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Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider

Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between Cell and its Energy Provider.

Rudi acknowledges his German heritage at Whole Foods when he discovered the spiritual connection between man, food, and Providence.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Photograph, 1893. Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902).

Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet are connected by a material substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, a divine plan to provide nourishment to Life.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor can be best described as the concept of Whole Spirituality, the three dimensional spiritual relationship between the multicellular human organism, food, and the Divine Providence.

Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between Cell and its Energy Provider. The 3-Dimensional Spiritual Relationship between Man, Food, and God.

Spiritualism – The Cell Theory of Spirituality:

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

In Biology, cell is the basic or fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things or it is the building block of life. Let me begin with my respectful tribute to some of the people who contributed to ‘The Cell Theory’, one of the foundations of Biological Sciences. Cells were first observed in the 17th century shortly after the discovery of the microscope. Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London, during 1665 coined the word cell. Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made over 247 microscopes and examined microorganisms and tissue samples. He gave the first complete descriptions of bacteria, protozoa (which he called animalcules), spermatozoa, and striped muscle. He also studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London coined the term cell during 1665.
Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1668-80) studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.

Improvements in microscopy during early 19th century permitted closer observation and the significance of cells had received better understanding. Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1838), German botanist, Theodor Schwann (1839), German physiologist, and Rudolf Virchow (1855), German pathologist, and others made important contributions to the Cell Theory that describes cell as the building block of all Life.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Schleiden, Professor of Botany, The University of Jena studied plant structure under the microscope, published “Contibutions to Phytogenesis” (1838). He had also published the two-volume text of ‘Principles of Scientific Botany’.
Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Schwann founder of modern Histology extended the Cell Theory of Plants to animals in his ‘Microscopic Researches into Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Animals and Plants (1839).
Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Schwann discovered Myelin Sheath covering peripheral axons, now termed Schwann Cells. He coined the term ‘Metabolism’ for the chemical changes that take place in living tissues.
Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist in 1855 coined the biological dictum “OMNIS CELLULA E CELLULA” – All living cells arise only from pre-existing living cells.

The Cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of carrying on the essential life processes of sustaining metabolism for producing energy and reproducing. Many simple, small, single-celled organisms like Protozoa perform all life functions. In higher, complex, bigger, multicellular organisms, groups of cells are structurally and functionally differentiated into specialized tissues and organ systems. Thus, the Cell Theory includes the following foundational principles of the Biological Sciences:

1. All living things are made up of cells. Cell is the most elementary or basic unit of Life. 

2. Cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things including plants and animals.

3. Cells only rise from division of previously existing cells.

4. All cells are similar in composition, form, and function. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition (in spite of variations) in organisms of similar species. For example, all the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; differing it is true, but that are essentially similar to an Ovum.

5. The cells exhibit functional autonomy. The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of ‘INDEPENDENT’ cells.

6. Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.

7. Cells contain hereditary, biological information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.

The Cell Theory of Spirituality:

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

The basic or fundamental unit of life in the human organism is derived from the fertilized egg cell that eventually develops into a complete organism. The most significant feature of similarity between the cells of the human body is the presence of a soft, gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, or Cytosol is similar to the ground substance found in the Ovum or the Egg Cell.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Human Ovum Structure – The Cell Theory of Spirituality is based upon the Substance, Structure, Form, Organization, Function, Action and Interactions of this Single Fertilized Egg Cell that eventually develops into a complete human organism.

This viscous, translucent, colloidal substance is enclosed in a membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the Protoplasm of the cell. The three essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of the presence of protoplasm, the nucleus, and the cell membrane.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.

Protoplasm – The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality:

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to Describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.

I seek the existence of Soul or Spirit in a substance that is basic to life activities, and in a material that is responsible for all living processes. I, therefore, propose that the understanding of the true or real nature of this ground substance of all living matter will help man to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in all of his internal and external relationships while man exists in a physical environment as a member of a social group, social community, and Society. In this blog post, I would like to pay my respectful tribute to Jan Evangelista Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl for their great contribution to the scientific understanding of the living substance, living material, and living matter.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Jan Evangelista Purkyne (Czech name), Jan Evangelista Purkinje (German name)also known as Johannes Evangelist Purkinje, b. December 17, 1787, d. July 28, 1869. The pioneer Czech experimental Physiologist whose investigations in the fields of Histology, Embryology,and Pharmacology helped create a modern understanding of the eye and vision, brain and heart function, mammalian reproduction, and the composition of cells.

Purkinje conducted his research on human vision at the University of Prague and later on, he served there as a Professor of Physiology (1850-69). He went to Germany and was appointed the Chair of Physiology and Pathology (1823-50) at the University of Breslau, Prussia. There Purkinje created the world’s first independent Department of Physiology (1839) and the first Physiological Laboratory (Physiological Institute, 1842). He is best known for his discovery of large nerve cells with many branching extensions found in the cortex of Cerebellum of the brain (Purkinje Cells, 1837). He discovered the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the ‘pacemaker’ called Atrioventricular node or A-V node along the inside walls of the ventricles to all parts of the heart to help in Cardiac contractile function (Purkinje Fibers, 1839). In 1835, he invented and introduced the scientific term ‘Protoplasm’ to describe the ground substance found inside young animal embryo cells. He discovered the sweat glands of the skin (1833); he discovered the nine configuration groups of Fingerprints used in biometric identification of man (1823); he described the germinal vesicle or nucleus of the unripe ovum that now bears his name (1825), and he noted the protein digesting power of pancreatic extracts (1836).

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Hugo Von Mohl, b. April 08, 1805, d. April 01, 1872, German Botanist noted for his research on the anatomy and physiology of plant cells.

Hugo Von Mohl named the granular, colloidal material that made up the main substance of the plant cell as “Protoplasm” in 1846. Purkinje invented the word, but Hugo gave more clarity, understanding, and knowing the nature of this ground substance. He viewed cell as an “elementary organ” and in Physiology he explained Protoplasm as an organ of Motion or Movement, Nutrition, and Reproduction. It is the preliminary material in cellular generation. He was the first to propose that new cells are formed by division of preexisting cells and he had observed this process of Cell Division in the algal cells of Conferva glomerata. His observations are very important to understand the Cell Theory that explains cells as the basic building blocks of Life. He was the first to investigate the phenomenon of the stomatal openings in leaves.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence which have a Spiritual role as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.

Protoplasm is a complex, viscous, translucent solution of such materials as salts and simple sugars with other molecules, mostly proteins and fats, in a colloidal state, that is dispersed but not dissolved in one another. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen constitute more than 90 percent of Protoplasm.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

It exhibits properties such as Protoplasmic Streaming or Cytoplasmic Streaming or Motion that is called “Amoeboid Movement.” It has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The importance of Protoplasmic or Cytoplasmic Streaming is displayed in the transportation of Neuropeptides from the sites of their Synthesis to the sites of their action at the axon terminal of the Nerve Cells.

Protoplasm has the power of Nutrition by which it can attract and obtain the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter/environment.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The living functions such as Nutrition, Cellular Respiration, and Reproduction performed by Cytoplasm involve acquiring, processing, retaining, and using information to perform tasks in a sequential manner for a predetermined purpose and hence describe Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The terms Soul and Spirit belong to the materialistic realm where the Physical Reality of man’s biological existence is established. I have not yet discovered any good reason to use the terms Soul and Spirit as a metaphysical or transcendental Reality.

The Inheritance of Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell or Plasma Membrane:

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Living cells have a corporeal substance called Protoplasm that has the ability of Spiritual Biotic Interactions. The Biological Membrane or Cell Membrane separates the cell from its environment and other living cells present in the environment. Cells use unique proteins, biological molecules and receptor sites to recognize the other living cells and use chemical signals to facilitate the interactions. Such interactions between living cells have the characteristics of consciousness or awareness.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell Membrane is an integral feature of Cytoplasm, a limiting membrane devised by Cytoplasm to create boundaries to perform its numerous living functions.

The Functions of Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell Membrane or Biological Membrane:

1. Protection: It protects the cell from its surroundings or extracellular environment. Plant cell possess wall over the plasma membrane for extra protection and support. 

2. Holding cell contents: Plasma membranes hold the semi fluid protoplasmic contents of the cell intact; thus keeping the individuality of the cell.

3. Selective Permeability: Cell membrane allows only selected or specific substances to enter into the cell and are impermeable to others. 

  • Gases like O2 and CO2 can diffuse rapidly in solution through membranes.
  • Small compounds like H2O and methane can easily pass through where as sugars, amino acids and charged ions are transported with the help of transport proteins.
  • The size of the molecules which can pass through the plasma membrane is 1-15 A0. This property is responsible for keeping a cell ‘as a cell’, an individual unit. 

4. Shape: It maintains form and shape of the cell. It serves as site of anchorage or attachment of the cytoskeleton; thus providing shape to the cell (especially in animal cells without cell wall). 

5. Organelles: Cell membrane delimits or covers all sub-cellular structures or organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies etc. thus protecting them form the surroundings and also helps in maintaining a constant internal environment.

6. Compartmentalization: Cell membrane separate the cells from their external environment and cell organelle from cytosol. It help the cells and their organelles to have their own microenvironments, structural and functional individuality. 

7. Cell Recognition: With the help of glycolipids and glycoproteins on its surface, cell membranes are able to differentiate similar cells from dissimilar ones, foreign substances and cells own materials. Cell recognition is useful for tissue formation and defence against microbes. 

8. Antigens: Cell membranes possess antigens which determine blood grouping, immune response, acceptance or rejection of a transplant (graft rejection by MHC’s on plasma membrane). 

9. Microvilli: They are microscopic finger like projections of plasma membrane present on some cells like intestinal epithelial cells, which are involved in a wide variety of functions, including increasing surface area for absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion etc.

10. Sheaths of cilia and flagella: Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell; made up of microtubules which are covered by an extension of the plasma membrane.

11. Cytoplasmic bridges in plasmodesmata and gap junctions: Plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells; meant for intercellular transport and communication, form cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells through plasma membrane.

12. Endocytosis and Exocytosis: Bulk intake of materials or endocytosis occurs through development of membrane vesicles or invagination and engulfing by plasma membrane.

Exocytosis: It is reverse of endocytosis that provides for releasing waste products and secretory materials ot of the cells with the help of plasma membrane. 

13. Impulse transmission in neurons: The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the plasma membrane of the neuron

14. Cell metabolism: Cell membranes control cell metabolism through selective permeability and retentivity of substances in a cell. 

15. Electron transport chain in bacteria: In bacteria; Electron transport chain is located in cell membrane.

16. Osmosis through cell membrane: It is movement of solvent molecules (generally water) from the region of less concentrated solution to the region of high concentrated solution through a semi permeable membrane. Here the semi permeable membrane that helps in osmosis is the cell membrane. Eg: Root cells take up water from the soil by osmosis 

17. Carrier proteins for active transport: They occur in the cell membranes and control active transport of substances. Example, GLUT1 is a named carrier protein found in almost all animal cell membranes that transports glucose across the bilayer or plasma membrane.

18. Plasma Membrane enzymes: Many enzymes are present on the plasma membrane with wide variety of catalytic activity. Example: Red blood cell plasma membranes contain a number of enzymes such as ATPases, anion transport protein, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, acetylcholinesterase.

19. Cell Membrane Receptors: Receptor on the plasma membrane performs signal transduction, converting an extracellular signal into an intra-cellular signal. Membrane possess receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies and several other biochemicals.

20. Plasma membrane assisted Cell movements: Undulation and pseudopodia are cell membrane phenomenon involved in cell movement. Amoeba, macrophages and WBCs move with the helps of temporary organelles like pseudopodia. Pseudopods are temporary cytoplasmic projections of the cell membrane in certain unicellular protists such as Amoeba. Some mammalian cells such as fibroblasts can move over a solid surface by wave like undulations of the plasma membrane.

The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence as spiritual attributes of Life as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to Describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.

The Spirituality of Substance, Function, Organization, Action, and Interactions:

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

To establish the biological existence of the human organism, I add the concept of Spiritualism and Spirituality to the Cell Theory.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The Single Fertilized Egg Cell has ground substance that is of Spiritual nature and the Spiritualism and Spirituality consists of the following functional, and organizational characteristics:

1. The Cell is Conscious of its own existence and knows its internal condition and knows it external environment.

2. The Cell is intelligent and it has the cognitive abilities like perception and memory to acquire information, to retain information, to recall information, and to use information in the performance of its complex tasks in a sequential manner.

3. The Cell has the ability to show characteristics such as mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and display functional subordination and subservience while being independent.

4. The Cell grows, divides, and develops into a complete organism while it acquires substances and energy from an external environment. The power of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm to attract matter found in its external environment is called Nutrition. The Cell continuously transforms matter to build matter of its own kind for its own benefit to sustain its  existence with its own identity and individuality. The Organism represents a social group or a biological community of Cells. The Spiritual nature of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm brings this functional harmony and unity in the Social Group or Biotic Community of Cells by bringing together its Essence and Existence.

5. The Cell Theory is incomplete for it does not describe the conditioned nature of the Cell’s existence. The Cell represents a Living System that is thermodynamically unstable. It requires a constant supply of matter and energy from its external environment to sustain its living functions. The concept of Whole Spirituality formulates the connection between the Cell and its external source of matter and energy.

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor. The Bone Marrow smear from a patient of Leukemia or Blood Cancer helps to illustrate the nature of Biotic Interactions in the Social Group or Biotic Community that represents the singularity called man. The true or real man can only be discovered by the microscopic study of the Cells that constitute the Organism.

The theoretical claims about Spirit and Soul, the religious and philosophical doctrines of Spiritualism and Spirituality must be verified using the Cell Theory that defines the human organism. To describe Soul or Spirit as  nonmaterial or immaterial Self will not help man to know the real or true man.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

Simon Cyrene

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor

Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet come together in a Wholesome Relationship as God is the Energy Provider, the Original Source of Matter and Energy for Life.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to Describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.
Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the Spiritual Connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider. Bodhisattva, the Lord of Infinite Compassion. The concept of Past Birth, Present Birth, and Rebirth.

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems
The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things.Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems
The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems
The Rudi-Grant Connection gives guidance to find a Path to know God, Truth, and Life by knowing the Dead Things. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems

I learned the truths about the living human body and about Life while dissecting the dead human bodies in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

The Path to find God, Truth, and Life:

The Fear of the ‘Beaten Path’ – Defining Indian Identity.

‘The Order of the Star’ was an organization built around Jiddu Krishnamurti by Ms. Annie Besant and other Theosophists with the hope that he would be the vehicle for the return of the Christ or ‘Maitreya’ (the reincarnation of the Lord of Compassion).

The Dissolution of ‘The Order of The Star’

The Fear of the ‘Beaten Path’ – Defining Indian Identity. JIDDU KRISHNAMURTI GIVING HIS SPEECH IN 1929 DISSOLVING ‘THE ORDER OF THE STAR‘.
The Fear of the ‘Beaten Path’ – Defining Indian Identity

Aug-Sept 1929: I maintain that Truth is a pathless land, and you cannot approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organized; nor should any organization be formed to lead or to coerce people along any particular path. You must climb towards the Truth. It cannot be ‘stepped down’ or organized for you.

1933: I feel that no one can lead another to truth, because truth is infinite; it is a pathless land, and no one can tell you how to find it. No one can teach you to be an artist; another can only give you the brushes and canvas and show you the colours to use.

1948: You cannot discover the path, because there is no path, Truth is a thing that is living, and to a living thing there is no path – it is only to dead things that there can be a path. Truth being pathless, to discover it you must be adventurous, ready for danger; and do you think a guru will help you to be adventurous, to live in danger? To seek a guru obviously indicates that you are not adventurous, that you are merely seeking a path to reality as a means of security.

1957: There is no path to reality. Reality is a pathless land, and you must venture out and discover it for yourself. It is because you are frightened inwardly that you depend on something, on the priest, or on a belief, and so you get caught in the net of an organized religion.

1976: But as truth is a pathless land, you can’t lay down a line, a direction, a path to it and practise it, discipline yourself, learn a technique. It is immovable. There is no technique to truth.

1982: So one has to be totally free from all that because truth has no path to it. It is a pathless land, like a ship that has no rudder. You have to walk out of darkness, out of your own chaos, out of your own confusion, out of the forest of ignorance and come to that by yourself, your own comprehension of perception.

1982: Because if there is any form of conditioning, psychically, inwardly, truth cannot be found. Truth is a pathless land, and it must come to one when there is total freedom from conditioning.

The Story about The Star of Bethlehem:

The New Testament Book Matthew, Chapter 2, verse 1 and 2 describe the visit of the ‘Magi’. After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, “Where is the one who has been born King of the Jews? We saw his Star in the East and have come to worship him.”

And Matthew 2:9-10 further states, when they heard the king, they (Magi) went on their way, and the Star they had seen in the East went ahead of them until it stopped over the place where the child was. When they saw the Star, they were overjoyed. On coming to the house, they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him.

The Magi, the three wise men of the East did not traverse on a beaten path to discover the newborn Jesus. As there is no beaten path, the Star of Bethlehem clearly guided them to find the truth or reality of the newborn baby.

Jesus shows the Way to The Father, Truth, and Life:

In the New Testament Book John, Chapter 14, verse 6 describes Jesus as the way to the Father. Jesus answered, “I am the Way and the Truth and the Life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”

“TRUTH IS A PATHLESS LAND”

‘Truth is a pathless land’ was the speech made by Jiddu Krishnamurti in 1929 when he dissolved the Order of the Star. “I maintain that Truth is a pathless land, and you can not approach it by any path whatsoever, by any religion, by any sect. Truth, being limitless, unconditioned, unapproachable by any path whatsoever, cannot be organised; nor should any organisation be formed to lead or coerce people along any particular path.” Krishnamurti believed that the individual must establish his uniqueness, he should discover for himself that absolute, unconditioned Truth.

The Fear of the Beaten Path:

The Fear of the Beaten Path. Defining Indian Identity. The Impersonal God is Unknowable and hence there is no Path to discover the Absolute Truth or Absolute Reality described as Brahman. THE THOUGHTS OF VARIOUS INDIAN THINKERS HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY INTERPRETED. EVERYTHING THAT EXISTS IS NOT EXACTLY THE SAME OR IDENTICAL TO BRAHMAN. IT WILL BE CORRECT TO INTERPRET THE ABOVE STATEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF UNITY BETWEEN ORDERS LIKE GOD, ENERGY, MATTER, AND LIVING THINGS. THIS UNITY OR EIKYATA IS THE FUNDAMENTAL BASIS FOR EXISTENCE AND IS CALLED “ASMI” TO DESCRIBE BRAHMAN AS THE ‘CAUSE’ OF EXISTENCE.

The much traveled or a beaten path is recommended if you are aware of your destination. The beaten path provides the wayfarer a sense of security and comfort.

The Fear of the Beaten Path. Defining Indian Identity. As Brahman is Unknowable, the personification of Brahman works like the Star of Bethlehem, a Guiding Star when there is no beaten track to arrive at the destination.

In India, thinkers tend to believe that the principles underlying macrocosm (Universal) and microcosm (Individual) are related. According to Vedas which guide the Indian mind, the ‘BRAHMAN’ (the Absolute Reality or ‘The Father’) cannot be known by any empirical means of knowledge. Socrates states, ‘Know thyself, and you will know the universe and the gods.’ In a similar manner Indian thinkers have always encouraged the values of introspection, to reflect upon your own mind and thoughts to understand self and self-knowledge is a tool, is the way and the path to the Truth. As an Indian, I always experience a sense of fear about the ‘Beaten Path’ and the assurance given by Jesus that He is the Way somehow does not dispel the sense of fear to travel on that path. I need an unbeaten path.

The Fear of the Beaten Path. Defining Indian Identity. The concept of Purusha or True Self guides the man on the Path of Self-Discovery.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems. The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration.Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems. The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. Structures between the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are part of the respiratory pathway, since they contain alveoli and perform gas exchange.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

WIND OR  AIR  IN  MOTION – A LIFE GIVING FORCE  

Wind or Air in Motion is a Life Giving Force.The Breath of my Life – Defining Indian Identity. LORD HANUMAN, the Son of Vayu or the Wind God, 85 FEET TALL STANDS GRACEFULLY IN TRINIDAD, CARIBBEAN ISLANDS
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration.

Nature supports and sustains life through various material energies, and wind or air in motion is considered to be a vital force. The Sanskrit word Prana is described as the ‘Breath of Life’ and death is generally viewed as the departure of Prana. Wind is described in Sanskrit as Vayu, Pavan, and Marut. Wind is very important and it protects planet Earth from Sun’s radiation. Sun heats up the planet in an uneven manner, and the winds redistribute the heat. The importance of wind in controlling climate, rainfall, and ocean currents is well understood.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

Air is the source of carbon and nitrogen and hence is an important source for food synthesis. Most living organisms also depend upon oxygen to sustain their metabolic activities. The carbon based fossil fuels are derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide. Wind energy is being directly harnessed as an alternate source of energy and will play a greater role in future energy supplies.  

Several cultures across this globe recognize the importance of natural elements such as wind or air. Soul, the life principle of human beings is associated with the act of breathing. If a man is seriously wounded, is bleeding profusely, and is not breathing, the physician would first give attention to the problem of breathing and restore it before he may give attention to the bleeding wounds. If a physician had to attend upon two patients, one fully conscious, howling in terrible pain and is profusely bleeding, and the second patient who is quiet but not able to breathe on his own, the physician would give the top priority to the quiet patient who may have an obstruction in his airways and is not able to breathe on his own. Air and the act of respiration deliver the vital element oxygen to the body and then blood circulates this vital element to rest of the body and the most important organ in the body which is critically dependent upon oxygen being the brain. Compared to heart and circulation, the function of lungs and respiration are more important to human survival.  

The Breath of my Life – Defining Indian Identity  

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. Lord Hanuman – The Fear of Samsara: Man’s conditioned existence evokes a psychological response called “FEAR”. The difficulties of Life’s Journey is compared to the crossing of a Sea of unknown dimensions. To reach the destination, man needs physical help, and mental comfort. Lord Hanuman is the source of Life’s Vital Energy.

While Wind, Vayu, Pawan, or Marut are well-recognized as a life-giving force all over the world, Indians have a unique way of celebrating and showing their reverence to this natural energy. Indians all across their Land worship Lord Hanuman who is the legendary son of the Wind God Vayu. Hanuman is invariably described as the son of Wind God and in recognition of that fact He is bestowed with several names such as ‘PAVAN PUTRA’, ‘PAVAN TANAYA’, ‘PAVAN SUTA’, ‘VAYU PUTRA’, and ‘MARUT NANDAN’. When Indians think of wind or vayu, their thoughts automatically lead to Lord Hanuman whom they value for His devotional service to Lord Rama. The worship of Lord Hanuman became popular in India after the Muslim invasion and conquest of India and beginning in the 12th century A.D. several temples were constructed to worship Him. Lord Hanuman symbolizes the Bhakti Movement (Devotional Service) in India and is generally viewed as the Protector who dispels fears about enemy.    

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. The worship of Lord Rama could be accomplished through worship of Lord Hanuman who had rendered an excellent and devoted service to Lord Rama.

The following hymn in praise of Lord Hanuman describe his characteristic personality:

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration. The Breath of my Life. Defining Indian Identity.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods formulates the Rudi doctrine of Detached Devotion

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

Yes Indeed, Life is Complicated. The complexity of Life involves comprehending the problem of separation, estrangement, alienation, and even disinterest that keeps the Original Source of Life aloof from all Living Things while the fact of existence is operated by the principle of Unity between Life and the Original Source of Life.

The Rudi doctrine of Detached Devotion. Sun is the original source of all Life on planet Earth and yet the man and Sun are eternally separated.

Spirituality Science – The Concept of Detached Devotion:

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

I carefully examine the Indian Schools of Thought and in general they recommend preparing a seeker’s mind as the first step to commence study of Self or Adhyatma Vidya. The preparation the tradition recommends is that of severing attachments. In my analysis, breaking of attachments involves removal of all desires which includes the desire for Moksha, Mukti, Vimochan, Liberation, Salvation, Eternal Life, Everlasting Life, or Afterlife. The desire for Transcendence or reward of Life in Heaven/Paradise, the desire to avoid punishment of Life in Hell have to be discarded. To some extent, the concept of Nirvana demands not to desire even Higher or Perfect Knowledge.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE - CHIDAMBARA RAHASYAM: IN ...
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

It is apparent to most investigators to find God is in Creation and yet God is Detached. If God is Detached, it is impossible for me to get or seek attachment to God.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

The entire creation abides in God and yet the Creator does not abide in His own creation. While God is detached, there is still Yoking, Joining, Coming Together, or Partnership, Association, and Bonding between Creation and Creator. I show Devotion for I lead conditioned or dependent Earthly Existence. I am not seeking my emancipation from my Dependence for it is operated by the Principle of Unity called “ASMI”, the Everlasting Principle in the Sanskrit Language. For I recognize my Unity, I have no other desires and I have no desire for some kind of mental attachment to God. The Concept of Personal God of Ramanuja, or of Surrender to God, or Saranagati of Madhva do not call for Attachment to God. In my view, devotional service to God is absence of all Attachments.

... and Islam is a religion of mercy, forgiveness, respect, love and unity
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

I accept the above concept of “ISLAM” for it does not demand Attachment to God to receive Higher Reward of Life in Paradise and does not impose the threat or Fear of Life in Hell while the holy scripture Quran speaks extensively about rewards and punishments.

Regulative and Constitutive Principles of Pure Reason:

Kant – Critique of Pure Reason
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

Regulative Concepts & Principles, Constitutive Concepts & Principles are central to Kant’s philosophy. In the Critique of Pure Reason, this distinction marks the division between the Faculty of Reason and the Faculty of Understanding.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

The Understanding is constitutive of the possibility of Experience. All Experience must conform to the Concepts & Principles of the Understanding, which are realized or instantiated in Experience; Experience contains Substances, Causal Connections and so on.

The Faculty of Reason, by contrast, is merely Regulative in relation to Experience. Although Reason too plays an indispensable role in Experience, the Concepts proper to it – the so-called ideas of Reason, such as the idea of God, or the idea of the World as a complete Totality cannot be realized or instantiated in Experience at all. Nevertheless, ideas of Reason still function legitimately to guide empirical inquiry into the objects that can be given in Experience.

We declare, for example, that the Things in the World must be so considered as if they had their existence from a Highest Intelligence. It indicates not how an Object is Constituted but rather, how we, under its guidance, are to seek the Constitution and Connection of the Objects of Experience in general. Thus, Regulative Concept & Principle helps in complete Understanding of the Constitution and Connection of the Objects of Experience.

In its regulative use, Reason guides our work in striving for Knowledge, helping us to correct errors and arrive at more comprehensive insights.

Regulative Principles govern the Existence of Appearance. Such Principles may not be proven since Existence cannot be constituted. For example, man has no ability to constitute Living Matter called Protoplasm while man has general understanding of its constituents. Man may not be able to prove and verify all the Regulative Principles of Human Existence for he cannot constitute Living Matter.

Kant discusses the Regulative Principles of Reason, which determine the limits of Reason.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

The Principles that objectively state what is present in the Object itself, that is, what is the Constitution of Appearance. These Principles of Pure Understanding describe standard and necessary Constituents of the World of Appearance. Regulative Principles play no part in determining the Objective Character of the World of Appearance. They are maxims, neither provable nor disprovable and are not to be understood as true or false. They serve to guide our inquiry within Experience and lead us to transgress the limits of Reason from the Conditioned to the Unconditioned. For example, I mentioned several times in the past as to how Human Existence is possible only under the influence of Illusion and not that of Reality of Earth’s Speed.

What is “Pancha Prana?”

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

In the Indian Tradition, Pancha Prana (Breath of Life or VAYU) is described as Vyana, Samana, Udana, Apana and Prana. The term or phrase ‘PRANA’ refers to air that is in the heart, and the word is generally used to describe the act of breathing or respiration, as a sign or mark of Life. In reality, this air or breath, or VAYU exists in the molecules of Hemoglobin contained in Red Blood Cells.

... - Cellular Respiration - Authentic Performance Activity ( below
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion


No religious doctrine mentions about Cellular Respiration. But, understanding of Existence and Life will be impossible without examining the Connection between Air, Breath, Vayu, Respiration and Food that sustains Life by providing Matter and Energy drawn from an external source. In Medical Science, the understanding of man involves study of Human Anatomy (Structure and Constitution of Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems of Human Body), and Human Physiology (Regulation of Functions of various Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems of Human Body).

When Does Life Begin?

When does life begin? When does the soul enter? That’s a religious ...
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion
Mother Mary holding baby Jesus-When does Human Life begins?
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

The understanding of Spirit or Soul begins with knowing as to When Life begins.

WHEN DOES HUMAN LIFE BEGINS ? | Bhavanajagat
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion

I ask my readers to begin their inquiry by studying the Single, Fertilized Egg Cell which initiates a man’s Life Journey. This Cell has Life, has ‘PRANA’ for it performs the vital function called ‘Cellular Respiration’.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the Breath of Life as a vital, spiritual function called Cellular Respiration

The vital functions called Respiration and Circulation, the Breath of Life and the Heart Beat of Life have to be interpreted by comparing Photosynthesis with Cellular Respiration. Respiration and Circulation are described as Vital Functions as they provide Vital Energy in the form of Energy-Yielding Chemical Molecules called ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) required for the performance of all living functions.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. The Rudi Doctrine of Detached Devotion: The existence of Life on planet Earth depends upon an external source of energy. But, Life is eternally separated from its original source of energy. What is the “Connection” between man and Sun? Does man have the physical and intellectual ability or capacity to harness Solar Energy to maintain his living functions?

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection evaluates man’s future in terms of Evolution or Extinction. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

What is man’s future?

Man’s Future: Evolution or Extinction.

Like all other living creatures of this planet Earth, man is a mortal being. Whosoever had arrived on this planet must also depart. As a biological species, what are man’s chances of survival in the future?

Could Man Evolve into a new Species?

Man is a member of the order of Primates, which is a part of the class Mammalia. Modern humans belong to the species Homo sapiens. Man is the only species in the genus HOMO of the family Hominidae that is living today. All other ancestral forms of the genus HOMO are extinct. The early Homo sapiens was possibly present in southeastern Europe 350,000 years ago. The numbers and range of humans has increased about 100,000 years ago. The rate of expansion of human population is related to technological advancements that increase the availability of food, or of major medical advances that reduce the number of deaths. Man not only fully inhabits and utilizes a wide range of environments but also alters these environments to his own ends. With a variety of sophisticated technologies interposed between man and the natural environment, the environment cannot exert pressures on the human species in the same way that it has on other species.

Essentially, the modern synthetic view of evolution could be defined as a change in gene frequency. Evolution could be described as change in the genetic composition of a population through time. For purposes of speciation or separation into new species, we need to demonstrate cumulative and important changes in the population gene pool. In the last 250,000 years there is no evidence to show any important changes in the population gene pool. Practically speaking, man’s evolution into a new species is arrested because of the intervention of culture between man and his environment.

The Biological Phenomenon of Extinction

In biology, extinction refers to the dying out or termination of a race or species of animals or plants. Extinction occurs when a species can no longer reproduce at replacement levels and all the surviving members perish at the end of their life spans which could be shortened by harsh environmental stresses. The causes of extinction include the following: 1. extra -terrestrial, 2. geological-climatical, and 3. biological. Most extinctions are thought to have resulted from environmental changes. A species could be affected in either of two ways:

1. The doomed species is not able to adapt to the changed environment and would totally perish without descendants;

2. The doomed species may adapt but, in the process, may evolve into a distinctly new species. When this transformation is completed, the doomed species would be identified as an extinct species. It should be noted that this kind of transformation of one species into a new distinct species is not actually observed by any person. The chances of man evolving into a new species is less likely because man has to some extent arrested this process due to the development of his abilities to manipulate nature.

Extinction is an ongoing feature of the Earth’s flora and fauna. The fossil record has served to demonstrate the history of most major groups of animals and plants. The record indicates the occurrence of fairly sudden extinctions of certain groups at certain times, and the fossil record also reveals the occurrence of a number of mass extinctions each involving the demise of vast number of species. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance and only one in a thousand species that have existed remain today. Some 99.9 percent of all species that have ever lived on Earth are now extinct. Mass extinctions are ecological disasters but they may also create opportunities by removing once dominant groups.

Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event (K-T EVENT)

Man’s Future: Evolution or Extinction. CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT OR K-T EVENT, ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO, WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS .

A drastic example of extinctions is provided by the dinosaurs. About 65 million years ago, at the end of the Cretaceous period all the major groups of dinosaurs and several forms of marine life became extinct more or less simultaneously. It has great significance because it ended the reign of the dinosaurs and opened the way for mammals to become the dominant land vertebrates. Some biologists conclude that humans owe our present dominance because of this K-T Event that saw the end of the dinosaurs.

Man’s Future – Evolution or Extinction: Dinosaur Extinction.Asteroid strike near Mexico may have caused Major Extinction Event called K-T Event. Impact site 1600km from Central America.

Evidence points to the impact of an asteroid hitting the Earth as the cause of this extinction. An important aspect of such impacts by heavenly objects would be the creation of tremendous amounts of ionizing radiation which has played a devastating role in wiping out the marine life. It is suspected that catastrophic events such as an asteroid impact/radiation may have triggered other mass extinctions as well. In fact, mass extinctions appear to have taken place approximately every 26 million years. Some paleontologists proposed that a cyclical cosmic event cause these periodic die-offs.

The Lessons from Dinosaur Extinction

The history of Dinosaurs: LONG-LASTING VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS IN DECCAN TRAPS REGION OF INDIA MAY HAVE CAUSED EXTINCTION OF DINOSAURS. EACH DINOSAUR CREATURE LIVED AS INDIVIDUAL WITH INDIVIDUALITY.

The history of dinosaurs upon planet Earth clearly tells us and warns us about the vulnerability of human existence. The structural differentiation and the sophisticated functional organization of man makes him a very complex organism. Such complexity actually places man in a position of disadvantage when a cataclysmic cosmic event actually happens. Organisms that are structurally simple and functionally primitive and those that feed upon dying or decaying organic matter may survive better and ride over the chaos caused by a massive collision.

Man’s Future: Evolution or Extinction.

The theory of evolution would not be able to offer a sense of hope to humanity and just like the dinosaurs, man would be the next doomed species. Life forms have become extinct and yet life continued. A living thing is a composite of form, and substance. We tend to pay attention to the form and disregard the nature of the substance. The living matter or substance has endured all extinction events over period of 3.5 billion years after the first appearance of Life on planet Earth. This living substance survives and displays the quality or the characteristic of being imperishable, immutable, immovable, and eternal. There is hope that the living substance would again survive a future major extinction event.

Man’s Future: Evolution or Extinction?

What about the life form that we recognize as man? Man could derive some comfort from the Book of Genesis, chapter 8, verse 22 which promises:

“As long as the earth endures,

seed-time and harvest,

cold and heat,

summer and winter,

day and night

will never cease.”

Man’s Future: Evolution or Extinction

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection learns about Life by dissecting the cadavers. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

If arrived, will depart, the King, the Slave, and the Fakir

KABIR DAS (Kabir-Arabic for Great, Das-Sanskrit for Servant) 1398A.D. to 1448A.D. (or 1440A.D. to 1518 A.D.)

Saint Kabir lived in Benaras (Kasi, Varanasi), India during 15th century. His contributions to the BHAKTI and the SUFI movements in India are well known. Some of his poetry was incorporated into the ‘Guru Granth Sahib'(Adi Granth), the sacred book of Sikhs. In this holy book, Kabir’s hymns appear at the head of ‘BHAGAT BANI’. Kabir pointed to the inward life of the mind as the source of contact with the Divine. Kabir grew up as a Muslim and his family was poor and he belonged to a community whose traditional occupation was that of weavers.

The Legend about Kabir’s Departure

Kabir’s life, his birth and death, is shrouded in mystery and legend. One popular legend about Kabir’s death claims that after his death, his Muslim and Hindu disciples were fighting about the type of funeral rites as the Muslims believe in burial and the Hindus believe in cremation of dead bodies. When they had finally opened Kabir’s coffin and pushed the cloth that was used to cover the dead body, they were astonished to find that the body was missing. In lieu of the body, they found flower petals and an empty book. His disciples entered Kabir’s sayings in that book.

If arrived, will depart, the King, the Slave, and the Fakir. The Status of man in Nature is operated under the external influence called time.
Mati Kahe Kumhaar Se Tu Kya Raunde Moye
Ek Din Aisa Aayega Mein Raundungi Toye

Aaye Hai So Jayenge Raja Rank Fakir
Ek Sinhaasan Chadhi Chale Ek Bandhe Janjir
Durbal Ko Na Sataaiye Jaaki Moti Haaye
Bina Jeev Ki khaal Se loha Bhasm Ho Jaye

Chalti Chaki Dekh Ke Diya Kabira Roye
Do Paatan Ke Bich Mein Baki Bacha Na Koi
Dukh Me Sumiran Sab Kare Sukh Mein Kare Na Koye                  
Jo Sukh Mein Sumiran Kare To Dukh Kahe Hoye

Patta Tuta Daal Se Le Gayi Pawan Udaye
Ab Ke Bichhade Kab Milenge Door Padenge Jaye
Kabira Aap Thagaiye Aur Na Thagiye Koi
Aap Thage Sukh Upaje Aur Thage Dukh Hoye
If arrived, will depart, the King, the Slave, and the Fakir.

Humans, who had arrived on this planet earth, are certain to depart as well. The King would depart after having climbed the throne. The Slave would depart after having lived in shackles. The Fakir or Monk who had no worldly possessions or attachments also would depart when his time for departure arrives. Kabir may have departed and as per the legend, his dead body had mysteriously disappeared but we still have his ideas and thoughts to inspire us.

HOW AND WHEN MAN ARRIVES?

Human Birth is an act of Creation. It is a Divine Phenomenon. This Individuality has existed before in the past and would not cease from its existence and would continue to exist in the future. Man exists in nature as a Created Being and his Individuality remains unchanged during the entire process of Life’s Journey during the different stages of its existence.

It is very interesting to note that Indian thinkers like Saint Kabir Das are certain about man’s departure. It would be much more interesting to reflect upon as to how man arrives here in the first place. If we understand as to when and how man arrives on planet Earth, we could be more certain about man’s status in nature.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – ESSENCE – IDENTITY – UNITY – EXISTENCE: THE NEWBORN BABY ALWAYS ARRIVES INTO THE WORLD WITH AN ORIGINAL, UNIQUE, DISTINCT, AND ONE OF ITS OWN KIND OF GENOME THAT HAS NEVER EXISTED IN THE PAST AND WILL NEVER EXIST AGAIN IN THE FUTURE.

Each human being arrives as a new object, one of its own kind, original, unique, and distinctive. The genome of each man who has arrived here has not existed before, and would not exist again after the departure of that man. If arrived, man has no choice other than that of existing as an Individual with Individuality. If there is no escape from death; there is also no escape from the fact of existing as an Individual while living. Man has to define the term life, and death and explain the basis for his existence as an Individual with Individuality while he cannot rule or govern even a single individual living cell in his body which comprises of over 100 trillion cells. This Individuality also shapes the dying process of the Individual while the man faces challenges to his mortal existence coming from numerous directions. The King may die of his battlefield injuries. The Slave may die of the effects of heat or cold. The Fakir may die of respiratory illness like pneumonia.

If arrived, will depart, the King, the Slave, and the Fakir. But, in my analysis, each of them arrives as unique Individuals with Individuality.

The Rudolf-Rudi Doctrine of Molecular Individualism

TAT ASMI PRABHU - FIFTH MAHAVAKYA - MOLECULAR INDIVIDUALISM. MAN'S EXISTENCE IS DEFENDED BY MOLECULES CALLED ANTIBODIES WHICH CAN RECOGNIZE OR SEPARATE SELF AND NON-SELF PROTEIN MOLECULES.
THE RUDI-GRANT CONNECTION SUPPORTS THE RUDOLF-RUDI DOCTRINE OF MOLECULAR INDIVIDUALISM. MAN’S EXISTENCE IS DEFENDED BY MOLECULES CALLED ANTIBODIES WHICH CAN RECOGNIZE OR SEPARATE SELF AND NON-SELF PROTEIN MOLECULES.

The man exists in the physical world for his existence is essentially supported by unity or ‘Eikyata’ with ‘PRABHU’, or LORD God Creator. It is of great importance to note that man’s existence involves use of a creative mechanism that deploys unique molecules that establish man’s physical identity on a molecular basis. Man’s existence is ‘Conditioned’ for he has no choice other than that of existing as Individual with Individuality. Modern Science has provided tools to visually examine large molecules and experimentally verify individualistic variations in their behavior. For this reason, we have to know each man as a Specific Individual with Individuality.

TAT ASMI PRABHU - FIFTH MAHAVAKYA - MOLECULAR INDIVIDUALISM. DR STEVEN CHU, US SECRETARY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEMONSTRATED INDIVIDUALISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LARGE MOLECULES SUCH AS DNA.
THE RUDI-GRANT CONNECTION SUPPORTS THE RUDOLF-RUDI DOCTRINE OF MOLECULAR INDIVIDUALISM. DR STEVEN CHU, US SECRETARY DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DEMONSTRATED INDIVIDUALISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LARGE MOLECULES SUCH AS DNA.
The Rudi-Grant Connection supports the Rudolf-Rudi Doctrine of Molecular Individualism. Man exists as an Individual with Individuality. This Individual Nature of Existence is defended by Immune System that deploys unique molecules called Antibodies.
The Rudi-Grant Connection supports the Rudolf-Rudi Doctrine of Molecular Individualism. Man exists for he is united with Prabhu or LORD God Creator. Man’s existence is defended by a creative mechanism that involves deployment of Antibody molecules that distinguish or separate Self and Non-Self.

Knowing man’s identity and individuality demands understanding of molecules that defend human existence. For example, each antibody molecule bears two identical binding sites consisting of six b-loops.

At room temperature atoms and molecules in the air move about at breakneck speed. In order for them to be studied, they need to be slowed down or chilled. During the 1980s Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Phillips developed different methods for this. When atoms come in contact with light particles with fixed energies, photons, their movement is affected as if they had been bumped. With the aid of laser light from different directions and adjustment of the photon’s energy for Doppler effects, the atoms can be cooled to extremely low temperatures and captured in a trap.

Nobel Laureate, Dr. Steven Chu (United States Secretary of Energy), former Professor of Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University has described that molecules can exhibit a surprising degree of individuality. In experiments that examine the physical behavior of single molecules, Stanford researchers have discovered that identical polymers; long, flexible, spaghetti-like molecules that are found in everything from plastics to living cells;  UNFOLD in a variety of ways even when exposed to the same experimental conditions. Dr. Chu had stated : “We discovered it because we have developed the ability to visualize and manipulate single molecules.” He had further observed that, “Only by looking at individual animals you can get a true sense of  diversity of species.” Dr. Chu researched Biological Physics and Polymer Physics. Dr. Chu’s research in Polymer Physics made use of individual molecules of DNA to study Polymer Dynamics.

We define our identity in the natural world and defend our existence by deploying unique protein molecules. Our genetic code determines the protein molecules that we use. The genetic code is made up of  DNA strands that express Molecular Individualism. It arises from exceedingly small differences in the initial configuration of the polymer.

The Rudi-Grant Connection supports the Rudolf-Rudi Doctrine of Molecular Individualism. Study of Antibody Molecules will help in understanding the concept of ‘Molecular Individualism’.

NOBEL PRIZE FOR MEDICINE GOES TO CANCER THERAPY

2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine. My Thoughts on the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

American James Allison and Japan’s Tasuku Honjo have won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine for a pioneering approach to cancer treatment.

The Nobel committee said the pair’s research — which harnesses the body’s immune system to attack cancer cells — amounted to a “landmark in our fight against cancer.” The approach, known as immune checkpoint theory, had “revolutionized cancer treatment and has fundamentally changed the way we view how cancer can be managed,” the committee said.

Clipped from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-45704322

2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine. My Thoughts on the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

Image copyright SPL

Two scientists who discovered how to fight cancer using the body’s immune system have won the 2018 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

The work, by Professor James P Allison from the US and Professor Tasuku Honjo from Japan, has led to treatments for advanced, deadly skin cancer.

Immune checkpoint therapy has revolutionized cancer treatment, said the prize-giving Swedish Academy.

Experts say it has proved to be “strikingly effective”.

Prof Allison, of the University of Texas, and Prof Honjo, of Kyoto University, will share the Nobel prize sum of nine million Swedish kronor – about $1.01 million or 870,000 euros.

Accepting the prize, Tasuku Honjo told reporters: “I want to continue my research … so that this immune therapy will save more cancer patients than ever.”

Prof Allison said: “It’s a great, emotional privilege to meet cancer patients who’ve been successfully treated with immune checkpoint blockade. They are living proof of the power of basic science, of following our urge to learn and to understand how things work.”

Treating the untreatable

Our immune system protects us from disease, but it has built-in safeguards to stop it from attacking our own tissue.

2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine. My Thoughts on the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

Image copyright. Kyoto University. Image caption. Professor Tasuku Honjo and his team at Kyoto University

Some cancers can take advantage of those “brakes” and dodge the attack too.

Allison and Honjo, now both in their 70s, discovered a way to unleash our immune cells to attack tumors by turning off proteins that put the brakes on.

And that led to the development of new drugs which now offer hope to patients with advanced and previously untreatable cancer.

Immune checkpoint therapy is being used by the NHS to treat people with the most serious form of skin cancer, melanoma.

It doesn’t work for everyone, but for some patients it appears to have worked incredibly well, getting rid of the tumor entirely, even after it had started to spread around the body.

Such remarkable results had never been seen before for patients like these.

2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine. My Thoughts on the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

Image copyright. Getty Images. Image caption. Professor James P Allison

Doctors have also been using the treatment to help some people with advanced lung cancer.

Prof Charles Swanton, from Cancer Research UK, congratulated the prize winners, saying: “Thanks to this groundbreaking work, our own immune system’s innate power against cancer has been realized and harnessed into treatments that continue to save the lives of patients. For cancers such as advanced melanoma, lung, and kidney, these immune-boosting drugs have transformed the outlook for many patients who had run out of options.

“The booming field of immunotherapy that these discoveries have precipitated is still relatively in its infancy, so it’s exciting to consider how this research will progress in the future and what new opportunities will arise.”

MY THOUGHTS ON THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

Antibody Molecule helps in the study of the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

The Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence. Man’s Unity with LORD God Creator can be learned from the study of Immunology. Each Antibody molecule bears two identical binding sites consisting of six b-Loops.

My ‘Theory of Man’ describes the Man as a Created Being. Man’s physical existence in the natural world in good health or ill-health always demands Man’s Unity (Sanskrit. ASMI) with LORD God Creator (Sanskrit. Brahman) for Man is constituted as a Spiritual Being. Man, the Rational Being is inclined to investigate the basis for the reality of his own existence. The reasoning for my statements is derived from the study of Immunology.

THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE

The Study of Immune System helps in understanding the Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. NATURE OF HUMAN IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY IS REVEALED BY HUMAN DEFENSE MECHANISMS.

An individual exists in the natural world by his biological abilities to defend his continued existence as an independent entity. This essay explores the physiological aspects of human existence and the defensive mechanisms that sustain this existence and the molecules which define and shape our INDIVIDUALISM. I had earlier described the Cultural aspects of INDIVIDUALISM while describing the Indian Identity. The term immunity describes the natural defensive mechanisms that give an individual the ability to recognize foreign proteins and foreign substances and neutralize or degrade them with or without injury to the individual’s own tissues. Immunology is the branch of science concerned with the body’s response to foreign agents and substances.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

The Functions of the Immune System relate to the role played by unique protein molecules in the Defense of Human Existence.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. ORGANS, CELLS, AND PROTEIN MOLECULES OF IMMUNE SYSTEM REPRESENT A CREATIVE MECHANISM TO OPPOSE, NEUTRALIZE, AND DESTROY FOREIGN INVADERS.

The immune system responds to invasion by the foreign organisms and their toxic products. This immune response is also described as active immunity. In the natural world, an infant is defended by molecules transferred passively across the placenta from the mother’s circulation during the fetal stage of development. The infant after birth may also receive passively protein molecules from mother when breastfed. This passive immunity defends the baby for several months and the baby further survives by developing its own immune system. Another major function of the immune system is the removal of damaged or dying cells. The immune system is also able to recognize and eliminate abnormal or mutant cells that frequently arise within the body. Using a system that is described as immune surveillance, the body recognizes and disposes of such abnormal cells which could result in the incidence of certain types of cancer. The immune system plays a vital role in protecting the body from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and helps to prevent certain types of cancer.

The immune system is very important and it is also very sensitive. The system’s very ability to recognize foreign substances may often result in undesirable reactions. Millions of people suffer on account of hypersensitivity or allergic reactions to fairly harmless substances present in the environment. Many individuals suffer on account of their sensitivity to proteins found in the foods such as milk, eggs, fish, wheat(gluten), and nuts that we consume. Sometimes, the immune system is misdirected and initiates an immune response against the body’s own cells or tissues producing a condition known as an autoimmune disease. While an immune system could cause some problems, we take full advantage of the system to defend ourselves from serious infectious diseases such as smallpox,polio,rabies, diphtheria, whooping-cough, measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, typhoid, cholera, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, influenza and others by using vaccines and inoculations. Millions of lives are protected by routine use of vaccines and inoculations which help the body to become resistant to these infectious agents. We also use foreign proteins to protect the lives of people in times of a severe life-threatening crisis. We use blood, plasma, and sera( containing immunoglobulins secreted by animals) with utmost care to tide over an emergency. I used foreign immunoglobulins to treat snakebite victims and tetanus cases. The foreign proteins elicit a minor immune response and the situation is carefully monitored.

By being careless and reckless, and by polluting our food, water, air, and soil with dangerous chemicals, we damage our very sensitive immune system and this is contributing to a higher incidence of immune-related health problems in the population.

TYPES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE

Man’s Intelligence, mental work, and mental memory are not the “First Line of Defense.”

The Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence. The Fundamental Basis of Human Existence is not that of Man’s Intelligence, Mental Memory and Mental Functions.

The immune system defends human existence with a variety of cells and by the protein molecules known as immunoglobulins or antibodies produced by the immune function capable cells. The ability to recognize foreignness, specificity of the response, and the memory of the prior immune response are the key characteristics of immune defense. The immune system must be able to recognize the foreign agents and foreign materials in order to locate and destroy them. Specificity means that immunity to one foreign substance or organism does not provide resistance to another type of organism. Memory is the ability of the individual to develop an accelerated, enhanced, and long-lasting immunity after the initial attack by an infectious disease. The memory function described in Immunology should not be confused with the mental faculty called Memory. The body defends itself through two types of mechanisms which work together to protect our existence. 1. Humoral Immunity:- this involves the production of protein molecules described as immunoglobulins or antibodies.2. Cell-mediated Immunity:- It does not involve secretion of antibodies but requires direct physical contact with the foreign substance or agent. It also involves the use of other protein molecules which assist in the defense mechanisms.

HUMORAL IMMUNITY

The recognition of Self and Non-Self at the molecular level is the fundamental basis for human existence.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. HUMORAL IMMUNITY INVOLVES DEPLOYMENT OF UNIQUE PROTEIN MOLECULES TO COUNTERACT WITH FOREIGN PROTEIN MOLECULES.

The cells known as Lymphocytes or B cells are produced in the bone marrow and circulate in our blood and are distributed to the various lymphoid tissues in the body, such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer’s Patches (Lymphoid Follicles) that line the small intestine. When stimulated by an infectious organism, production of lymphocytes increases and the lymphocytes are carried to the site of infection. Depending upon the site of infection, the lymph nodes of that region often swell up and are found packed with lymphocytes. The B cells produce chemical substances known as antibodies. These are protein molecules which are specifically generated against specific organisms. The foreign substance is described as antigen. The antibodies that are generated recognize their antigens with high affinity and extreme selectivity. The interaction of an antigen with its specific antibody involves only small areas on the antigen’s surface; these areas are known as antigenic determinants. Protein molecules are very potent antigens as they have several antigenic determinants. Many carbohydrates are also antigenic because they have antigenic determinants. The antibodies circulate in the blood. The simplest, most prevalent means by which the immune system defends the body against bacteria and viruses is by a combination of a specific antibody with the antigenic determinants on the surface of the invading organism. This interaction between antibodies and antigens produces an aggregate of cells called as an agglutination. The body has wandering scavenger cells known as Macrophages. The clumps of agglutinated cells are engulfed and digested by the macrophages. Antibodies also bind to toxic molecules given off by invading microorganisms and this reaction produces large, insoluble aggregates known as precipitates. These precipitates are also removed by macrophages. The virus after entering the body survives by its ability to invade or enter cells. Antibodies prevent the ability of the virus to infect cells by covering up and blocking the attachment sites of the virus.

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

Immunity and Immune Response involves the deployment of unique protein molecules.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. INTERACTION OF CELLS AND UNIQUE PROTEIN MOLECULES OF IMMUNE SYSTEM DEFINES MAN’S IDENTITY ON MOLECULAR BASIS.

There is another distinct type of Lymphocytes known as T lymphocytes or T cells. T cells originate in the THYMUS and become localized in lymphoid organs. The immunity associated with T cells does not involve secretion of antibodies but through their direct contact with their targets or by the effects of secreted molecules known as lymphokines which help other cells to make the direct contact. There are four kinds of T cells. 1. The cytotoxic T cells
or Natural Killer cells or NK cells defend the body by destroying infected, foreign or cancerous cells. The other three kinds of T cells regulate immune responses by secreting messenger proteins known as lymphokines. 2. Helper T cells enable the other T cells and most B cells to perform their functions. The Helper T cells are destroyed by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients resulting in a depressed immune response that allows infection by a variety of microorganisms and the growth of some types of cancerous tumors. AIDS patients are very vulnerable to fatal infections. 3. Suppressor T cells dampen the immune response of the B and T cells. 4. The fourth kind of T cell is involved in certain kinds of hypersensitivity reactions. In a normal healthy individual, there is a balanced ratio of these four kinds of T cells to provide an efficient immune system for defense against all foreign substances. Macrophages and White blood cells known as neutrophils have the ability to engulf and digest particulate matter by the process of phagocytosis. They eliminate many foreign organisms and particulate materials that enter the body. The ability of NK cells to kill or destroy some cancerous or tumor cells is enhanced by two lymphokines known as gamma interferon and interleukin-1. Another lymphokine known as interleukin-2 activates the Lymphokine Activated Killer Cells or LAK cells which also have the ability to kill a variety of human tumor cells. Activated T cells also secrete a lymphokine known as Transfer Factor which is able to cause normal lymphocytes to release lymphokines or otherwise become activated and thus to destroy other cells. Transfer Factor stimulates the lymphocytes to develop normal immunity.

The Cytotoxic T cells destroy other cells by interacting with antigens present on the surfaces of the cell. They are involved in the attacks on tissues and organs grafted or introduced into the body, viral antigens found on infected cells and on chemicals that have entered the body and found attached to cells. T cells are involved in skin reactions resulting from contact with molecules found in poisonous plants like Poison Ivy, Poison Sumac, and Poison Oak.

ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION AND CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

Identity and Individuality are determined by unique protein molecules of the human body.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS FOR THE DEFENSE OF HUMAN EXISTENCE. ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION AND IMMUNOLOGY. MOLECULES OF HISTOCOMPATIBILITY LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN (HLA) SYSTEM

T cells are involved in the rejection of transplanted tissues and organs. The chances of successful organ transplantation are improved by carefully matching the tissue or Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigens known as the HLA system of the donor with those of the recipient. The protein molecules of the HLA Complex establish the identity of our body, its tissues, and various organs. They work to preserve the identity of the individual and to exclude the introduction or grafting of foreign material into the body. Even after careful matching, and selection of suitable donors, transplanted tissues or organs are usually maintained by using drugs that cause immunosuppression by which the normal immune response of the recipient against the donated organ is prevented.

BIOLOGICAL EXISTENCE

A normal, healthy immune system is vital to defend our biological existence. Immunodeficiency diseases, depressed or compromised immune system conditions such as associated with corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or exposure to certain types of toxic chemicals, and autoimmune diseases impose a heavy burden and threaten our existence. Medical interventions and treatment may help us but the quality of life is invariably compromised. A functioning immune system is important to defend our existence.

MOLECULAR INDIVIDUALISM

Immunology helps in understanding the Molecular Basis for Man’s Identity and Individuality.

The Molecular Basis for the Defense of Human Existence. Man exists as Individual with Individuality as his existence involves defensive mechanisms operated by independent, individual cells, and protein molecules which exhibit Cellular Autonomy. The cell is the lowest common denominator of all life. While the cell is functionally independent or autonomous or self-governing, it displays the abilities characterized by Mutal Assistance, Cooperation, Tolerance, and Functional Subservience to provide some benefit to the Individual who lives in the physical world.

The unique protein molecules that we deploy to establish our identity, and to defend our existence exhibit individualism at a molecular level. Molecules can exhibit a surprising degree of individuality. In experiments that examine the physical behavior of single molecules, researchers at Stanford University have discovered that when identical polymers, long, flexible, spaghetti-like molecules that are found in everything from plastics to living cells( the strands of DNA and other protein molecules)- they UNFOLD in a variety of ways even when exposed to the same conditions. Nobel Laureate Dr Steven Chu, former Professor of Physics, and Applied Physics at Stanford( former United States Secretary of Energy) has stated that: We discovered it because we have developed the ability to visualize and manipulate single molecules. ONLY BY LOOKING AT INDIVIDUAL ANIMALS CAN YOU GET A TRUE SENSE OF THE DIVERSITY OF SPECIES. He had researched biological Physics and Polymer Physics at single molecular level. He made use of individual molecules of DNA to study Polymer Dynamics.

The Theory of Evolution fails to account for our Molecular Individualism. Our body is unique and does not display any affinity for foreign substances and proteins and is actually involved in degrading or destroying such invasion by foreign agents and their products. The body has no evolutionary preferences and the vigorous response of the immune system has no bearing upon any presumed evolutionary connections between species. We need to look at each human individual to truly understand the nature of our Human Diversity. When we look at the genetic code, the DNA molecules that operate this code, we can understand the nature of our Molecular Individualism. A man comes into existence as an Individual and he exists an individual according to the Law of Individuality.

2018 Nobel Prize for Medicine will help us to develop a ‘Theory of Man’ by the study of unique protein molecules that play an important role in the defense of human survival. The Physical Being called Man needs the support of Spirit, Soul, or a Divine Agency to bring Unity between the cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems providing the structural and functional basis for Man’s existence.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.
BHARAT DARSHAN – THREE GREAT TEACHERS OF INDIA: IN SHANKARA’S ANALYSIS, MAN IS NOT SAVED BY ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE. MAN CANNOT DIRECTLY RULE OR GOVERN HIS OWN BODY FOR CELLS ARE INDEPENDENT AND ENJOY CELLULAR AUTONOMY.
Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

ManO bhudhyahamkaara Chittaani na aHam,

Na Karnam, na Jihvaa, na cha Ghraana Netram,

Na cha Vyoma Bhumir na Tejo na VaayuH,

Chidaananda RuupaH  ShivO aHam, ShivO aHam.

WHAT IS INDIVIDUALISM?

The word individual is derived from Latin, ‘Individualis’-that which is not divided-an individual. Individualism can be defined as follows:1. a belief that stresses the primary importance and worth of each person and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence, 2. the principle or practice of maintaining individuality or independence of the individual, 3. the principle or habit of or belief in independent thought or action, 4. the conception that all values, rights and duties originate in individuals, 5. a doctrine that the interests of the individual are or ought to be ethically paramount, and 6. the pursuit of individual rather than common or collective interests. The doctrine of Individualism may support a view that the interests of the individual should take precedence over the interests of the State or Social Group.

Indian Culture views human existence in absolute individualistic terms and the legacy of Indian Culture could be described as ‘INDIVIDUALISM’.

THE FOUNDATION FOR INDIVIDUALISM:

Bhagavad Gita - Individualism
Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.
Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter II, Sankhya Yoga, verse 39, claims that the analytical knowledge derived from Samkhya philosophy gives the description of the nature of individual and individuality.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Chapter II, of the Bhagavad Gita explains this philosophy in several verses.Verse 11 claims that those who are wise lament neither for the living nor the dead.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

In verse 12, Lord Krishna states that there was never a time when He did not exist, nor Arjuna, nor all others in the battle field, and in the future there will never be a time when any of them cease to exist. Lord Krishna (The Supreme Individual Person) and also all other individuals are eternal persons.They existed as individuals in the past and they will continue to exist as individuals in the future.Their individuality existed in the past and their individuality will continue in the future without interruption. Lord Krishna clearly states that the individuality of all others will continue eternally. Hence, Indians do not accept the bodily conception of the living entities. Living entity is an individual soul and even though the body changes every moment, the soul does not undergo any change.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Verse 13, claims that the embodied soul continually passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth, and then to old age; similarly, the soul also passes into another body at death. By nature the human body is ever changing, and the soul is eternal.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Verse 24 states that this individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble. He is everlasting, unchangeable, immovable, and eternally the same.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Finally, verse 27 establishes the foundation for ‘Individualism’ by stressing that ” For one who has taken his birth,death is certain; and for one who is dead, birth is certain.”

THE SUPREMACY OF INDIVIDUAL:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

The primary importance of the individual is established by the Vedic statement “AHAM BRAHMASMI” which describes the True Identity of the Individual as that of Ultimate Reality known as Brahman. The following verse supports the idea that the Individual is a Whole entity as the Whole is derived from the Whole, perfect, Supreme Being:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Om, purna mada, purna midam, purnaat purna mudachyate

Purnasya purna maadaya, purna meva vasishtyate.

“That” (is an indefinite term to designate the Invisible Absolute) is Whole (Perfect Substance with Perfect Nature and Quality); “This” (the visible, the phenomenal embodied Soul) is Whole, from the (invisible) Whole comes forth the (visible) Whole. Though the visible Whole is derived or deducted from that invisible Whole, yet the Whole remains unaltered and both retain their Perfect Condition called Whole. The human entity is virtually trapped in a repeated cycle of birth, death and rebirth.The ultimate purpose of human existence is to achieve ‘MOKSHA’ (LIBERATION) or MUKTI (RELEASE) from this Cycle that is referred to as ‘SAMSARA’.

THE PRACTICE OF INDIVIDUALISM:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Individualism is built upon the value attached to knowing oneself. We are encouraged to look inwards and to reflect upon the nature of ‘SELF’. Self-Knowledge is considered to be more valuable than gaining knowledge of the material world.The following prayer which is known as ‘GAYATRI MANTRA’ is one such example of motivating Individuals to look inwards. Similarly, Socrates suggests, “Know thyself, and you will know the universe and the gods.”

 Om Bhur Bhuva Suvah, Om tatsa vitur vareynyam

Bhargo Devasya dhee mahi dheeyo yo nah prachodayaat.

The Individual while firmly establishing his Individuality also takes complete responsibility for his actions.The Individual bears the burden for his own actions.

THE JOURNEY TO ULTIMATE INDIVIDUALISM:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

The Individual strives for self-reliance, learns to minimize the importance of all external relationships and concentrates upon developing an intimate relationship with his personal God.The following prayer is one such example of an Individual’s journey on the path of devotion (BHAKTI).

Tva meva maata cha pitaa tva meva, Tva meva bandhu cha sakha tva meva,

Tva meva vidya, dravinam tva meva, Tva meva sarvam mama Deva Deva.

Devotion to God practically takes over, replaces and consumes the need for any other kind of external relationship such as man’s relationship to his mother, father, relatives, friends, and educational and material status.

THE GOAL OF ABSOLUTE INDIVIDUALISM:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

For the individual to win the battle of ‘SAMSARA’, to gain freedom from the cycle of birth and death, to declare victory over death and to finally reach the shore and complete the long and tiresome swim across the uncharted ocean, he is required to disentangle himself from the cobweb of relationships and set himself free. The following prayer known as ‘MAHA MRITYUN JAYA MANTRAM’ illustrates the point:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

 Om,Triyambakam,Yajamahe sugandhim pushti vardhanam,

Urvaaru kamiva bhandha naat mrutyor muksheeya amrutaat.

Such liberated Individual who had freed himself from all external relationships would be able to proclaim his True Identity and the following verse written by Shri Shankaracharya is an example of an Individual who had reached the Goal Of Absolute Individualism:

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

Na Mrityur, na Shankaa, na me Jaati bheydaH,

Pitaa naiva, me naiva Maataa, na Janma,

Na Bandhur,na Mitram, Gurur naiva  SishyaH,

Chidaananda RupaH  ShivO aHam, ShivO aHam.

Thus Indian Identity is none other than the identity of “SHIVA” whose Individualistic Identity is described as Sat+Chit+Ananda.

lord-rama-with-seetha-lakshmana-and-hanuman
Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism.

In the Epic Poem of Ramayana, the concept of Individualism is vividly portrayed. Rama alone was required to live in the forest. He could have just refused to do so. No force upon earth could have moved Him but He made His own choice. Lakshmana made His own choice and accompanied His brother for a life in the forest. Rama made no decision about Seeta. He did not want her to accompany Him into the forest. Seeta made Her own decision. All of them express their own personal independence in unique manners.

Defining Indian Identity. The Doctrine of Individualism. The Man has no choice other than that of existing as an Individual with Individuality. His genome is unique and one of its own kind.

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

“Man is condemned to be Free.” Is that so?

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so? SARTRE, JEAN-PAUL (b. JUNE 21, 1905, PARIS – d. APRIL 15, 1980, PARIS) FRENCH NOVELIST, PLAYWRIGHT, AND EXPONENT OF EXISTENTIALISM  

Existentialism is the popular name of a philosophical focus on human freedom, personal responsibility, and the importance of the individual’s need to make choices. Sartre’s book “Being and Nothingness” (1943) is considered to be one of the best philosophical work of the 20th century. Sartre’s central thesis is that humans are essentially free, free to choose (though Not free Not to choose) and free to negate the given features of the world. Sartre’s driving belief was in human freedom, the ability to choose not only a course of action but also what one would become. If man is truly free, the world, whether material or social, can place no constraints on him, not even to the extent of determining what would or would not be good reasons for following a given course of action.  

Man is born free:

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so? The Book of Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 27:”So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.”

The Christian idea of freedom is based in the concept of man as the image of God. The Holy Bible, The Old Testament, The First Book of Moses, Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 26 reads: Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness;”  

Man is a person because God is a person. The real sign of God as personal being is freedom. When God created man according to His image, He also gave over to him this mark of nobility i.e., freedom.  

Freedom is based upon Knowledge:  

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so?

German philosopher, Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) viewed the whole of human history as a vast dialectical movement toward the realization of freedom. All of history is the progress of mind or spirit along a logically necessary path that leads to freedom. Human beings are manifestations of this universal mind, although at first they do not realize this. Freedom can not be achieved until human beings do realize it, and so feel at home in the universe. Hence, Hagel claimed that freedom is based on knowledge.  

The Radical Freedom of “Being and Nothingness”  

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so?

Sartre focused on the opposition between objective things and human consciousness. Human consciousness is a non-thing as its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing (Sartre’s “neant” literally means “nothingness”), it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. This means that consciousness and thus humans themselves are essentially free. Ironically, the freedom of human consciousness is experienced by humans as a burden. “Man is condemned to be free”.  

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so?

The existentialist emphasis on the ultimacy of human freedom continues to represent an essential ingredient of philosophical thinking.  

Indian tradition and Human Freedom:  

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so? SPIRITUALITY SELF – AHAM BRAHMASMI – UNITY VS IDENTITY : THE SPIRIT, SOUL, OR ATMAN HAS TO BE INTERPRETED AS THE VITAL, ANIMATING PRINCIPLE THAT IS PRIMARILY INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING MAN’S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN THE WORLD AND THE ISSUE IS NOT ABOUT ITS EXISTENCE WHEN SEPARATED FROM HUMAN BODY.

Who or what is the subject who lives because of the functions of trillions of cells that comprise the human organism? How to describe the identity of this individual who is truly a multicellular organism? While describing man’s identity, Indian Tradition points out the problem of Subjective-Objective dualism. The man who is born is the Subject and the man who is unborn is the Object. Indian thinkers propose that man is an embodied soul; the physical body experiences birth, growth, old age, sickness, and death while the soul is eternal, it is unborn and it never dies. Man as a subjective individual exists as a physical being, mental being, social being, moral being, and a spiritual being. The subjective reality of man’s physical or material existence is conditioned by his physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual well-being. Man can seek to exist with a total sense of freedom in his thoughts but the thoughts exist while they are supported by a material being with a physical body and mind. The fact that the man is born binds him into a state of conditioned existence and the experience of freedom is a subjective experience. 

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so? Ramayana narrates the life journey of Lord Rama as a mortal human being. Man is a physical being, a mental being, a social being, a moral being, and a spiritual being. Man can not express a sense of human freedom and he is not free to act as he pleases. All the central characters of the epic poem of Ramayana acted within the limitations imposed upon their existence by mental, social, moral, and spiritual factors. Hence, I would claim that Rama is not born FREE.

In the epic poem of RAMAYANA, which describes the life journey of Prince Ramachandra of Ayodhya Kingdom, the Book of Ayodhya Kanda, chapters X IV to X VIII describe the anguish of King Dasaratha, the ruler of Ayodhya Kingdom. King Dasaratha was the father of Prince Ramachandra. He was in extreme agony as he had failed to act to express his natural affection to his son. The Emperor was tied down by the traditions of SATYA(Truth) and DHARMA(Right Conduct), was totally helpless and could not display any sense of freedom. King Dasaratha was a moral being and this identity of a moral being would not allow him the freedom to act as a social being and express love and affection to his son. King Dasaratha had ordered his son to live in a forest and then urged his son to disobey his order to fulfil his duty to show his sense of filial affection. Prince Ramachandra claimed that He was not free to act in disobedience of His father’s command and stated that He can not make any choice other than that of choosing a life in exile. Man who is experiencing the subjective reality of conditioned existence has no real freedom.  

This inexplicable and unexpected act that resulted in the banishment of Prince Ramachandra is described as a work of ‘FATE’. In Sanskrit literature, “DAIVAM” means fate. It conveys the sense of belief in God as the ‘PRIME CAUSE’. Since God is in control, man is not free to act as he pleases. Since man is tied down, he is born in shackles without freedom. The goal of man is to seek “RELEASE” which is described as “MUKTI” and the purpose of human life is described as “LIBERATION” which is named as “MOKSHA”.  

ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE:  

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the problem of human freedom

Man describes as to who he is, his nature, and his essence, with the help of his thoughts, his intellect, his knowledge, his feelings, his sense of self-pride or self-ego, and his social status and social position. However, this essence is not the basis for man’s existence in nature. Man can not sustain his biological existence because of his essence. Man is not an independent entity. Man leads a dependent existence. The reality of man’s existence is a conditioned experience. Without this reality of conditioned state of existence, man can not describe his essence. Existence precedes essence. Existence is the prerequisite for essence to manifest. The essence is manifested by the being, the material body with mind, thoughts, intellect, knowledge, feelings, and self-pride or self-ego. This material being need to exist, and the state or condition of this physical existence is biologically manifested as alertness, wakefulness, awareness, and consciousness. Consciousness or Nothingness is the prerequisite for essence, and for the physical existence of the material Being. When consciousness departs, the essence also gets dissolved. If man enjoys a sense of freedom and expresses it as his essence, this freedom is subject to the reality of conditioned subjective existence. Man, and his essence is displayed if it is accompanied by Nothingness, the biological function called the capacity for consciousness. The contents of consciousness describe the nature of man’s essence. The contents of consciousness are known only when man has the capacity for consciousness. The anatomical structure that performs the function to provide the ability or the capacity for consciousness is in the Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem. Man is aware of his essence when the functions of his Brain Stem exist. Brain Stem functions in an autonomous manner and man is not truly free to govern the functions of his Brain Stem which is the prerequisite for his physical and mental being to maintain its living functions, the state and the condition called Living. 

The Objective Reality of Man’s Existence:

In Chapter Four(Transcendental Knowledge) of The Bhagavad Gita, in verse 6 Lord Krishna states that He is unborn and also in Chapter VII (Knowledge of the Absolute), in verse 24, He states “Unintelligent men, who do not know Me not, think that I have assumed this Form and Personality. Due to their small knowledge, they do not know My higher nature, which is changeless and supreme.”

Indian Tradition suggests that the mind and body which represent the material human person is in reality an illusion named as ‘MAYA’. The real identity of man is described by an eternal and unchanging reality that is unborn and hence is not subject to birth or death. 

Man is condemned to be Free. Is that so?

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Predestination

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism

Yes indeed, Life is Complicated. The most baffling complexity of Life involves the man’s apparent ability to make choices while trapped in a Body that is governed by Conditioned Existence over which the man has no choice.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. My existence is not dependent upon Freedom or Free Will but on Divine Providence. Do I have a choice? Is Freedom an entitlement? Is there Freedom in Free World? Freedom is it self-determined or is it determined by external causes?

The word ‘Freedom’ has many meanings –  theological, metaphysical, psychological, moral, natural, and civil. Freedom may mean enjoyment of personal liberty, of not being a slave, nor a prisoner, and in essence it speaks about the freedom in acting and choosing. Freedom may imply the state of not being subject to determining forces. Is it self-determined or is it determined by external causes?

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism.
Freedom in Free World: I have arrived in the United States for I shared the Motto of this Nation: "In God We Trust." The New Testament Book, Apostle Paul's Letter to Ephesians, Chapter 2, verse# 19 speaks of my quest for Freedom: "Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household,..."  How can I find that Freedom to enter God's household if I am a Foreigner, or Alien???
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. Freedom in Free World: I arrived in the United States for I shared the Motto of this Nation: “In God We Trust.” The New Testament Book, The Epistle of Apostle Paul to Ephesians, Chapter 2, verse# 19 speaks of my quest for Freedom: “Consequently, you are no longer Foreigners and Aliens, but fellow citizens with God’s people and members of God’s household,…” How can I find that Freedom to enter God’s household if I am a Foreigner, or Alien? There is a promise in The New Testament Book, The Epistle of Apostle Paul to Romans, Chapter 9, verse# 25: As He says in Hosea: “I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people;”

“Free World” is a Cold War era term often used by the US to describe those countries that are not in the sphere of influence of Communist States like the Soviet Union, or the People’s Republic of China. United States is the Leader of the Free World, and it is the world’s Democratic Superpower. In response to Communist China’s military occupation of the autonomous nation of Tibet, United States to defend its own national interests and to combat the threat of Communist expansionism, initiated a program to render assistance to the Tibetan resistance movement to uphold the principles of Freedom and Democracy in the Land of Tibet. John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States (1961-1963) created  a military alliance/pact between the US, India, and Tibet to fight the military threat posed by China. During 1969, I made a deliberate choice to serve in India’s Armed Forces to face the military challenge and threat posed by China after it had brutally attacked India across its Himalayan frontier during 1962. On completion of my military training, I was posted to this US, India, Tibet military organization called Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, or Vikas Regiment. I was very passionate about defending the cause of Freedom and Democracy. I spent several years in India and I had imagined that I had freedom to choose and act and had deliberately expressed this sense of personal freedom when I got married during 1973. This choice had its consequences. It initiated a process of alienation and estrangement from my birth-related social community. The first blow to my sense of social identity and birth affiliation was delivered during 1976 while I was at Armed Forces Medical College, Pune. By the year 1982, I recognized that I have no freedom to choose, or act without compromising my sense of self-respect, and self-dignity. For all practical purposes, I was transformed into a Foreigner or Alien while I was still serving my country as a Commissioned Officer of its Armed Forces. It undermined my ability to serve in the Armed Forces to defend the Freedom of the country while I was perceived as a Foreigner or Alien. Now, I am conscious of the lack of freedom to make choices, or I may state that I am only free to make a choice that is foreordained, or predetermined.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism

In the drama of human life and history, do we have the capacity to choose our Life? The issue of human freedom, and freedom in world may have to be reconciled with God’s omniscience, and omnipotence to understand as to what extent the will of an individual can and does determine some of his acts. If man is entirely dependent upon God’s power, can man make bad, or evil choices? Do we need divine grace for both meritorious, and even bad acts? How to define the problem of the universal supposition of responsibility for personal actions? Can there be Freedom in the absence of Divine Providence, and Divine Grace?

Determinism vs Free Will:

This Kid is apparently has Free Will and can choose to get wet in the rain. He can also choose to remain under a shade and keep dry. This ability to choose is operated by an external contingency called rain. Does man have the natural ability to make choices in the face of all types of external contingencies. Plato held that actions are determined by the extent of a person's understanding, or reasoning.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. This Kid apparently has Free Will and can choose to get wet in the rain. He can also choose to remain under a shade and keep dry. This ability to choose is operated by an external contingency called rain. Does man have the natural ability to make choices in the face of all types of external contingencies? Plato held that actions are determined by the extent of a person’s understanding, or reasoning. The New Testament Book, The Epistle of Apostle Paul to Romans, Chapter 8, verses 28-30 describe the concept of “Predestination.” Verse# 30 reads: “Moreover, those He predestined, them He also called; those He called, them He also Justified; those He justified, them He also glorified.” I live in the expectation of finding this ‘glory’ in the eyes of God.

The term Free Will refers to the power or capacity to choose among alternatives. It refers to the ability to act in certain situations independently of natural, social, or divine restraints. Will is the factor which turns human thought into human action and behavior. Existentialist thinkers like Jean Paul Sartre speak about the concept of a radical, perpetual, and frequently agonizing freedom of choice. Sartre claims that man is “condemned to be free” even though his situation may be wholly determined. Behavioral psychologists hold the view that human action and behavior is determined by the nature of an external environmental stimulus.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism

Sigmund Freud held the view that human actions are determined by hidden mental causes which control their actions; “You have an illusion of a psychic freedom within you which you do not want to give up.” Freud recommends that this “deeply rooted belief in psychic freedom and choice” must be given up because it “is quite unscientific.” Man appears to be subject to the Law of Cause and Necessity, or is governed by a doctrine of Psychic Determinism.

The Doctrine of Predestination:

Saint Augustine(354-430), Doctor of the Church, founder of Christian theology followed the doctrine of predestination or divine grace that states God's superintendence of the Whole Cosmos and everything in it.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. Saint Augustine (354-430), Doctor of the Church, founder of Christian theology followed the doctrine of predestination or divine grace that states God’s superintendence of the Whole Cosmos and everything in it.
Martin Luther(November 10, 1483 to February 18, 1546), German theologian, leader of the Protestant Reformation held the view that everything is determined by God from the beginning.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 to February 18, 1546), German theologian, leader of the Protestant Reformation held the view that everything is determined by God from the beginning.
John Calvin(1509 - 1564), French Protestant theologian of the Reformation held the view that human free will is predetermined. While rejecting the role of free will, Calvinism maintains that God's grace is irresistible.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism.John Calvin (1509 – 1564), French Protestant theologian of the Reformation held the view that human free will is predetermined. While rejecting the role of free will, Calvinism maintains that God’s grace is irresistible.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism. Aquino’s held the view of God’s omnipotence does not include the predetermination of human will.

Saint Thomas Aquinas held the view that God’s omnipotence does not include the predetermination of human will. The Roman Catholic Church teaches that predestination is consistent with free will since God moves the soul according to its nature. Do I make my own choices while God foreordained my circumstances? Does God have foreknowledge of my reaction to His Choice? If God foreordained the circumstances, the choices, and the destiny of the person according to His Perfect Will, how to explain the exercise of free will? It appears to me that God may elect or predestinate the circumstances of a person and make a choice on His own initiative on the basis of His knowing in advance the reactions of the person to His Will. Man’s free will is like the game of chess; man can make his moves while playing the game according to God’s plan while God is the second Player with whom man has to contend.

The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism.
The Rudi Connection at Whole Foods cannot choose between Free Will and Determinism

The Rudi-Grant Connection nullifies the mental concept of the Buddhist Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

There is Joy in Emptiness

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. There is Joy in Emptiness. ‘Engaging Wisdom and Compassion’. The Dalai Lama spoke at Crisler Arena, Ann Arbor.

The Dalai Lama is believed to be a manifestation of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and the patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are enlightened beings who have postponed their own nirvana and chosen to take rebirth in order to serve humanity.

Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, was born in 1935 in a small hamlet in northeastern Tibet. At the age of 2, the child who was named Lhamo Dhondup, was recognized as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.

The 14th Dalai Lama visited Ann Arbor for a series of talks in Crisler Arena at the University of Michigan on Saturday and Sunday April 19 and 20, 2008. His presentation of the University of Michigan’s annual Peter M. Wege Lecture on Sustainability is in celebration of Earth Day. The Wege Lecture is sponsored by the Center for Sustainable Systems at the School of Natural Resources and Environment. He also presented a two-day program with two sessions on April 19 and 20. The session will focus on “Engaging Wisdom and Compassion.” The teaching will be based on Acharya Nagarjuna’s Commentary on Ultimate Compassion and Je Tsong Khapa’s “In Praise of Dependent Origination.”

The Nature of Existence – The concept of Sunyata (Emptiness or Nothingness):

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. There is Joy in Emptiness. Acharya Nagarjuna (A.D. 150-A.D. 250), the proponent of the ‘Sunyata’ doctrine.

Acharya Nagarjuna (A.D. 150- A.D. 250) born into a Brahmin family had lived in the present State of Andhra Pradesh, India. The emptying of the mind and the attainment of an undifferentiated unity is the theme of the ‘SUNYATA’ doctrine developed by Acharya Nagarjuna. ‘Sunyata’ is described as a state of “PURE CONSCIOUSNESS” in which the mind has been emptied of all particular objects and images. The emptied mind reflects or manifests the undifferentiated reality in which the world appears without distinctions and multiplicity. Nagarjuna was critical of both Buddhist and Hindu views on existence. According to Nagarjuna, the individual person is empty and lacks an eternal self. He extended the concept of ‘Sunyata’ to cover all concepts and all entities. Nagarjuna’s philosophy is also called ‘Madhyamika’ because it claims to tread the middle path. As per Nagarjuna, the nature of existence is relational. There is no eternal reality behind changing forms of existence. There is no soul, no thing, no concept independent of its context, all things are empty of an absolute reality and exist only in relation to conditions. The knowledge, perceiving the emptiness of all things and hence becoming detached from them, would help us to practice “nonattachment” in our engagement with people. If “EMPTINESS” is the highest Wisdom, it would help us to develop a sense of detachment and enable us to act with Compassion.

H.H. DALAI LAMA’S PRESENTATION -“ENGAGING WISDOM AND COMPASSION”:

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. There is Joy in Emptiness. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama spoke on ‘Engaging Wisdom and Compassion’ on April 19-20, 2008 at Ann Arbor.

“At the root of all our suffering lies a form of ignorance, a form of unknowing”. The origin of suffering is attachment. “Self-grasping( or self-focus) gives rise to suffering. It is the root of all afflictions.” “Self-grasping” leads to attachment to impermanent things or thoughts which gives rise to suffering. Emptiness is created by casting aside the attachment to everyday things and worries. “The ultimate awakening mind is the Wisdom that directly realizes emptiness.”

H.H. Dalai Lama advised practicing loving kindness to eliminate the afflictions caused by attachment. The ultimate goal, he said is “cultivating the Wisdom of no self”, a sense of grand emptiness that leaves behind everyday pollutants that can take both physical or emotional form.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada. There is Joy in Emptiness. Is there Joy in receiving the Nobel Peace Prize?

The Rudi-Grant Connection examines the Buddhist Doctrine of Causality or Dependent Origination

Dependent Origination (pratītyasamutpadā/ paṭiccasmuppāda) is the Buddhist doctrine of causality. This system of thought maintains that everything has been caused into existence. Nothing has been created ex nihilo.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada.
.The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

In my analysis, the Law of Dependent Origination or the Doctrine of Causality must deal with the dependent or conditioned nature of all existence. At a fundamental level, living things exist on the surface of fast spinning Earth on account of ignorance or the lack of sensory awareness of the realities of Earth’s motions. The Fundamental Force called Gravitation imposes this state of ignorance giving the man an opportunity to formulate mental concepts or perspectives such as the Law of Dependent Origination and the Law of Emptiness or Sunyavada shared by Buddhist thinker Acharya Nagarjuna.

The Rudi-Grant Connection nullifies the mental concept of the Buddhist Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada.

The man’s wisdom is strictly dependent upon the ignorance imposed by the Fundamental Force Gravitation. To that extent, it can be asserted that there is no Nirvana without the blessings of ignorance imposed by the Fundamental Force to facilitate the existence of the entity seeking Nirvana or Wisdom or Liberation from Ignorance.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection Formulates the Biological Law, I am Consciousness, Therefore I am.Cunningham’s Manuals of Practical Anatomy provide me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

According the Madhyamika, or Middle Way Buddhist philosophy, ordinary beings misperceive all objects of perception in a fundamental way. The misperception is caused by the psychological tendency to grasp at all objects of perception as if they really existed as independent entities. This is to say that ordinary beings believe that such objects exist ‘out there’ as they appear to perception. Another way to frame this is to say that objects of perception are thought to have svabhava or ‘inherent existence’—’own being’ or ‘own power’—which is to say that they are perceived and thought to exist ‘from their own side’ exactly as they appear. In this light, sunyata is the concept that all objects are Empty of svabhava, they are Empty of ‘inherent existence’. Therefore, emptiness refers to Emptiness of inherent existence. The Buddhist concept of Emptiness is a very subtle concept. In the Mūlamadhamaka kārikasŚūnyatā is qualified as “…void, unreal, and non-existent.” Rawson states that: “one potent metaphor for the Void, often used in Tibetan art, is the sky. As the sky is the emptiness that offers clouds to our perception, so the Void is the ‘space’ in which objects appear to us in response to our attachments and longings.”

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

However, ‘Emptiness’ is not the same as ‘Nothingness’, a mistake which is often made. Emptiness does not negate the play of appearances which manifest to a multitude of sentient beings, it asserts that they are insubstantial.

The Rudi-Grant Connection claims that the Buddhist doctrine of Dependent Origination nullifies the Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada

The theme of śūnyatā emerged from the Buddhist doctrines of Anatta (nonexistence of the self) and Pratitya-samutpada (Interdependent Arising or the Law of Dependent Origination). The Suñña Sutta, part of the Pali Canon, relates that the monk Ananda, the attendant to Gautama Buddha asked, “It is said that the world is empty, the world is empty, lord. In what respect is it said that the world is empty?” The Buddha replied, “Insofar as it is empty of a self or of anything pertaining to a self: Thus it is said, Ananda, that the world is empty.”

The Madhyamika School of Thought on Human Essence and Human Identity

Svabhava (Sanskrit: स्वभाव, svabhāva; Pali: सभाव, sabhāva; Chinese: 自性; pinyin: zìxìng; Tibetan: རང་བཞིན, Wylie: rang-bzhin) literally means “own-being” or “own-becoming”. It is the intrinsic nature, essential nature or essence of beings.

The Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada represents that all things are, in very broad strokes, empty of inherent existence and Nature or Svabhava because of the Law of Dependent Origination. Madhyamika is based on the text called Mulamadhyamaka Karika which describe the Middle Way, the path between self-indulgence and self-denial. The Law of Dependent Origination considers all phenomenal existence is characterized by 1.Impermanence or Transient, 2. Unsatisfactory (not self-sufficient), and 3. Lack inherent existence.

The Rudi-Grant Connection nullifies the mental concept of the Buddhist Doctrine of Emptiness or Sunyavada.

Svabhava (Sanskrit: स्वभाव, svabhāva; Pali: सभाव, sabhāva; Chinese: 自性; pinyin: zìxìng; Tibetan: རང་བཞིན, Wylie: rang-bzhin) literally means “own-being” or “own-becoming”. It is the intrinsic nature, essential nature or essence of beings. The three dimensions of Svabhava are, 1. Essence, the essential property of that object. It denotes a property of that thing by which we can identify that object. This property is fundamental to the being of the object; it is the property without which that object ceases to be that very thing. 2. Absolute Svabhava, a property which is regarded as the true ultimate nature of things, and 3. Substance, which is not dependent on anything else. An object which has Substance or Svabhava is fundamental, irreducible and does not depend for its existence on being constructed mentally or linguistically.

In my analysis, the Essence of Life is the biological characteristic called Consciousness, the essential property of a Living Thing is the Cognitive ability called awareness of the fact or reality of its own condition called Existence. The true, ultimate nature of all Living Things or Absolute Svabhava is the Spiritual Nature of the Living, Corporeal Matter that essentially constitutes the Life of the Living Thing. This Living Matter is constituted by Substance described as the Chemical Elements, the fundamental building blocks of all that lives. The Chemical Elements are Irreducible, Immutable, Imperishable, Immortal, Eternal and even Unborn. Because of this fundamental attributes of the Chemical Elements, Life is existing on planet Earth which experienced numerous events called Extinction which wiped out the existence of some Life Forms while others continue to reproduce as if Life is Imperishable.

The Emotional Experience of Atman as Ananda, Pure Joy, or Pure Bliss:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE: THE SPIRIT, SOUL, OR ATMAN HAS TO BE INTERPRETED AS THE VITAL, ANIMATING PRINCIPLE THAT IS PRIMARILY INVOLVED IN ESTABLISHING MAN’S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE IN THE WORLD AND THE ISSUE IS NOT ABOUT ITS EXISTENCE WHEN SEPARATED FROM HUMAN BODY.

Atman is a Sanskrit term which describes the spiritual life principle found in all living things, especially regarded as inherent in the real or true Self of the human individual. For all purposes of conversation, Indians use the term Atman to speak about a person’s Soul which is distinct from the Body, and Mind of the person.

Bharat Darshan: The Atman or the Soul and its emotional experience as Ananda, Pure Joy, or Pure Bliss.

Indian thinkers speak extensively describing in great detail the concept of the Atman. Apart from characteristics such as imperishable, indestructible, and immutable, the Atman is viewed as ‘Light’ that dispels the darkness called Ignorance. Indian thinkers adamantly refuse to describe the structural and the functional attributes of the Atman making it difficult to define the term Atman using the information provided by Human Anatomy and Human Physiology. However, there is general agreement among the Indian thinkers about the nature of the Atman. There are four recurrent themes in the discourse about the Atman. These are, 1. The association of the Atman as the ultimate source of Great Knowledge to overcome the veiling effects of Maya or the Grand Illusion, 2. The experience of the Atman is the prerequisite to find Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in the conditioned nature of the human existence characterized by pain, and suffering, 3. The Atman is manifested as the emotional experience of Ananda, Pure Joy, Perfect Happiness, and Pure Bliss Consciousness, and 4. The Atman is the Fourth Condition, the Fourth State, or the Fourth Quarter of Consciousness which is Pure for it is devoid of all contents, has no functional attributes, and most importantly, cannot be described.

The Emotional Experience of The Atman or the Soul as Ananda, Pure Joy, or Pure Bliss.

In my analysis, the concept of the Atman, or the Soul is useful and when validated, the concept will provide the tools for practical application to promote the human well-being. To that extent, I invite my readers to study the Functional Anatomy of the Reticular Formation of the Brainstem to interpret it as the structural and functional organization called the Soul. Please review the concept of ‘Emotional Brainstem’ to understand the anatomical and physiological basis of the human emotional experience called Ananda, Pure Joy, Perfect Happiness, and Pure Bliss.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE KNOWER – THE KNOWING-SELF: IN THIS IMAGE OF HUMAN BRAIN, THE GREEN PORTION OF BRAINSTEM IS CALLED THE RETICULAR FORMATION. I AM PROPOSING TO CALL IT AS THE KNOWING-SELF AND IT IS THE “KNOWER” OF THE HUMAN BODY WHICH CONSTANTLY CHANGES ITS MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF TIME CALLED THE AGING PROCESS.

The Functional Anatomy of the Reticular Formation

Frontiers in Neuroanatomy., 29 May 2019 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00055

Ugo Faraguna1, Michela Ferrucci1Filippo S. Giorgi1,2 and Francesco Fornai1,3*

  • 1Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
  • 2Section of Neurology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pisa University Hospital, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
  • 3I.R.C.C.S. I.N.M. Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2019.00055/full

In 1949 Moruzzi and Magoun first described the activating role of a wide area within the brainstem. They defined some physiological features of what they called the ascending reticular activating system, setting the scene for the discovery of the multifaceted roles of the reticular formation. In particular, beyond the original effects on behavioral arousal, a variety of effects is generated in the brain by the activation of these discrete nuclei population of the brainstem. In this way, physiological conditions such as the sleep-waking cycle, the level of arousal and attention, the drive for novelty seeking behaviors, the mood states and other brain activities were shown to depend on the ascending reticular formation. Meanwhile, it became more and more evident that an equal amount of processes is controlled by its descending pathways. More specifically, the reticular formation plays a key role in the modulation of posture, extrapyramidal movements, cardiovascular activity, breathing and a variety of harmonic variations in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems which accompanies motor activity. The descending fibers of the reticular formation, as well as the ascending system, are critical in gating the sensory inputs and play a critical role in pain modulation, mainly by acting on the posterior horn of the spinal cord.

All these activities are impaired when a damage affects critical nuclei of the reticular formation. This may occur either suddenly, due to vascular disorders, or progressively, as it happens in neurodegenerative conditions. Interestingly, in this latter case the spreading of neurodegeneration has been attributed to the rich collaterals connecting various reticular nuclei, which are more and more involved in later stages of many neurodegenerative disorders.

During the last decades the anatomical counterparts of the reticular formation have been further investigated, even though a comprehensive description is still missing. Thus, the present research topic is designed to welcome contributions both defining the updated anatomy of the reticular formation and its physiological functions (sleep-wake cycle, EEG synchronization, postural control, etc.) as well as its involvement in a wide array of neuropsychiatric disorders (Parkinson and extrapyramidal disorders, epilepsy, sleep disorders, ADHD, degenerative dementia, neurovascular disorders, etc.).

The brainstem reticular formation (RF) represents the archaic core of those pathways connecting the spinal cord and the encephalon. It subserves autonomic, motor, sensory, behavioral, cognitive, and mood-related functions. Its activity extensively modulates cortical excitability, both in physiological conditions (i.e., sleep-wake cycle and arousal) and in disease (i.e., epilepsies). Such a wide variety of effects arises from the long course and profuse axonal branching of isodendritic reticular neurons, which allows the neuronal message to travel toward the entire cerebral cortex and downstream to the spinal cord. On the other hand, the isodendritic architecture featuring a monoplanar branching allows most RF neurons to cover roughly half of the brainstem and to be impinged by ascending and descending pathways. In parallel, such a generalized influence on CNS activity occurs in combination with highly focused tasks, such as those involved in the coordination of gaze.

The Journal Frontiers in Neuroanatomy offers an updated view to define the anatomical correlates of the multiple and interconnected roles played by the brainstem reticular formation in health and disease.

In fact, the integration of multiple activities within the brainstem reticular circuitries may explain why alterations of each of these domains may affect the emotional sphere, paving the way to the concept of emotional brainstem (Venkatraman et al.). 

The Brainstem in Emotion: A Review

Anand Venkatraman1Brian L. Edlow2 and Mary Helen Immordino-Yang3,4,5*

  • 1*. Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA
  • 2*.Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
  • 3*.Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 4*.Rossier School of Education, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
  • 5*.Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges. However, recent advances in neuroimaging have begun to accelerate research into the brainstem’s role in emotion. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for neuroscience, psychology and behavioral science researchers to study brainstem involvement in human emotions. The “emotional brainstem” is comprised of three major networks – Ascending, Descending and Modulatory. The Ascending network is composed chiefly of the spinothalamic tracts and their projections to brainstem nuclei, which transmit sensory information from the body to rostral structures. The Descending motor network is subdivided into medial projections from the reticular formation that modulate the gain of inputs impacting emotional salience, and lateral projections from the periaqueductal gray, hypothalamus and amygdala that activate characteristic emotional behaviors. Finally, the brainstem is home to a group of modulatory neurotransmitter pathways, such as those arising from the raphe nuclei (serotonergic), ventral tegmental area (dopaminergic) and locus coeruleus (noradrenergic), which form a Modulatory network that coordinates interactions between the Ascending and Descending networks. Integration of signaling within these three networks occurs at all levels of the brainstem, with progressively more complex forms of integration occurring in the hypothalamus and thalamus. These intermediary structures, in turn, provide input for the most complex integrations, which occur in the frontal, insular, cingulate and other regions of the cerebral cortex. Phylogenetically older brainstem networks inform the functioning of evolutionarily newer rostral regions, which in turn regulate and modulate the older structures. Via these bidirectional interactions, the human brainstem contributes to the evaluation of sensory information and triggers fixed-action pattern responses that together constitute the finely differentiated spectrum of possible emotions.

Introduction

Emotions are mental and bodily responses that are deployed automatically when an organism recognizes that a situation warrants such a reaction (Damasio, 1994). Due to humans’ intellectual capacities, human emotional reactions are not necessarily triggered by immediate (real) physical or social circumstances, but can also be precipitated by inferences, memories, beliefs or imaginings (Immordino-Yang, 2010). Although human emotions can involve complex cognitive deliberations (Immordino-Yang, 2010, 2015) their activating power fundamentally depends upon the modulation of arousal, motor control and somatosensation. Emotions are therefore regulated by a broad range of subcortical and cortical structures, with a critical role being played by subcortical nuclei in the pontine and midbrain tegmentum (Nauta, 1958; Parvizi and Damasio, 2001), as well as by autonomic and cardiorespiratory nuclei in the medulla (Edlow et al., 2016). Currently, most investigations of human emotion, especially in the neuropsychology literature, have focused on contribution of cortical rather than subcortical structures to human emotion, with a few notable exceptions (Buhle et al., 2013). Given that the brainstem plays a critical role in regulating and organizing emotion-related processing, the aim of this review is to provide a conceptual framework for affective researchers to study the brainstem’s role in human emotion.

Organization of Brain Regions Involved in Emotion

For the purpose of studying its role in emotion, the brainstem can be conceptualized as being composed of Ascending, Descending, and Modulatory networks. The gray matter nodes and white matter connections within each of these networks are summarized in Table 1, while Figure 1 provides a schematic overview of the networks’ brainstem nodes. 

TABLE 1. The three networks of brainstem structures involved in emotion processing, and their components.
FIGURE 1. Brainstem nuclei involved in human emotion. (A) Sagittal view and (B) Coronal view. DR, Dorsal Raphe; LC, Locus coeruleus; LDT, Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus; Mb, Midbrain; MR, Median raphe; P, Pons; PAG, Periaqueductal gray; PBC, Parabrachial nuclear complex; PPN, Pedunculopontine nucleus; VTA, Ventral tegmental area. The substantia nigra and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius are not shown to optimize visibility of the other structures.

Integration of signaling within these three networks occurs at all levels of the brainstem, while progressively more complex levels of integration occur in the thalamus, hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. This encephalization and hierarchical organization allows phylogenetically older pathways in the brainstem, which evaluate sensory information and give rise to fixed-action pattern responses, to be regulated by evolutionarily newer rostral regions (Tucker et al., 2000). It is important to emphasize here that this conceptual model is based upon limited information about the functioning of the human brainstem, and will likely require revision and further differentiation as new evidence arises (Seeley et al., 2007; Coenen et al., 2011; Hermans et al., 2014).

Ascending Network

Damasio’s (1996) Somatic Markers Hypothesis suggests that emotion processing incorporates somatosensory and visceral feedback from the periphery, either directly or through intervening sensory representations in caudal structures. Multiple representations of the body state in the brainstem and in the insular cortices are believed to enable simulation of future actions and sensations to guide decision making, as well as to contribute to empathy and theory of mind in humans. Self-awareness may arise from successive temporal representations of the body with increasing levels of detail (Craig, 2003a). Even the simple sensory representations of the body in the brainstem nuclei can alter affective experience, as demonstrated by studies showing that subtle modulation of a subject’s facial expressions can change self-reported affect (Harrison et al., 2010).

Interoception, which is the sense of the internal condition of the body, and emotional feeling, may share a common route through the brainstem to the anterior insular cortex (Craig, 2003a; Drake et al., 2010). The interoceptive system, represented in the cortex by the insula and adjacent regions of the frontal operculum, is particularly important for the internal simulation of observed emotion in humans (Preston et al., 2007; Pineda and Hecht, 2009) and for the experience of complex social emotions (Immordino-Yang et al., 2009, 2014, 2016). The other body map in the somatosensory cortex, which is built from dorsal column inputs and segments of the anterolateral pathway, contributes to affective understanding by simulation of facial expressions (Pineda and Hecht, 2009), analogous to the proposed function of primate mirror neurons in perception/action coupling (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004).

The neuroanatomic basis for the Ascending sensory network and the mechanisms by which it modulates human emotion remain poorly understood. Although the structural and functional properties of these ascending pathways have been studied extensively in rodents and non-human primates using premortem tract-tracing and invasive electrophysiological studies, these techniques cannot be applied in humans. Recent studies using diffusion tractography and resting-state functional connectivity techniques in humans have found that forebrain regions involved in regulation of mood and affect are interconnected not only with mesencephalic and pontine arousal nuclei, but also with medullary cardiorespiratory and autonomic nuclei through the medial and lateral forebrain bundles (Vertes, 2004; Edlow et al., 2016). Figure 2 provides an overview of the main structures in the Ascending network.

FIGURE 2. Major structures involved in the Ascending network. (1) Spinothalamic tracts. (2) Nucleus of the tractus solitarius. (3) Parabrachial nuclear complex. (4) Thalamus. Green arrows: Ascending projections.

It is well established that sensations from the human body are carried in two major ascending pathways in the brainstem – the dorsal columns of the spinal cord, which continue as the medial lemnisci, carry discriminatory sensation, deep touch and proprioception; the anterolateral pathway, composed of the spinothalamic tracts, carries nociceptive and temperature-related signals (Nogradi et al., 2000-2013).

The Anterolateral Pathway

The nociceptive fibers in the anterolateral pathway give off collaterals at every level that converge with projections from visceral sensory neurons in the brainstem, thereby ensuring close coordination of pain and autonomic processing (Craig, 2003b). The pathway begins with small-diameter fibers that transmit signals of fast and slow pain, chemical changes, temperature, metabolic state of muscles, itch, and sensual or light touch to lamina I of the spinal cord, from where ascending projections arise. In the caudal brainstem, these projections target the nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the medulla (Figure 2), which is also innervated by visceral and taste sensations through the vagus, glossopharyngeal and facial nerves.

The Parabrachial Complex

Tract-tracing studies in rodent models have revealed that ascending projections from the nucleus of the tractus solitarius travel to the parabrachial complex (Figures 12) in the upper pons (Herbert et al., 1990), which also receives direct projections from lamina I neurons (Craig, 2003b), in addition to other inputs such as balance (Balaban, 2002). Rat studies suggest that the parabrachial complex integrates multiple types of converging sensory inputs and in turn projects to rostral regions such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain and amygdala, and may play an important role in arousal (Fuller et al., 2011; Edlow et al., 2012). The upper brainstem, where the parabrachial complex lies, is therefore the most caudal structure where a topographically complete map of the body can be assembled that includes all manner of interoceptive information (Damasio and Carvalho, 2013). There is also ongoing investigation of the role played by the superior colliculus, a structure in the dorsal aspect of the upper brainstem, in sensory and emotional processing in humans, but the available evidence is sparse (Celeghin et al., 2015).

The Thalamus

Immediately rostral to the upper brainstem is the thalamus, and the spinothalamic tracts, as their name indicates, end in the thalamus. A subset of thalamic nuclei function as relay structures between the emotional brainstem and rostral brain structures. The ventral posteromedial nuclei of the thalamus, which receive projections from the parabrachial complex and other parts of the anterolateral pathway, project to the insular cortex, particularly the mid/posterior dorsal part. Craig and colleagues suggested that the posterior part of the ventral medial nucleus of the thalamus, or VMPo, was uniquely involved in pain processing, particularly in primates (Craig, 2003a), but other authors had questioned the separate existence of this nucleus (Willis et al., 2002).

The intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus receive non-topographical sensory input from the spinal cord, which are in turn projected to the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The intralaminar nuclei are involved in orienting and attention, while arousal and visceral sensation are subserved by the midline nuclei (Morgane et al., 2005). In primates a direct pathway from lamina I to the anterior cingulate through the medial dorsal nucleus is also present (Craig, 2003a), and it has been suggested that these pathways may mediate the affective aspect of pain (Tucker et al., 2005). Indeed, the mediodorsal nucleus progressively increases in cytoarchitectonic complexity in higher animals, and is also known to project to the frontal and prefrontal cortices (Morgane et al., 2005). Thus, the thalamus contains multiple structures that appear to play a role in transmitting the signals essential for emotion processing from the brainstem to the forebrain.

Summary statement: Representations of the body of varying degrees of complexity that exist at multiple levels in the Ascending network, including the nucleus of the tractus solitarius and the parabrachial nucleus, are believed to be give rise to the “feeling” of an emotion.

Descending Network

The chief descending pathway in the human brainstem is composed of large, myelinated axons of the corticospinal tracts, transmitting motor impulses to the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and thereafter to skeletal musculature (Nogradi and Gerta, 2000–2013). In addition, the midbrain and pontine tegmentum, as well as the medulla, contain several structures that serve as the output centers for motor and autonomic regulatory systems, which in turn regulate the bodily manifestations of the “emotion proper” (Damasio, 1994). Holstege (2009) considered the interconnected network of descending fibers and effector regions in the brainstem an “emotional motor system,” distinct from the corticospinal somatic motor pathway, each of which they divided into lateral and medial parts [Figure 3, adapted from (Holstege, 2016)].

FIGURE 3. Holstege’s conception of the Emotional and Somatic motor systems. (Adapted from Holstege, 2016).

The brainstem, as noted previously, contains a hierarchy of circuits linking ascending sensory neurons and descending effector neurons. Evidence from rat and cat studies indicates that the lower-level circuits enable quick stereotypical responses to stimuli, while the higher-level involvement of rostral centers allows for complex motor and autonomic activity and action specificity (Bandler et al., 2000; Gauriau and Bernard, 2002). This close relationship between sensory and effector networks in emotion processing is best illustrated by the close overlap seen between sites involved in emotional vocalization and pain processing in animals. Both physical and psychological pain (caused by separation from caregivers, for example) can produce distress vocalizations in animals, with the caudal brainstem containing multiple regions that control the respiratory and phonetic changes of vocalization (Tucker et al., 2005) and cardiorespiratory function during emotion (Lovick, 1993; Rainville et al., 2006; Edlow et al., 2016). The rostral nuclei are able to modulate the activity of caudal nuclei that control cardiorespiratory control and vocalization in a coordinated manner that makes the resultant action more complex and nuanced.

Lateral Part of the Emotional Motor System

The emotional motor system’s lateral part consists of projections primarily from the periaqueductal gray, as well as more rostral structures such as the amygdala and hypothalamus, to the lateral tegmentum in the caudal pons and medulla (Figures 34). This lateral part of the emotional motor system is involved in specific motor actions invoked in emotions, as well as in the control of heart rate, respiration, vocalization, and mating behavior (Holstege, 2009). Studies in multiple animal models as well as in humans have revealed that the periaqueductal gray (Figures 14) is a major site of integration of affective behavior and autonomic output, with strong connections to other brainstem structures (Behbehani, 1995).

Several fixed patterns of behavior, particularly those related to responding to external threats, with accompanying autonomic changes, are organized in the different columns of the periaqueductal gray in rats (Brandao et al., 2008). The lateral/dorsolateral column receives well-localized nociceptive input (superficial ‘fast’ pain, as might be expected from bites or scratches) and is believed to organize fight-or-flight reactions. When stimulated this column produces emotional vocalization, confrontation, aggression and sympathetic activation, shown by increased blood pressure, heart rate, and respiration. Many of these responses are mediated by descending projections to the paragigantocellularis lateralis nucleus in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (respiratory rhythm), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (heart rate and rhythm), and caudal raphe (cardiorespiratory integration; Lovick, 1993; Edlow et al., 2016). Within this dorsolateral/lateral column itself, there are two parts. The rostral part is responsible for power/dominance (producing a “fight” response), while the caudal part invokes fear (producing a “flight” response) with blood flow to the limbs (Sewards and Sewards, 2002).

The ventrolateral column of the periaqueductal gray receives poorly localized “slow, burning” somatic and visceral pain signals, and on stimulation produces passive coping, long-term sick behavior, freezing with hyporeactivity and an inhibition of sympathetic outflow (Parvizi and Damasio, 2001; Craig, 2003b; Brandao et al., 2005; Benarroch, 2006). In this way, it is likely involved in background emotions such as those that contribute to mood. Rat studies have further revealed that lesions of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray reduce innate defensive behaviors, while lesions of the caudal ventrolateral part reduce conditioned freezing and increase locomotor activity (Brandao et al., 2005). When the predator is far away, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, through the amygdala, activate midbrain structures centered around the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, which results in freezing (Tucker et al., 2000). In the “circa-strike” stage when the predator is imminent, forebrain pathways are silenced, and the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray is activated, resulting in fight-or-flight reactions.

The Periaqueductal Gray in Human Emotion

Though the reactions detailed above are almost certainly incorporated into human emotion, the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. One study involving high-resolution MRI of the human periaqueductal gray indicated that this structure has discrete functional subregions that parallel the divisions seen in animals – aversive stimuli caused activation in the ventrolateral regions of the caudal periaqueductal gray and in the lateral/dorsomedial regions of the rostral periaqueductal gray (Satpute et al., 2013). The periaqueductal gray threat response system is likely co-opted in the pathophysiology of conditions such as panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Blood flow analysis suggests that the inhibitory influence of the cortex over the fight-or-flight mechanisms in the periaqueductal gray is reduced in panic disorder (Del-Ben and Graeff, 2009). Functional MRI has also revealed activation of the human periaqueductal gray in complex emotions such as frustration (Yu et al., 2014), admiration and compassion (Immordino-Yang et al., 2009), in addition to more immediate threat responses (Lindner et al., 2015).

Medial Part of the Emotional Motor System

The medial part of the emotional motor system (Figures 34) consists of descending projections from the reticular formation that are involved in level-setting and modulatory functions (Holstege, 2009). Once again, the vast majority of the research on this subject has been in animals. The caudal third of the locus coeruleus (Sasaki et al., 2008) and the caudal raphe nuclei both send projections downward to the spinal cord, as depicted in Figure 4, and are responsible for descending pain modulation (Renn and Dorsey, 2005). The effect of norepinephrine from the locus coeruleus is mostly antinociceptive, while serotonin from the raphe nuclei can have varying effects depending upon the type of receptor activated (Benarroch, 2008). In rats, it has been shown that the midbrain tectum and the dorsal/lateral periaqueductal gray indirectly produce the analgesia that occurs in fear (Coimbra et al., 2006), through a primarily non-opioid mechanism involving GABAergic and serotonergic neurons (as opposed to the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray that produces a long-lasting opioid mediated analgesia; Gauriau and Bernard, 2002). It is likely that this system of fear suppressing the pain system is still present in humans, allowing us to act and move rapidly in situations of threat (Mobbs et al., 2007).

FIGURE 4. Major structures involved in the Descending network. (5) Periaqueductal gray. (6) Locus coeruleus. (7) Caudal raphe nuclei. (8) Rostral ventrolateral medullary nuclei. (9) Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Green arrows: Descending projections from periaqueductal gray. Blue arrows: Descending projections from the caudal raphe and locus coeruleus.

In addition to nociceptive modifications, the medial part of the emotional motor system is also involved in level-setting for arousal levels and muscle function – studies on rodents and monkeys indicate that this is accomplished through norepinephrine secretion from the locus coeruleus (Aston-Jones and Cohen, 2005; Lang and Davis, 2006) and cholinergic projections from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in the upper pons (Bechara and van der Kooy, 1989; Homs-Ormo et al., 2003). Further detail regarding these important structures is provided in the section below on the Modulatory network.

Summary statement: The Descending network, otherwise referred to here as the emotional motor system, has a lateral part that triggers patterned emotional behaviors, while the medial part is responsible for level-setting in sensory and arousal systems that might be important in emotionally charged situations.

Modulatory Neurotransmitter Network – Valence, Arousal, and Reward

Since a major characteristic of an adaptive emotional behavioral response is flexibility, a network that modulates the autonomic, motor, affective and memory changes brought about by different stimuli is needed. The chief upper brainstem structures involved in this modulation are the neurotransmitter pathways arising from the upper raphe nuclei (serotonergic), the ventral tegmental area-substantia nigra pars compacta complex (dopaminergic), and the upper locus coeruleus (noradrenergic), which project widely throughout the hypothalamus, cortex and other parts of the forebrain. In addition, the laterodorsal and the pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei are sources of cholinergic fibers, which stimulate cortical activation through the thalamus. These structures are depicted in Figures 15. Ascending projections from the brainstem to subcortical and cortical structures communicate the states of brainstem structures to more rostral regions of the nervous system, where these states contribute to affective experience. Since these pathways are involved in arousal and in the maintenance of consciousness (Jones, 2003), they are sometimes called the Ascending Reticular Activating System or Ascending Arousal Network (Moruzzi and Magoun, 1949; Edlow et al., 2012). The following sections on the various pathways that comprise the Modulatory network are in large part descriptions of the Ascending Reticular Activating System, albeit with a focus on how these relate to emotion.

FIGURE 5. The nuclei of the Modulatory network. (10) Substantia nigra. (11) Ventral tegmental area. (12) Raphe nuclei. (6) Locus coeruleus. (13) Pedunculopontine nucleus. (14) Laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.

The Valence-Arousal Model of Emotion and Its Critiques

The modulation of affective states by these upper brainstem-based pathways has been expressed through the two domains of valence and arousal. According to the circumplex model of emotions, each basic emotion is postulated to be a combination of these two domains, in differing degrees (Russell, 1980; Zald, 2003; Posner et al., 2009). In humans, valence correlates with pleasantness ratings, heart rate, and facial muscle activity, while arousal correlates with skin conductance, interest ratings and viewing time for stimuli (Lang and Davis, 2006). Both valence and arousal have significant impact on an organism’s relationship with the environment, influencing, for example, the allocation of attention and long term memory formation (Arbib and Fellous, 2004).

Recent work, especially in the neuroimaging literature, has raised questions about whether complex neurological processes like emotions can actually be represented by reducing to dimensions of valence and arousal. Kragel and LaBar (2016), in an interesting review of the nature of brain networks that subserve human emotion, argue that each emotion uniquely correlates with activation of a constellation of cortical and subcortical structures (Kragel and LaBar, 2016), and that the current neuroimaging data do not support the valence-arousal model of emotions. They focused on fMRI studies which have applied novel statistical methods collectively known as multivoxel pattern analysis to identify mappings between mental states and multiple measures of neural activity. The mainstay of earlier neuroimaging research on emotion was univariate pattern analysis, but multivariate analyses have the advantages of higher sensitivity, and the ability to detect counterintuitive relationships because of the lack of reliance on a priori hypotheses. These approaches also have the advantage of overcoming the assumption that dedicated modules or homogeneous neural units subserve each emotion, because they can investigate various neuronal populations at much larger spatial scales.

Kragel and LaBar (2016) suggest that while the use of machine learning approaches to large neuroimaging datasets is likely to expand in the near future, it might be premature to draw conclusions about neural substrates underlying each emotion, because the current studies using multivariate analyses have not all been consistent with one another. These differences may be coming from technical variations in the methods used to induce and assess the emotion and associated neural activations, but might also represent fundamental variations in the circuitry employed in different individuals, or even a lack of emotional “essences” that can be studied in a standardized manner across people and cultures. While this is a valid critique, we believe that the older valence-arousal classification still holds value in furthering our understanding of brainstem contributions to emotions and especially to basic emotions shared with intelligent animals. This debate may eventually be resolved with technical advances in functional neuroimaging and multidisciplinary approaches to studying emotional experiences (Immordino-Yang and Yang, 2017, in press).

Conclusion and Future Directions

The Emotional Experience of Atman as Ananda, Pure Joy, or Pure Bliss. In the final analysis, the study of human emotions involves knowing the Emotional Experience of the human subject by the study of the muscles of Facial Expression.

The brainstem contains several structures that are likely of critical importance in the generation and experience of emotion. Most prior research on human emotion has focused on cortical mechanisms, largely because of the complexity of the brainstem coupled with the difficulty of analyzing brainstem functioning using current technologies. We have provided a conceptual overview of how tegmental structures of the brainstem are involved in emotion-related processes. Future research on the structural and functional connectivity of the human brainstem is needed to further understand its role in emotion. Such work will undoubtedly contribute to a more enriched and nuanced understanding of the neurobiology of human emotion in psychology and in affective neuroscience.

The Emotional Experience of Atman as Ananda, Pure Joy, or Pure Bliss. In the final analysis, all kinds of human emotions are revealed by the muscles of Facial Expression. Illustration of the anatomy of a female human face.

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I?

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I?

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I?

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I?

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I? Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I? Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I? Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection investigates my relationship with myself. Who am I? Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

What is my relationship with myself?

The problem of human identity. What is my relationship with myself?

What is my relationship with myself ?
I have forgotten all other relationships.
How many mirrors that I have looked into, yet
I have forgotten my face. 

The above lines are an attempt by me to translate into English the ‘ghazal’ titled “MUJH SE MERA KYA RISHTA HAI” by Mumtaz Rashid. The ‘ghazal’ is included in the music audio cassette (11/98), “RUBAYEE“ (Volume 1). The singer is India’s famous ghazal singer PANKAJ UDHAS. The cassette was released by Music India, Polygram India Ltd. The cassette includes “Rubayees” of Hakim Omar Khayyam translated into Indian language Urdu by Janab Zameer Kazmi and Janab Irteza Nishat. I would particularly invite all Farsi speakers to listen to these songs and appreciate the connection between Persian language and Urdu. This melodious Indian language Urdu represents a bridge that connects the people of IRAN with the people of INDIA.

Mujh Se Mera Kya Rishta Hai Lyric

Imaan ko bekaar na kar du ya rab
Is jeene ko dushwar na kar du ya rab
Is khauf se har shaam ko pee leta hu
Main khud se bhi inkaar na kar du ya rab

Peene de mujhe bhar de mera paimana
Duniya to hain ek uljha hua afsaana
Jab tak mujhe maalum na ye ho jaaye
Main aaya kahan se hu
Kahan hain jaana

Mujh se mera kya rishta hai
Mujh se mera kya rishta hai
Har ek rishta bhul gaya
Itne aaine dekhe hain 
Apna chehra bhul gaya
Mujh se mera kya rishta hai

Ab to ye bhi yaad nahi hai
Farq tha kitna dono me
Ab to ye bhi yaad nahi hai
Farq tha kitna dono me
Us ki baatein yaad rahi
Us ki baatein yaad rahi 
Aur uska lehja bhul gaya

Itne aaine dekhe hain 
Apna chehra bhul gaya
Mujh se mera kya rishta hai

Pyasi dharti ke hothon per
Mera naam nahi to kya
Pyasi dharti ke hothon per
Mera naam nahi to kya
Main wo baadal ka tukda hu
Main wo baadal ka tukda hu
Jis ko dariya bhul gaya
Itne aaine dekhe hain 
Apna chehra bhul gaya

Mujh se mera kya rishta hai

Duniya wale kuch bhi kahein
Rashid apni majburi hain
Duniya wale kuch bhi kahein
Rashid apni majburi hain
Uski gali jab yaad aayi hain
Uski gali jab yaad aayi hain
Ghar ka rasta bhul gaya
Itne aaine dekhe hain 
Apna chehra bhul gaya

Mujh se mera kya rishta hai
Har ek rishta bhul gaya
Mujh se mera kya rishta hai
Har ek rishta bhul gaya
Mujh se mera kya rishta hai

Writer(s): Pankaj Udhas, Mumtaz Rashid, Omar Khayyam<br>Lyrics

Who am I? From where I have arrived? Where am I going?  

What is my relationship with myself? Rubaiyat of Persian poet Hakeem Omar Khayyam.

Human existence raises some fundamental questions about individual’s identity, the purpose in life and the nature of human relationships. I love Hakeem Omar Khayyam for he had asked himself these questions. Does the image I see in the mirror describe my true identity ? Unless I define my identity, how it would be possible to describe my relationship with others. If I do not know as to who I am, why should I contemplate on issues such as my purpose in life and my destination? Self-Knowledge is the key to answer questions about existence.   

Sir, Who are you?  

Guru Adi Shankaracharya has described his own identity.”Mano budhyaHankara, Chittani naaHam; Na karnam, na jihvaa, na cha gharana neytrey; Na cha vyoma bhumeerna tejo, na vaayuH; Chidananda roopaH, Shivo aHam, Shivo aHam.” His identity does not pertain to the four functions of the brain, the five organs of special sense, and also the Five Elements of Mother Nature. Sir, who are you? I am Shiva and Shiva alone whose identity is described as Sat+Chit+Ananda.

JAGADGURU’ Sri Adi Shankaracharya answers the above question. In six verses described as ” NIRVANA SHATKAM “, he states what he is not and as to what he could be.    

I have no death, I have no fear; I do not belong to a category, the differences that we accrue as a result of caste, creed or occupation do not belong to me; I have no father, I have no mother and in fact, I am not born (it implies that I am an eternal entity), I have no relatives, I have no friends, I have no ‘GURU’, and I am not a disciple of anyone. But, I am the reflection of the image of ‘SAT+CHIT+ANANDA, I am that SHIVA and I am SHIVA.    

I read that response from SHANKARA to acquire a sense of direction in my search for my identity. If I know, who I am, I could live in a relationship with myself. First of all, I need to forget that image, that reflection that I may have seen in the mirror.     

The problem of human identity. What is my relationship with myself?

My Musings on the complex mortal existence with dispassion

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

HALF FULL OR HALF EMPTY? IS THAT REALLY IMPORTANT? 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

I drank from that cup. Now, the cup could be described as half full or half empty. Is that really important? The cup that I drink from gives me pain and I experience suffering. What would be the right question if I have to drink from that cup? What I truly experience from my life, the reality of my condition is more important than my attitude towards my existence. The issue is not about optimism or pessimism. I need to focus on knowing the reality and I need to face the reality about what I experience when I drink from that cup of my life. 

IS IT POSSIBLE FOR THIS CUP TO BE TAKEN AWAY FROM ME ?

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

I would answer this question from a reading from The New Testament of The Holy Bible. I would like to quote verses 36 to 44, chapter 26, The Gospel According to MATTHEW. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

36. Then Jesus came with His disciples to a place called Gethsemane and said to them, “Sit here while I go and pray over there.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

37. And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and He began to be sorrowful and deeply distressed. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

38. Then He said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

39. He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it is possible let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless not as I will, but as You will.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

40. Then He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “What! Could you not watch with Me one hour? 

41.”Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

42. Again, a second time, He went away and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, may Your will be done.” 

43. And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

44. So He left them, went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

Jesus had prayed three times, saying the same words. It was not possible for the cup to pass away and Jesus had to drink from the cup. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

THE TEACHINGS OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA: 

Lord Gautama Buddha has laid the foundation for understanding Pain and Suffering that is implicit in Human Existence. Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

At age 29, Prince Siddhartha realized that humans are subject to old age, sickness, disability and death. He became aware of the suffering implicit in human existence. Buddha described the nature of reality and Dharma (“true law”) as the Four Noble Truths (1) life is fundamentally disappointment and suffering; (2) suffering is a result of one’s desires for pleasure, power, and continued existence; (3) to stop disappointment and suffering one must stop desiring and (4) the way to stop desiring and thus suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path- right views, intention, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration. 

From the hymns popularly known as BHAJA GOVINDAM, while I drink from the cup of my life, I will keep this advice in my mind: 

“KASYA SUKHAM NA KAROTI VIRAGAHA” 

There is a verse in Shankaracharya’s composition Bhaja Govindam: Kasya sukham na karoti viragaha?, which means, “What pleasure cannot be given by dispassion?” It gives all the pleasures because you are so totally living in the moment.

The man has no hope to find happiness until and unless he renounces all desires including the desire to find happiness. The man has no choice other than that of living in the moment without concern for formulating an attitude of either pessimism or optimism. The attitude of dispassion automatically excludes both pessimism and optimism.

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?
Half Full or Half Empty doesn’t change the reality of the experience.

HALF FULL OR HALF EMPTY? IS THAT REALLY IMPORTANT? 

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without pessimism or optimism

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism

In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.

Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham. Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism

As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.

Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism

At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto. 

The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.

THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism. Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

Daniel John Cunningham was born on 15 April 1850 in Scotland. After his initial schooling at his home town, Crieff, he took up the study of medicine at the University of Edinburgh and passed with honours. He is best known for the excellent series of dissection manuals, namely Cunningham’s Dissection Manuals. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism. Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism. Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
The Rudi-Grant Connection studies the reality of existence without optimism or pessimism. Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.

I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from  Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?

Half Full or Half Empty is not the Right Question

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

HALF FULL OR HALF EMPTY? IS THAT REALLY IMPORTANT? 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

I drank from that cup. Now, the cup could be described as half full or half empty. Is that really important? The cup that I drink from gives me pain and I experience suffering. What would be the right question if I have to drink from that cup? What I truly experience from my life, the reality of my condition is more important than my attitude towards my existence. The issue is not about optimism or pessimism. I need to focus on knowing the reality and I need to face the reality about what I experience when I drink from that cup of my life. 

IS IT POSSIBLE FOR THIS CUP TO BE TAKEN AWAY FROM ME ?

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

I would answer this question from a reading from The New Testament of The Holy Bible. I would like to quote verses 36 to 44, chapter 26, The Gospel According to MATTHEW. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

36. Then Jesus came with His disciples to a place called Gethsemane and said to them, “Sit here while I go and pray over there.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

37. And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and He began to be sorrowful and deeply distressed. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

38. Then He said to them, “My soul is exceedingly sorrowful, even to death. Stay here and watch with Me.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

39. He went a little farther and fell on His face, and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if it is possible let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless not as I will, but as You will.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

40. Then He came to the disciples and found them sleeping, and said to Peter, “What! Could you not watch with Me one hour? 

41.”Watch and pray, lest you enter into temptation. The spirit indeed is willing, but the flesh is weak.” 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

42. Again, a second time, He went away and prayed, saying, “O My Father, if this cup cannot pass away from Me unless I drink it, may Your will be done.” 

43. And He came and found them asleep again, for their eyes were heavy. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

44. So He left them, went away again, and prayed the third time, saying the same words. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

Jesus had prayed three times, saying the same words. It was not possible for the cup to pass away and Jesus had to drink from the cup. 

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

THE TEACHINGS OF GAUTAMA BUDDHA: 

Lord Gautama Buddha has laid the foundation for understanding Pain and Suffering that is implicit in Human Existence. Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?

At age 29, Prince Siddhartha realized that humans are subject to old age, sickness, disability and death. He became aware of the suffering implicit in human existence. Buddha described the nature of reality and Dharma (“true law”) as the Four Noble Truths (1) life is fundamentally disappointment and suffering; (2) suffering is a result of one’s desires for pleasure, power, and continued existence; (3) to stop disappointment and suffering one must stop desiring and (4) the way to stop desiring and thus suffering is the Noble Eightfold Path- right views, intention, speech, conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration. 

From the hymns popularly known as BHAJA GOVINDAM, while I drink from the cup of my life, I will keep this advice in my mind: 

“KASYA SUKHAM NA KAROTI VIRAGAHA” 

There is a verse in Shankaracharya’s composition Bhaja Govindam: Kasya sukham na karoti viragaha?, which means, “What pleasure cannot be given by dispassion?” It gives all the pleasures because you are so totally living in the moment.

The man has no hope to find happiness until and unless he renounces all desires including the desire to find happiness. The man has no choice other than that of living in the moment without concern for formulating an attitude of either pessimism or optimism. The attitude of dispassion automatically excludes both pessimism and optimism.

Half Full or Half Empty? – What is the real Question?
Half Full or Half Empty doesn’t change the reality of the experience.

HALF FULL OR HALF EMPTY? IS THAT REALLY IMPORTANT? 

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