In Jesus’ preaching, repentance does not mean a prerequisite or precondition or even a penitent contemplation of oneself but, rather a consequence of the proximity of the Kingdom of God.
The Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 2, verse 38: Then Peter said to them, “Repent, and let every one of you is baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”
Christians believe that the redeeming of mankind and the reconciliation of God with man is brought about by Jesus’ suffering and Crucifixion. As per Christian belief, Jesus came to Earth and became the sacrifice for all mankind. It was the sins of all mankind that have put Jesus on the Cross. Christians seek forgiveness through Jesus Christ the Savior.
Risen Lord – Jesus the Redeemer. The Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 3, verse 19 :”Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord.”
LENT SEASON: The period of forty weekdays from Ash Wednesday to Easter is observed variously in Christian Churches by fasting and penitence. Christians do not celebrate a ‘Day of Atonement’. Christians seek forgiveness of sins through the GRACE of their Risen Lord.
Christian traditions accept the announcement of God’s willingness to forgive all those who truly repent of their sins. Christians are sharply divided about the Doctrine of Conciliation and the power to “bind and loose”. Jesus after the Resurrection told the disciples:”If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.”( Gospel of John, Chapter 20, verse 23 ) This statement is interpreted in different ways. Catholics believe in Sacramental Absolution of sins and they extend the power to “bind and loose” that was conferred by Jesus on the Apostles to all of their priests. Martin Luther, the leader of Protestant Reformation in Germany had asserted that daily repentance is the repeated actualization of Baptism. The Protestants have ruled out the Fourth Sacrament of Roman Catholicism.
ISLAM – “ALLAH IS HE WHO ACCEPTS REPENTANCE”:
“Know they not that Allah is He who accepts repentance from His bondsmen and taken the alms, and that Allah is He who is the Relenting and Merciful.” SURAH IX, At-TAUBAH, verse 104, Holy Quran.
The Revelations stated in the Holy Book of Quran state that it is always possible for a sinner to repent( Taubah or Tawbah) and redeem himself by a genuine conversion to the truth. Genuine repentance has the effect of removing all sins and restoring a person to the state of sinlessness with which he started his life.
(Triumphant) are those who turn repentant( to ALLAH ), those who serve( Him ), those who praise ( Him ), those who fast, those who bow down, those who fall prostrate ( in worship ), those who enjoin the right and who forbid the wrong and those who keep the limits ( ordained ) of ALLAH – And give glad tidings to believers! – Holy Quran, At-Taubah, Surah IX, verse 112.
In Surah IX, At-Taubah ( Repentance ), Holy Quran issues stern Commandments against idolater, disbeliever, transgressor, the Jews and the Christians for they have taken as lords beside ALLAH their rabbis, and their monks, the Messiah, and that son of Mary.
Quran was sent down as a guidance for the people. ( Surah II, verse 185 )
The ninth month of the Muslim Year during which the Quran was sent down as a guidance for the people is observed as a period of daily fasting from sunrise to sunset. Ramadan is seen as an obedient response to a command from God and to a lesser extent it may represent a period of Atonement.
THE LAND OF BHARAT: SUBMISSION OF ALL ACTIONS TO GOD:
Indian Prayer seeking the total surrender to God. Man desires no Free Will to perform actions on his own.
While the Jews, the Christians, and the Muslims are constantly reminded to repent and to seek forgiveness of God for all of their sinful actions, in the Land of Bharat, the people are counseled to submit to God all of their actions; either good or bad. Whatever actions that a man accomplishes with his body, with his speech, with his mind, with his organs of motor function, or because of his attitude or temperament; all of those acts without any exception should be dedicated or submitted to the Supreme Lord known as Narayana. Without making any distinction between good or bad actions; the man should refrain and should not desire the fruits of his actions.
THE THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE – ‘GUNA TRAYA VIBHAGA YOGA’:
The Lord’s Song known as Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XIV, verse 5 states that the material Nature consists of the three modes – goodness ( Sattva ), passion ( Rajas ), and ignorance ( Tamas ). And when the living entity comes in contact with Nature ( Prakriti ), he becomes conditioned by these modes which enslave the immutable consciousness of the self within the body. Man acts under the influence of any of the three different modes of material Nature.
The Lord’s Song further states that when man is able to rise above ( transcend ) these three qualities are known as Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, the embodied soul can become free from birth, death, old age, and their distresses, and can enjoy “Amrit” ( the Divine Nectar that bestows Immortality ) even in this life. The Supreme Lord is transcendental to the three modes of Nature. Man is released from his bondage to his own sinful actions by acquiring the true knowledge of the Supreme Lord. This liberation or emancipation ( Vimukti ) from the conditioning effects of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas defines Indian Identity in the context of Repentance and Atonement.
INDIAN VIEW – REPENTANCE DOES NOT REMIT SINS:
In the Sanskrit language, the word repentance is described as “PASHCHATH TAPA”. It is the feeling of sorrow or grief experienced by an offender for his own actions that inflicted pain or caused an injury or insult. The Indian thinkers have described repentance as mental catharsis. Repentance is an act of purification of the mind. A man cannot unburden his conscience by concealing his actions, or by suppressing the memory of his actions. The emotional stress and the burden imposed by a sense of guilt could be alleviated by bringing the memory of our actions to consciousness and by giving expression to sorrow or grief caused by these actions. The offender does not merely regret his actions. He mentally experiences the pain caused by his actions and gives expression to the emotion of sorrow or grief. In the Indian tradition, grief is manifested by actually shedding tears of sorrow with which the offender cleanses the feet of his victim. This process of mental catharsis brings about changed conduct. The man is enabled to change his mode of conditioned activities. The activities performed in the mode of ignorance( Tamas), and passion( Rajas) lead to distress. Man acquires real knowledge while acting under the influence of the mode of goodness or Sattva. Repentance helps the man to move up into the mode of Sattva ( goodness ) from that of Tamas( ignorance ), and Rajas ( passion ). Through repentance, man changes his thoughts, desires, his habits, and his actions.
Please also view the related blog post titled ‘East and West – The Idea of Forgiveness’
TO GIVE ‘THANKS’ TO THE HIGHEST GOD AMERICAN PEOPLE MUST ABOLISH SLAVERY
On Thursday, October 03, 2019 I ask American people to give ‘Thanks’ to the Highest God by abolishing Slavery. The United States was transformed into a ‘Slavedriver’ by President Bill Clinton on August 22, 1996, by signing into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PL 104 – 193) which denies the opportunity to the alien hourly wage earners to receive the monthly retirement income benefit after attaining the full retirement age of 67 years. In my analysis, an individual who has no right to his property, earnings, or income benefit is a “SLAVE.”
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Special Frontier Force
President Lincoln proclaims official Thanksgiving holiday
On October 3, 1863, expressing gratitude for a pivotal Union Army victory at Gettysburg, President Abraham Lincoln announces that the nation will celebrate an official Thanksgiving holiday on November 26, 1863.
The speech, which was actually written by Secretary of State William Seward, declared that the fourth Thursday of every November thereafter would be considered an official U.S. holiday of Thanksgiving. This announcement harkened back to when George Washington was in his first term as the first president in 1789 and the young American nation had only a few years earlier emerged from the American Revolution. At that time, George Washington called for an official celebratory “day of public thanksgiving and prayer.” While Congress overwhelmingly agreed to Washington’s suggestion, the holiday did not yet become an annual event.
Thomas Jefferson, the third president, felt that public demonstrations of piety to a higher power, like that celebrated at Thanksgiving, were inappropriate in a nation based in part on the separation of church and state. Subsequent presidents agreed with him. In fact, no official Thanksgiving proclamation was issued by any president between 1815 and the day Lincoln took the opportunity to thank the Union Army and God for a shift in the country’s fortunes on this day in 1863.
The fourth Thursday of November remained the annual day of Thanksgiving from 1863 until 1939. Then, at the tail-end of the Depression, President Franklin D.Roosevelt, hoping to boost the economy by providing shoppers and merchants a few extra days to conduct business between the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays, moved Thanksgiving to November’s third Thursday. In 1941, however, Roosevelt bowed to Congress’ insistence that the fourth Thursday of November is re-set permanently, without alteration, as the official Thanksgiving holiday.
In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, description of Power/Energy/Force may have gender association. In Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or ‘SHAKTI’. To fully account for human existence, man needs two distinct or separate Principles that come together to produce the harmonious singular identity of the man. The issue is not about God’s gender. Father Principle is called Originating Principle. Mother Principle is called Source Principle, for Mother is Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life. Father provides Identity to human form, Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of the human form.
During 2019, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘SHARAD NAVRATRI’ from Sunday, September 29, to Monday, October 7. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means night. This celebration happens in the lunar month called ‘ASVAYUJA’ ( or ASHWAYUJA – September – October), the month in which Full Moon Day is associated with the first star (Tithi) called ‘ASVINI’ in Indian Astrology. The name “SHARDIYA” refers to the name of the Season or “RITU” called Sharad Ritu or Autumn.
Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER'(“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumed on different occasions.
Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech. Friday, October 04, 2019, the Sixth Day or Shashthi ‘NAVARATRI’ is dedicated to Goddess called ‘KATYANI'(legendary daughter of a devotee by name ‘KATA’). On this day, Goddess Sarasvati is worshipped for this day is associated with a Nakshatra(Star) called ‘MOOLA’.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 2019. AUTUMNAL EQUINOX DESCRIBES THE DESIGNING OF SEASONS
The Autumnal Equinox officially arrives at 3:50 a.m. Eastern Standard Time. Fall will end Saturday, Dec. 21 at 11:19 a.m. EST, making way for winter and shorter days.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX:
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX. VERNAL EQUINOX AND AUTUMNAL EQUINOX ARE TWO POINTS ON THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WHERE THE PATH OF SUN’S APPARENT MOTION IN SKY OR ECLIPTIC AND THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR INTERSECT. BUT THE SEASONAL CHANGE IS NOT INFLUENCED BY SUN’S REAL MOTION AROUND MILKY WAY GALACTIC CENTER.
Photoperiodism is described as the behavioral or physiological reaction of an organism to changes of duration in daily, seasonal, or yearly periods of light and darkness. The changes in activities occur on daily basis as well as with a consistent pattern when the seasons change. For example, the Autumn or Fall season in the Northern Hemisphere includes the months of September, October, and November. Fall is the season of the year in which many trees change in their appearance; the color of their leaves changes and then trees lose their leaves. Autumn is the season that comes between Summer and Winter seasons. In the astronomical year, the Fall season is the period between the Autumnal Equinox and the Winter Solstice.
The characteristic of Fall is the beginning of a decline in activities of several living organisms to prepare for subsequent changes expected to come in future. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities occur. An important prerequisite to the response to light that occurs in Winter and Spring is exposure to short days or long nights in Autumn. This phase of the annual cycle is called the Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Under experimental conditions, it is shown that the failure to complete the Preparatory Phase will undermine the organism’s subsequent response to changes in the next phase. Hence, Autumn is a season of preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring seasons. This preparation has the characteristics of planning and designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the future.
This ability to connect the activities of past and present with activities that occur in the future requires the operation of an unchanging principle that is not influenced by changes of time. The colorful changes that we witness during the Autumn season would relate us to works of a Whole Designer, a Whole Architect, a Whole Planner, and a Whole Artist.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumn Season is a Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Autumn is a Season of Preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring Seasons. It displays all the characteristics of Planning and Designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the near future.
SEPTEMBER EQUINOX – AUTUMNAL EQUINOX:
Equinox(aequus=Equal + nox=night) is the time when the Sun crosses the equator, making night and day of equal length in all parts of Earth.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumnal Equinox. In the Northern Hemisphere it occurs on September 22/23, the point at which the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator from north to south. This crossing marks the beginning of Autumn and on that date, night and day are of equal length.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Vernal Equinox and Autumnal Equinox are two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic( the path of Sun’s apparent motion in the sky) and the celestial equator intersect. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities among living organisms occur. Man exists on the surface of planet Earth experiencing the daily alternating periods of light and darkness and marks his calendar as seasons bring changes with marked regularity.
Photoperiodism was first reported in 1920 when the flowering of certain plants was demonstrated to be controlled by the daily duration of light. The photoperiodic response of plants may actually depend on the duration of the darkness. Some of the conspicuous activities of animals closely correlated with certain seasons of the year or with changes in day length are bird migration, reproduction, and changes in coat and plumage. In most birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, breeding is seasonal. For species such as brook trout, deer, sheep, and goats breeding begins in Autumn. The light stimulates the release of special hormones from the brain which in turn stimulate the pituitary gland which secretes the hormones that function to control the growth of the reproductive organs. The length of the dark period and the ratio of light to darkness are important factors in determining the reproductive response. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in poultry management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in Poultry Management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.
The most conspicuous seasonal change in coat and plumage occurs in those mammals and birds that are white in Autumn and Winter and brown in Spring and Summer.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. The seasonal change in the coat is conspicuous in this hare which is brown during Spring and Summer, and changes to white during Autumn, and Winter.
PHOTOPERIODISM – BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND BIOLOGICAL CLOCK:
Organisms have synchronized their living functions to their rhythmic environments and have become periodic in diverse aspects of their physiology and behavior. Periodic biological phenomena fall into two distinct, different categories: 1. Those correlated with periodic changes of the planet or geophysical correlates, and 2. Those correlated to an internal timing mechanism often called the ‘Biological Clock’. The living things to some extent behave like ‘Living Clocks’; 1. A timing capacity geared to the rhythmic variations of the natural environment, the alternating periods of light and darkness called day and night, and 2. A timing capacity that operates in response to the flow of time as the planet Earth spins and moves without providing sensory stimuli of its motions. Timing information continuously flows in from the environment and no organism can exist under constant conditions of life. All life exists on planet Earth which exists in a constant state of motion as a member of the Solar System which also exists in a constant state of motion. The biological rhythm results in part as a direct response to the environment and in part as an indirect response via the complex clock-timed organization.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. There are two kinds of biological responses or rhythms. 1. The activities like Sleep and Wakefulness are related to the fluctuations of the physical environment such as darkness, and light, or night and day variation, and 2. The rhythms such as heartbeat and respiratory rate occur without external geophysical correlates as a consequence of the movements of the Earth.
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Man’s biological functions are influenced by Earth’s Rotational Spin. A man has the sensory awareness of an environmental change called Day/Night. Otherwise, man is blissfully unaware of Earth’s Motion that happens all the time. Man is always influenced by the flow of time and his existence is measured as if there is a precise internal clock.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – EARTH’S ROTATIONAL SPIN – REALITY vs ILLUSION:
Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Earth’s Rotational Spin is a unique mechanism that is indissociable from Life itself. While the Sun shines with all its brightness 24-hours all the time, Earth’s Spin allows the man to experience alternating periods of light(Day), and darkness(Night) to plan his physiological functions and activities in the external environment. There is this equally important aspect of Earth’s Spin; man’s existence on the surface of planet Earth depends upon lack of direct sensory awareness of speed/velocity of Earth’s Spin.
Biological Clocks time the Solar Day, the period of Earth’s spin or rotation relative to the Sun. While Earth spins or rotates, man experiences the illusion of Sun’s apparent motion across the path called Ecliptic and exists on the surface of Earth in a state of blissful ignorance of Earth’s Angular Speed, or Linear Velocity. The daily rhythm of about 24 hours’ duration makes it appear as though the organism is keeping track of each day and behaves as if it is a Living Clock. Light appears to be the dominant Phase Setter or Synchronizer of activity pattern during the 24-hour cycles. The 24-hour rhythms are called Solar Day, Circadian, Diel, Daily, Diurnal(day-active), and Night-Active rhythms. Plants show their daily rhythm in sleep movements such as the daytime raising and nighttime lowering of their leaves, and the timing of flowering activity. In man, the daily alternation of sleep and wakefulness is accompanied by many chemical and physiological changes that include the activities of the nervous, endocrine systems, and the liver and kidneys. Daily variations occur in body temperature, in heart and respiratory rates, and in blood pressure and composition of blood. There are daily variations in chemical syntheses and in cell divisions. Living systems display a timing capacity and behave as if they contain a highly dependable clock. The specialized properties of this clock suggest that it involves some unique biological mechanism indissociable from life itself.
I suggest that all natural phenomena require the operation of an unchanging condition that gives the opportunity to experience the change that is manifested. The change called Day and Night, and the changes called Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer Seasons are manifested because of an unchanging condition; the fact of Sun shining with its full brightness 24-hours, and at all times. The rhythmically recurring phenomena called biological rhythms are manifested for living functions operate under the influence of an unchanging, vital, animating principle called Soul, or Spirit.
The ‘immutability’ of Soul or Spirit can be observed as its operations are not influenced by time or external geophysical correlates.
SEPTEMBER 22–THIS DAY IN HISTORY–THE DREAM FOR FREEDOM TRANSFORMS INTO AN ORDEAL OF SLAVERY
On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’
On September 22, 2019, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my Dream for Freedom in Occupied Tibet transformed into an ordeal of Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22.
On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No. 22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering military service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet.
The choice to serve in Establishment No. 22 comes with risks for its military mission differs from the military mission of the Indian Army which I joined to defend India from attacks by foreign aggressors.
It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2019, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made in the past. Now, I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet.
On September 22, 2019, I have no hope that I may arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata in Uttarakhand, India represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.
On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.
When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.
In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.
On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.
After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.
The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).
Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced
Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.
SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2019. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.
Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.
MY REFLECTIONS ON THE HINDU-SIKH CONNECTION. INDIVIDUAL vs GROUP IDENTITY:
I ask my readers to give their attention to the problem of Individual Identity vs Group Identity. I identify the action called ‘Compassion’ with the Individual Identity and I associate the action called ‘Aggression’ with the Group Identity.
The Sikhs like all other human beings have to know the dimensions of Individual and Group Identities.
I concede that the Group Identity named ‘Tat Khalsa’ may give some political advantages to channelize acts of aggression towards other human groupings such as the Hindus. The Tat Khalsa Community gets energized by collectively expressing their hatred and animosity towards individuals that they perceive as their Enemy. I am not surprised to find Christians and Muslims supporting the aggressive stance of the Tat Khalsa for their own political gains. If the political factor is removed, the Sikh Doctrine cannot be energized by the Christain or Muslim Doctrine. The Tat Khalsa may win its battle against the Hindu but will succumb to the collective energy of either Christian or Muslim Group who desire to benefit by encouraging the Group Rivalry between the Sikhs and the Hindus.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE-INDIVIDUAL vs GROUP IDENTITY: “SARVESHAM SWASTIR BHAVATU”
What is Man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in the Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu” which seeks the well-being of all humans of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’, or ‘true’ nature of man. All human traditions including several philosophical and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, moods, action, and behavior. I try to know human nature from the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells, tissues, and organs that constitute the human organism. If a man is viewed as a multicellular organism, I need to discover the human nature of this subject who lives because of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs that provide the structural basis of the human organism.
THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE – EVOLUTION vs CREATION :
Man’s evolution from ape-like ancestors is thought to be the key to our true human nature. Ethology or the scientific study of animal behavior is based on the Theory of Evolution. In order to explain the human condition, ethological theories of human nature appeal to the evolutionary past of man.
Lorenz sees man as an animal who has evolved from other animals. He thinks that human behavior is subject to the same causal laws of nature as all animal behavior. Many patterns of animal behavior show “hereditary coordination” or “instinctive movements” that are innate rather than learned. The ‘instinctual’ behavior is fixed and may not be eliminated or altered by the environment. Instinct is inherited and it is essentially unlearned behavior. Some of the most important aspects of animal behavior are innate. Lorenz studied the nature of instinctive behavioral acts. The instinctual behavior is caused by a ‘drive’ which causes the behavior to appear spontaneously. The “four big-drives” are feeding, reproduction, flight, and aggression. Very often, behavior is activated by two or more basic drives. To account for an instinctive behavior pattern in a species, reference is made to its survival value it has for the genes for that behavior. To explain the existence of any particular organ or behavior pattern, Lorenz looks for its survival value for the species. In his book, “On Aggression” ( 1963 ), he explains the natural history of man’s aggressive behavior. He considers that man has an innate drive to aggressive behavior towards his own species like many other animals. Fighting and warlike behavior in man have an inborn basis. He seeks an evolutionary explanation for human innate aggressiveness or ‘Intra-Specific’ aggression which is concerned with fighting and threats between members of the same species. The most destructive aspect of human aggression is its communal nature and the fighting is not between individuals but between groups. Humans fight as groups and human beings are the only animals to indulge in the mass slaughter of their own species. He explains that this innate aggressive behavior has evolved from the communal defense response of our pre-human ancestors. However, Lorenz made no scientific study of behavior displayed by apes. Among the members of Homo genus, man is the only surviving representative of the Homo sapiens species and hence it will not be easy to validate his conclusions about the evolutionary origin of innate human aggressive behavior. If aggression is viewed as a hereditary behavior which is based upon its survival value for the genes for that behavior, it must be noted that all human ancestors had perished and have gone extinct and the behavior of aggression could not be of value in defending their survival as a species.
COMPASSION WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL AND BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS :
Compassion or sympathy( sym=together + pati=suffer ) describes the emotional feelings of sorrow for the sufferings or troubles of another person or others accompanied by an urge to help. Compassion describes an understanding arising from the sameness of emotional feeling. When man recognizes pain or sorrow in the lives of others, it spontaneously arouses the emotional feelings of compassion.
This understanding and the emotional response to the pain and suffering in the lives of others appears to be instinctive. Apart from the “four big-drives”, compassion is operated by an innate drive or it is a motivated behavior. Compassion and altruism( any behavior that appears to favor another individual’s chances of survival ) is a response generated by human nature.
Compassion acts like a physical force, power, or energy. It has the power to uplift the man from physical pain and mental, or emotional pain or sorrow. The instinct of compassion comes into play and acts as a force, power, or energy when a man experiences sorrow and reacts to the suffering or troubles of another man. I am also suggesting that the emotionally motivated behavior of compassion is found within individuals apart from between individuals.
If my experience of pain or suffering does not elicit the emotional response of compassion from others, fortunately, I can derive the benefit of the uplifting power of compassion by simply knowing the source of compassion that exists within myself.
When a person is enjoying a state of good health, we find that the cells, tissues, and organs of that human person are interacting with each other in a harmonious manner and these intraspecific biotic interactions display characteristics such as mutual assistance, mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and mutual functional subservience to provide a benefit to the human individual who lives because of the functions of these cells, tissues, and organs. The constituent parts of the human body interact with each other with a sense of devotion, sympathy, compassion, and understanding.
We often try to find compassion in the actions performed by others in response to the pain and suffering that we may experience. We describe compassion from the thoughts, emotional feelings, understanding, and sympathetic response that we witness in the behavior and action of others.
I recognize compassion in the nature of the interactions between the cells, tissues, and organs of my body and consider that such compassion always operates to keep me the human person in good and positive health. I understand the reality of human existence and suggest that the existence is made possible because compassion is innate to human nature guiding the normal living functions both in health and sickness. I observe the operation of compassion in the wound healing mechanism that is described as ‘Inflammation and Repair’. The emotional feelings of compassion are important for the survival of the man who exists to find emotional satisfaction from his living experience. The instinctive behavior of compassion supports the survival of man as it provides an emotional sense of satisfaction and contentment which contributes to the experience of joy and happiness in life.
COMPASSION IS THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE:
The biological properties, characteristics, and the biological nature of the living substance or protoplasm could account for an instinctive behavior pattern like compassion. Biological functions and characteristics such as nutrition, recognition, awareness, responsiveness, and communication with other living cells have not evolved because of their survival value for the species. At a fundamental level, certain living characteristics or nature is innate or implanted in the matter at the beginning of life. The nature called compassion is implanted or innate to the living substance or matter which is known as protoplasm.
I make the distinction between Individual Identity and Group Identity. The first operates to display behavior or actions called Compassion. The second operates to display behavior or actions called Aggression. Human Aggressive Behavior is of particular concern as humans when acting as a Group cause more harm and destruction as compared to their actions when acting strictly as Individuals.