On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love

On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love.

On August 3, 1492, Christopher Columbus set sail from Palos, Spain, with three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Nina. On October 12, the expedition reached land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and “Indian” captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century.

During his lifetime, Columbus led a total of four expeditions to the “New World,” exploring various Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South and Central American mainlands, but he never accomplished his original goal—a western ocean route to the great cities of Asia. Columbus died in Spain in 1506 without realizing the great scope of what he did achieve: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.

Columbus was honored with a U.S. federal holiday in 1937. The second Monday in October is celebrated as Columbus Day.

CELEBRATION OF LOVE AS A HOLIDAY TRADITION: IN JEWISH TRADITION, THE DAY OF PROCLAMATION OF TORAH TO THE JEWS AT MOUNT SINAI IN EGYPT IS CELEBRATED AS SHAVUOT, THE HARVEST HOLIDAY, THE FEAST OF WEEKS, THE HOLIDAY OF THE FIRST FRUITS. AMONG CHRISTIANS THERE IS NO COMPARABLE HOLIDAY TRADITION TO CELEBRATE THE PROCLAMATION OF THE TWO GREAT COMMANDMENTS BY JESUS CHRIST.
On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love. CELEBRATION OF LOVE AS A HOLIDAY TRADITION: IN JEWISH TRADITION, THE DAY OF PROCLAMATION OF THE TORAH TO THE JEWS AT MOUNT SINAI IN EGYPT IS CELEBRATED AS SHAVUOT, THE HARVEST HOLIDAY, THE FEAST OF WEEKS, THE HOLIDAY OF THE FIRST FRUITS. AMONG CHRISTIANS OF NUMEROUS DENOMINATIONS THERE IS NO COMPARABLE HOLIDAY TRADITION TO CELEBRATE THE PROCLAMATION OF THE TWO GREAT ‘LOVE’ COMMANDMENTS OF JESUS CHRIST WHICH IS THE BASIS FOR CHRISTIAN FAITH BOTH IN TERMS OF RELATIONS WITH GOD AND OTHER MEN.

The word “LOVE” does not appear in the TORAH( Law) given to the Jews at Mount Sinai. I conducted a study of the holiday traditions of the US and I am totally surprised to note that there is no traditional celebration of the Proclamation of the two Great Love Commandments of Jesus Christ. Jewish Holiday “SHAVUOT” celebrates the giving of the ‘TORAH'(the LAW or Instruction) to the Jews. God gave the Ten Commandments ( The Decalogue, The Code of The Ten Words)on the sixth night of the Hebrew month of ‘Sivan’. Shavuot always falls 50 days(PENTECOST) after the second night of Passover. The 49 days between Passover and Shavuot are known as ‘Omer’. While Jesus Christ has retained the essence of The Code of The Ten Words; but, He has changed the Operating Principle of the TORAH or The Law. Jesus has instructed that the Law would be followed by His believers not through the use of force or authority but by simply embracing the equally powerful influence called “LOVE.”

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: THIS IS AN OPEN APPEAL TO ALL THE MEMBERS OF THE US CONGRESS TO PASS A DECREE OR LAW TO BEGIN A NEW TRADITION IN THE NATIONAL LIFE THAT CELEBRATES THE CENTRAL ROLE OF LOVE IN WHOLESOME HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS.
On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: THIS IS AN OPEN APPEAL TO ALL THE MEMBERS OF THE US CONGRESS TO PASS A DECREE OR LAW TO BEGIN A NEW TRADITION IN THE NATIONAL LIFE THAT CELEBRATES THE CENTRAL ROLE OF LOVE IN DEVELOPING WHOLESOME HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS.

I am posting this article to make an open appeal to all the members of the US Congress to pass a decree or law to commence a new tradition in the national life that celebrates the central role of love in developing wholesome human relationships. I am using the term ‘Whole Body’ to describe the perfect unity of body, mind, heart, soul, and God that establishes man as a Whole Being. Love is central to man’s relationship to God and man’s relations with other persons. The term love includes the feelings or the emotion of love expressed by a person( “The Subject”) and it involves a personal experience evoked when another person(“The Object”) reflects the feelings of love. Love has to be known as “The Medium” that generates the attachment or devotion to another person; and this attachment implies connection by ties of affection, sexual attraction, devotion, friendship, goodwill, compassion, respect, trust, and commitment. This kind of care and concern for a person, or persons in a relationship could be called ‘Whole Love’ if whatever is done for Love occurs beyond good and evil.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: GERMAN PHILOSOPHER FRIEDRICH WILHELM NIETZSCHE(1844-1900) HAD STATED: "WHAT IS DONE OUT OF LOVE ALWAYS TAKES PLACE BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL." GOD'S LOVE FOR MAN IS UNCONDITIONED.
On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: GERMAN PHILOSOPHER FRIEDRICH WILHELM NIETZSCHE(1844-1900) HAD STATED: “WHAT IS DONE OUT OF LOVE ALWAYS TAKES PLACE BEYOND GOOD AND EVIL.” GOD’S LOVE FOR MAN IS UNCONDITIONED AND GOD LOVES MAN WITHOUT DEMANDING THAT MAN MUST ACKNOWLEDGE GOD’S LOVE..

The concept of Holiday begins with the story of creation as revealed in the Book of Genesis and it involves the observance of a ‘Holy Day’. “And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that He had done(Genesis, Chapter 2, verse#3).”

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: THE OLD TESTAMENT BOOK OF EXODUS, CHAPTER 20, VERSE#8 IS THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT THAT ASKS, "REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY BY KEEPING IT HOLY."
On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: THE OLD TESTAMENT BOOK OF EXODUS, CHAPTER 20, VERSE#8 IS THE FOURTH COMMANDMENT THAT ASKS, “REMEMBER THE SABBATH DAY BY KEEPING IT HOLY.”

Holiday is a day of freedom from labor sanctioned by God, and it is set aside for leisure and recreation to renew man’s relationship with his Creator. In Civil Society, certain days are set aside by Law or Custom and Traditions for the suspension of official business activities and very often in commemoration of some important events in national life. I am using the term ‘Whole Holiday’ to recognize a specific day that is set aside by Human Law in recognition of the Divine Law that is conducive to the development of harmonious, or wholesome interpersonal relationships that are essential to promote the health, and well-being of all people. In the US, there are several holidays that are legal and none of them directly address the central issue of developing Love relationships.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR IS RECOGNIZED FOR HIS ROLE AS A CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER AND FOR PROMOTING INTERRACIAL RELATIONS BASED UPON EQUALITY, RESPECT, DIGNITY, AND TOLERANCE.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR IS RECOGNIZED FOR HIS ROLE AS A CIVIL RIGHTS LEADER AND FOR PROMOTING INTERRACIAL RELATIONS BASED UPON EQUALITY, RESPECT, DIGNITY, AND TOLERANCE.

Martin Luther King Day is a holiday observed on the third Monday in January to commemorate the birthday(January 15) of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr(1929-1968) for his role in improving interracial relationships.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: PRESIDENTS' DAY IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY CELEBRATED ON THE THIRD MONDAY IN FEBRUARY TO PAY TRIBUTE TO THE MONUMENTAL SERVICES RENDERED BY THE US PRESIDENTS TO SECURE INDEPENDENCE AND TO KEEP THE UNION STRONG.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: PRESIDENTS’ DAY IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY CELEBRATED ON THE THIRD MONDAY IN FEBRUARY TO PAY TRIBUTE TO THE MONUMENTAL SERVICES RENDERED BY THE US PRESIDENTS TO SECURE INDEPENDENCE AND TO KEEP THE UNION STRONG.

Presidents’ Day is a legal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in February, specially commemorating the birthday of President George Washington(February.22), 1732-1799, First President of the US(1789-1797) and President Abraham Lincoln(February.12),1809-1865, 16th President of the US(1861-1865).

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: THE LAST MONDAY IN MAY IS OBSERVED AS MEMORIAL DAY IN MEMORY OF THE DEAD SERVICEMEN OF ALL WARS.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: THE LAST MONDAY IN MAY IS OBSERVED AS MEMORIAL DAY IN MEMORY OF THE DEAD SERVICEMEN OF ALL WARS.

The tradition of Memorial Day holiday was instituted in 1868 as ‘Decoration Day’ to honor the Civil War dead. The last Monday in May is observed as a legal holiday in memory of the dead servicemen of all wars for they gave their precious lives to let the countrymen enjoy all their freedoms.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: FOURTH OF JULY OR INDEPENDENCE DAY IS A PATRIOTIC, LEGAL HOLIDAY TO CELEBRATE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE IN 1776.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love : FOURTH OF JULY OR INDEPENDENCE DAY IS A PATRIOTIC, LEGAL HOLIDAY TO CELEBRATE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE IN 1776.

Fourth of July or Independence Day is a legal holiday to celebrate the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: THE FIRST MONDAY IN SEPTEMBER IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY IN HONOR OF THE LABORER, THE HARD-WORKING HOURLY WAGE EARNERS AND OTHER WORKERS.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: THE FIRST MONDAY IN SEPTEMBER IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY IN HONOR OF THE LABORER, THE HARD-WORKING HOURLY WAGE EARNERS AND OTHER WORKERS.

The first Monday in September is observed as Labor Day, a legal holiday to pay tribute to the American Workforce which includes millions of hard-working hourly wage earners who are often called laborers.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: COLUMBUS DAY IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY COMMEMORATING THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA ON OCTOBER 12, 1492.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: COLUMBUS DAY IS A LEGAL HOLIDAY COMMEMORATING THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA ON OCTOBER 12, 1492.

Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the US commemorating the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492. The holiday is observed on the second Monday in October.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: VETERANS DAY HONORING ALL VETERANS OF THE ARMED FORCES IS A TRADITION BASED ON THE ARMISTICE DAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1918 OF WORLD WAR I.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: VETERANS DAY HONORING ALL VETERANS OF THE ARMED FORCES IS A TRADITION BASED ON THE ARMISTICE DAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1918 OF WORLD WAR I.

Veterans Day is a legal holiday honoring all veterans of the armed forces. It is observed on Armistice Day – November 11, the anniversary of the armistice of World War I in 1918.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: THANKSGIVING DAY IS AN ANNUAL US HOLIDAY OBSERVED ON THE FOURTH THURSDAY OF NOVEMBER AS A DAY OF GIVING THANKS AND FEASTING.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: THANKSGIVING DAY IS AN ANNUAL US HOLIDAY OBSERVED ON THE FOURTH THURSDAY OF NOVEMBER AS A DAY OF GIVING THANKS AND FEASTING.

Thanksgiving Day is among the major US holiday traditions to commemorate the Pilgrims’ celebration of the good harvest of 1621 at Plymouth Colony. The US Congress decreed in 1941 to observe this holiday of thanksgiving and feasting on the fourth Thursday of November.

"WHOLE
On Columbus Day, I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love.

Saint Valentine’s Day is celebrated on February 14 and it has become a popular tradition to choose or to greet a sweetheart. But this concept of romantic interest in a person is more related to a sexual attraction and other attributes of ‘Whole Love’ such as trust, respect, and commitment may not be always present. Secondly, the tradition of Valentine’s Day is not related to the concept of God is Love and God Loves man.

WHOLE BODY - WHOLE LOVE - WHOLE HOLIDAY: CHRISTMAS DAY, A HOLIDAY ON DECEMBER 25, CELEBRATES THE BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST. THE FOCUS UPON GOD'S UNCONDITIONED LOVE IS NOT ALWAYS EXPRESSED IN THIS TRADITIONAL HOLIDAY CELEBRATION.
On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: CHRISTMAS DAY, A HOLIDAY ON DECEMBER 25, CELEBRATES THE BIRTH OF JESUS CHRIST. THE FOCUS UPON GOD’S UNCONDITIONED LOVE IS NOT ALWAYS EXPRESSED IN THIS TRADITIONAL HOLIDAY CELEBRATION.

Christmas Day Holiday celebration should reflect the very essence of Christianity.  The Gospel according to Apostle John, Chapter 3, verse# 16 declares: “For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life.” The Christmas tradition is about the Joy that is associated with the birth of baby Jesus and the exchange of gifts to express the sense of happiness. Christmas holiday is not in remembrance of God’s Law. Jesus Christ has established ‘LOVE’ as the God’s Greatest Commandment. The Gospel according to Apostle Matthew(Chapter 22, verses#37-40), and The Gospel according to Apostle Mark(Chapter 12, verses# 28-31) describe the Commandments of Love: “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. This is the first great commandment. The second is this: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no commandment greater than these. All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two Commandments.” The Gospel according to Apostle John, Chapter 13, verse# 34 describes the need for neighborly relations among people based upon Love: “A new command I give you: Love one another, as I have loved you, so you must love one another.”

WHOLE LOVE – WHOLE TRADITION – WHOLE LAW – WHOLE HOLIDAY:

On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love: I AM ASKING ALL THE MEMBERS OF THE US CONGRESS TO INSTITUTE A NEW LAW IN RECOGNITION OF THE WHOLE LAW OF WHOLE LOVE. THE LAST WEDNESDAY OF JULY SHOULD BE A LEGAL HOLIDAY TO CELEBRATE THE SPIRIT OF CHRISTMAS IN JULY.

In the United States, we have no Law, or a cultural tradition to commemorate the event in which Jesus Christ has issued the two great commandments asking people to observe the Law of ‘Whole Love’ which demands, 1. The Love of God with Whole Body, Heart, Mind, and Soul, and 2. The Love of Neighbor as a requirement of God’s Law for man. After my ‘Whole Discovery’, the discovery of the experience of ‘Whole Love’ at Whole Foods Market, Ann Arbor, Michigan on Wednesday, July 30, 2014, I have decided to promote the establishment of a ‘Whole Tradition’ to follow the Spirit of the ‘Whole Law’ to truly observe the Commandment of ‘Whole Love’. To commemorate my ‘Whole Discovery’, I am writing this appeal to ask all the members of the US Congress to approve a new Law to observe the last Wednesday of July as the ‘Whole Love Holiday’. The choice of Wednesday is very appropriate as most other legal holidays are observed on Mondays as a matter of convenience and not for the purposes of obedience to a Divine Law which should be the source and inspiration for the Human Law. The concept of ‘Whole Love’ represents the ‘Whole Law’ that is explicitly pronounced by Jesus Christ as the only Commandment that man must follow and observe in his lifetime. To acknowledge the ‘Whole Law’, to celebrate its pronouncement, we need a new ‘Whole Tradition’ which is reflected by instituting a new ‘Whole Holiday’.

On Columbus Day I ask Americans to begin a new holiday tradition in celebration of Love.

The Discovery of the Hepatitis C Virus and My Reflections on the Molecular Basis of Spiritual Interactions

The Discovery of the Hepatitis C Virus and my reflections on the Molecular Basis of Spiritual Interactions

The Nobel Prize in Medicine 2020 goes to discoverers of hepatitis C

By Nicoletta Lanese LIVE SCIENCE

Three scientists won the 2020 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for their discovery of hepatitis C, a blood-borne virus that can cause chronic inflammation of the liver, leading to severe scarring and cancer.

There are two main forms of hepatitis. One form is an acute disease caused by Hepatitis A virus that is transmitted by contaminated water or food. The other form is caused by Hepatitis B virus or Hepatitis C virus (this year’s Nobel prize). This form of blood-borne hepatitis is often a chronic disease that may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

The researchers Harvey Alter, Michael Houghton and Charles Rice “made seminal discoveries that led to the identification of a novel virus, hepatitis C virus,” the Nobel Committee wrote in a statement. Two other forms of viral hepatitis — hepatitis A and B — had already been discovered at the time, but most cases of chronic hepatitis remained unexplained, they noted.

Summary of the discoveries awarded by this year’s Nobel prize. The methodical studies of transfusion-associated hepatitis by Harvey J. Alter demonstrated that an unknown virus was a common cause of chronic hepatitis. Michael Houghton used an untested strategy to isolate the genome of the new virus that was named Hepatitis C virus. Charles M. Rice provided the final evidence showing that Hepatitis C virus alone could cause hepatitis.

“The discovery of hepatitis C virus revealed the cause of the remaining cases of chronic hepatitis and made possible blood tests and new medicines that have saved millions of lives,” the committee wrote. The scientists’ award-winning work took place between the 1970s and 1990s, and enabled doctors to screen patients’ blood for the virus and cure many of the disease, Science Magazine reported

The word “hepatitis” derives from the Greek words for “liver” and “inflammation,” and in addition to hepatitis viruses, the condition can arise from alcohol and drug use, bacterial infections, parasites and autoimmune disorders where the immune system attacks the liver, Live Science previously reported. Hepatitis A and E typically cause short-term illness and are transmitted through food or water contaminated with fecal matter. Hepatitis B and C, on the other hand, can lead to chronic infections and are transmitted through blood and other bodily fluids. 

Physician and geneticist Baruch Blumberg won the 1976 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for first identifying hepatitis B, a discovery that led to both diagnostic tests for the virus and a successful vaccine, the committee wrote. However, even after this discovery, many cases of chronic hepatitis continued to crop up in patients who received blood transfusions, hinting that a second blood-borne virus might also cause the disease.

Alter found that the illness, which he called “non-A, non-B” hepatitis, could be transmitted from humans to chimpanzees through blood and had the characteristics of a virus. Houghton later led work to clone the virus and named it hepatitis C. Rice examined the virus’s genetic material, known as RNA, and performed genetic engineering experiments to learn how the pathogen causes hepatitis in chimps and humans. These experiments revealed that some forms of the virus do not cause disease, but an “active” form with specific genetic characteristics does. 

Collectively, the three scientists’ discoveries led to the development of highly sensitive blood tests and antiviral drugs for hepatitis C; the new treatments can cure about 95% of hepatitis C patients, Science Magazine reported. “For the first time in history, the disease can now be cured, raising hopes of eradicating hepatitis C virus from the world population,” the Nobel Committee wrote. 

That said, about 71 million people still live with chronic hepatitis C infections, worldwide, and the World Health Organization estimates that 400,000 people died of the disease in 2016, according to Science Magazine.

A big problem is “getting drugs to people and places where they desperately need them,” John McLauchlan, a professor of viral hepatitis at the University of Glasgow, told The Associated Press, noting that the disease primarily affects poor populations and people who use drugs.

The Discovery of the Hepatitis C Virus. From Left to Right, Harvey J. Alter, Michael Houghton, and Charles M. Rice, the recipients of the Nobel Prize in Medicine 2020.

Harvey J. Alter was born in 1935 in New York. He received his medical degree at the University of Rochester Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at Strong Memorial Hospital and at the University Hospitals of Seattle. In 1961, he joined the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as a clinical associate. He spent several years at Georgetown University before returning to NIH in 1969 to join the Clinical Center’s Department of Transfusion Medicine as a senior investigator.

Michael Houghton was born in the United Kingdom. He received his PhD degree in 1977 from King’s College London. He joined G. D. Searle & Company before moving to Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California in 1982. He relocated to University of Alberta in 2010 and is currently a Canada Excellence Research Chair in Virology and the Li Ka Shing Professor of Virology at the University of Alberta where he is also Director of the Li Ka Shing Applied Virology Institute.

Charles M. Rice was born in 1952 in Sacramento. He received his PhD degree in 1981 from the California Institute of Technology where he also trained as a postdoctoral fellow between 1981-1985. He established his research group at Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis in 1986 and became full Professor in 1995. Since 2001 he has been Professor at the Rockefeller University, New York. During 2001-2018 he was the Scientific and Executive Director, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C at Rockefeller University where he remains active.

Tobacco mosaic virus
Tobacco mosaic virus. My Reflections on the Molecular Basis of Spiritual Interactions.

SPIRITUALISM-THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF SPIRITUALITY:

I am using the term ‘Spiritualism’ to describe a commonsense approach to religion and God by rational interpretation of verified information provided by Science.

The molecules and processes responsible for energy acquisition, energy manipulation, growth and reproduction are basically similar in all life-forms. To understand life, consideration must be given to describe the molecules that determine its structure and to the ways in which molecules are organized. The Molecular Basis of Spirituality describes the organization of molecules that is responsible for the coordination of living functions and living activities of life-forms. Spiritualism involves the capacity or capability to organize molecules to establish the reality of biological existence by any life-form. To explain the Molecular Basis of Spirituality, I would begin with the simplest life-forms that we know.

THE FOUNDERS OF VIROLOGY – THE STUDY OF VIRUSES:

Dmitri Ivanovsky( Dmitri Iosifovich Iwanowski ), Russian Botanist in 1892, discovered the filterable nature of a very tiny agent that causes Tobacco Mosaic Disease.
Martinus Beijerinck, the Dutch Microbiologist in 1898 named the mysterious infectious agent that causes Tobacco Mosaic Disease as ‘VIRUS’.

I am glad to pay my respectful tribute to Dmitri Ivanovsky, Russian Botanist, and to Martinus Beijerinck, the Dutch Microbiologist, the founders of Virology, the Study of Viruses. Ivanovsky studied the Tobacco Mosaic Disease during 1892. By conducting experiments he had demonstrated that the disease is caused by a filterable agent smaller than bacteria. In 1898, Beijerinck independently replicated Ivanovsky’s experiments and found that the infectious agent could only reproduce by infecting leaves of the Tobacco plant. He named the mysterious infectious agent as Tobacco Mosaic Virus- the first Virus recognized.

THE STUDY OF VIRUSES, VIRIONS, VIROIDS, AND VIRUSOIDS:

Virus is a complex, molecular life-form that blurs the boundaries of living and non-living material.

Viruses are small masses of material( 100 – 2,000 angstrom ), complex molecular life-forms that blur the boundaries of living and non-living material. Most Viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. They are extremely small and can only be seen with an electron microscope. As compared to light microscope, electron microscope can increase magnification from 1,000 – 2,000 diameters to around 300, 000 diameters. Viruses are 1,000 times more plentiful in water than originally suspected and hence Viruses could be the most numerous life-forms on Earth. Many hundreds of different types of Viruses exist and all of them need living cells to serve them as hosts. Viruses can only complete their life cycles as parasites as they reproduce only within the cells of their hosts, upon which they depend for many of their fundamental life processes. While many Viruses are harmless to their hosts, certain Viruses are responsible for important diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Many Viruses are known to man by the specific disease entities that they cause: Smallpox, Chickenpox, Measles, Mumps, Yellow fever, Polio myelitis, Rabies, Influenza, and the Common Cold. All of us without any exception would get the chance of experiencing the bouts of one or the other Viral infections.

The DNA of Herpes Virus particle is enclosed by an icosahedral(20-sided) shell of 162 protein units, or capsomers, and by an outer spiked lipoprotein envelope. It causes infectious diseases in man like Chickenpox and Shingles.

A complete virus particle or Virion consists of one molecule of Nucleic Acid, single or double-stranded, either DNA or RNA depending on the specific Virus. It has a protein coat called Capsid which consists of a specific number of protein molecules or Capsomers in a definitive arrangement. In some Viruses, the outer coat has lipid(fat) and carbohydrate. The protein coat helps the survival of the Virus while it exists outside a living cell. The protein coat is also concerned with the mechanisms by which the Virus enters and infects the host cell.

To understand the concept of Spiritualism as a functional relationship that generates the experience of Peace, Harmony and Tranquility in the human living condition, we must know the nature of biotic interaction called Parasitism that causes Disease. Millions of human lives have perished due to the scourge of Viral Diseases that afflict humankind. This Retrovirus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) is responsible for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.

During the stage of its life cycle, when the Virus is free and infectious, the virus particle or Virion is inert, and does not carry out the usual functions of a living entity, such as reproduction or growth in numbers. The propagation of a Virus requires the internal environment of a complete cell, including its biochemical machinery. The Virus loses the protein coat upon entry into a cell, after which the genetic material of the Virus reproduces using materials made by the host cell. The Virus leaves the host cell surrounded by the protein coat, the characteristics of these protein molecules are determined by the genes in the Virus, but the protein molecules are synthesized by the host cell. Viruses are often described as “naked genes” which have discarded all other attributes of complete cells. The Virion or virus particle contains the knowledge or biological information that is needed for its replication. However, to perform that reproductive function, a Virus needs the host cell’s chemical energy, and protein-and nucleic-acid synthesizing ability.

Viroids and Virusoids are the smallest and simplest form of all recognized Viruses and Self-replicating Molecules.They lack the protective shell of protein coat that most other Viruses have.

Viroids and Virusoids are the smallest and simplest form of all recognized Viruses and Self-replicating Molecules. Viroids are composed of nothing more than a single circular strand of genetic material and cause major disease in plants. Since Viroids lack the protective shell of protein, they do not even spread easily from one cell or plant to another. The genetic material of Viroid is RNA which has a length of only a few hundred ribonucletids(200-400). Viroids are described as molecules of “naked RNA” that are significantly smaller than the genome of the smallest Virus. They are also called ‘subviral particles’. Viroids/Virusoids “infect” other Viruses, and use the replication process of the host Virus to replicate themselves instead. Viroids are responsible for a number of serious diseases of economically important plants like the Coconut Palm and Chrysanthemums. Episomes are pieces of self-replicating genetic molecules found in some bacterial cells. These are similar to Viruses except for the fact that they only reproduce themselves when their host cells do, whereas Viruses reproduce themselves hundreds of times and often generate the signs and symptoms of the infectious disease they cause in the host.

RNA MOLECULE AS GENETIC MATERIAL:

The only human disease caused by a Viroid is HEPATITIS- D. The Viroid is enclosed in Hepatitis B Virus Capsid. Viroids use different strategies for encouraging host Viruses/cells to replicate its RNA molecule.

The RNA-containing Viruses are unique among living systems. They use RNA as their primary genetic material. Retroviruses produce the enzyme called RNA-directed DNA Polymerase or Reverse Transcriptase, which can make a DNA molecule from the Viral RNA molecule. This DNA molecule formed from RNA then serves as the principal genetic molecule within the infected, host cell. Retrovirus uses a life process that is termed ‘reverse transcription’. Two Retroviruses are associated with human leukemia which are Cancer of T-cells. The Retrovirus known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS.

THE NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULE – THE ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE OF LIFE:

The Influenza Virus has the ability to cause pandemic(world-wide)infection of humans. The pandemic of 1918 is estimated to have killed 21-22 million people worldwide. The Virus got its name from the word “INFLUENCE” from an observation made more than 400 years ago that epidemics of respiratory illness occurred under the “influence” of planets and other astrological events. The term ‘spiritualism’ or ‘spirituality’ does not describe the ‘essence’ or character of this Viral Nucleic Acid Molecule.

Nucleic Acids are organic substances that are characteristic of all living things. These organic molecules are not found in nature except as components or products of organisms. They are called macromolecules; molecules of molecular weight greater than 10,000 daltons or 10,000 times the weight of a Hydrogen atom. These molecules are long chains or polymers that consist of chains of smaller units called monomers. Each Nucleic Acid chain is composed of subunits called nucleotides, each of which is composed of a specific sugar molecule( Deoxyribose or Ribose ), a molecule of Phosphoric Acid, and a molecule of one of four organic bases: Adenine(A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), and Thymine (T). The two chief types of Nucleic Acid are DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), and RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar ribose, and the base Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T). The specific sequences of nucleotides constitute the genetic information of the life-form. Each three-nucleotide sequence specifies one particular amino acid. The long sequences of nucleotides thus correspond to the sequences of amino acids in the proteins that are synthesized. In order to be expressed as protein, the genetic information is carried to the protein-synthesizing machinery called Ribosomes found in the cytoplasm of the cell. Forms of RNA mediate this process and are important in the expression of the genetic code contained in the DNA for the synthesis of proteins. Although the triplet nucleotide code seems to be universal, the actual sequences of the nucleotides vary according to the species and individual organism. The Nucleic Acid Molecules, DNA/RNA is the substance of heredity; it carries the ‘essence’ or character of an organism from one generation to next generation. But, in the study of Viruses we have found that this ‘essence’ is not displayed until its ‘existence’ is supported and is established in a complete living cell. The Nucleic Acid Molecules do not have the capacity or capability of acquiring energy from their external environment. The Virion or virus particle is inert until it finds a host cell to establish its life as a living thing. The Nucleic Acid Molecules are important to establish the ‘essence’ of an organism and I find the characteristics called ‘Spiritualism’ or ‘Spirituality’ in the functional organization of those Molecules that establish the ‘existence’ of a living entity.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF SPIRITUALITY:

Smallpox or Variola was one of the worst scourges ever to afflict human beings. The Smallpox Vaccine developed by Dr. Edward Jenner, British Surgeon in 1796 was the first successful Immunization against any Infectious Disease or Agent. In October 1979, the World Health Organization(WHO) declared that the world is Smallpox Free. Spiritualism and Spirituality seek to establish Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in all functional Biotic Interactions within the Individual and within the Biotic or Biological Community.

The purpose and goal of Spiritualism or Spirituality is that of generating Peace, Harmony, Tranquility and Equilibrium in all functional relationships within the Individual and between members of the Biotic or Biological Community. The disease, the disability, the morbidity, and the deaths caused by Viral infections demonstrate the consequences of Biotic Interactions called Parasitism. The functional organization of a variety of Molecules that formulate the phenomenon of ‘Existence’ is attributable to the ground substance found inside the Living, Complete Cell. The viral particles have no such functional organizational capacity or capability. In my analysis, the Spirit or Soul represents the ‘Knower’ of the functions and is the operating principle of the molecular organization underlying the phenomenon of ‘Existence’. The protoplasm, the ground substance, or the corporeal material of lifeforms is the ‘spiritual’ basis of Existence.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S.  Class  of  April 1970.

October 01, 2020. The musings of the Unknown Soldier of America who can never ever live life as a normal person

OCTOBER 01, 1949 – I CAN NEVER EVER LIVE MY LIFE AS NORMAL PERSON. “SOME AMONG THEM ARE KILLERS.”

October 01, 2020. The musings of the Unknown Soldier of America who can never ever live life as a normal person.

On ‘This Day in History’, October 01, 1949, Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong proclaimed the founding of the People’s Republic of China with profound consequences of lives of individuals as well as nations of Asia and World.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

DOOM DOOMA DOOMSAYER

October 01, 2020. The Musings of the Unknown Soldier of America who can never ever live life as a normal person.

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mao-zedong-proclaims-peoples-republic-of-china?

Cold War

OCTOBER 01,1949

Naming himself head of state, communist revolutionary Mao Zedong officially proclaims the existence of the People’s Republic of China; Zhou Enlai is named premier. The proclamation was the climax of years of battle between Mao’s communist forces and the regime of Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek, who had been supported with money and arms from the American government. The loss of China, the largest nation in Asia, to communism was a severe blow to the United States, which was still reeling from the Soviet Union’s detonation of a nuclear device one month earlier.

State Department officials in President Harry S. Truman’s administration tried to prepare the American public for the worst when they released a “white paper” in August 1949. The report argued that Chiang’s regime was so corrupt, inefficient, and unpopular that no amount of U.S. aid could save it. Nevertheless, the communist victory in China brought forth a wave of criticism from Republicans who charged that the Truman administration lost China through gross mishandling of the situation. Other Republicans, notably Senator Joseph McCarthy, went further, claiming that the State Department had gone “soft” on communism; more recklessly, McCarthy suggested that there were procommunist sympathizers in the department.

The United States withheld recognition from the new communist government in China. The outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, during which communist Chinese and U.S. forces did battle, drove an even deeper wedge between the two nations. In the ensuing years, continued U.S. support of Chiang’s Republic of China, which had been established on the island of Taiwan, and the refusal to seat the People’s Republic of China at the United Nations made diplomatic relations impossible. President Richard Nixon broke the impasse with his stunning visit to communist China in February 1972. The United States extended formal diplomatic recognition in 1979.

Also on this day

October 01, 2020. The musings of the Unknown Soldier of America who can never ever live life as a normal person.

1890

Yosemite National Park established

On this day in 1890, an act of Congress creates Yosemite National Park, home of such natural wonders as Half Dome and the giant sequoia trees. Environmental trailblazer John Muir (1838-1914) and his colleagues campaigned for the congressional action, which was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison.

Congress creates Yosemite National Park

On this day in 1890, the United States Congress decrees that about 1,500 square miles of public land in the California Sierra Nevada will be preserved forever as Yosemite National Park. Once the home to Indians whose battle cry Yo-che-ma-te (“some among them are killers”) gave the park its name.

October 01, 2020. The musings of the Unknown Soldier of America who can never ever live life as a normal person.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp

Image result for yom kippur 2019
Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

Yom Kippur / יום כפור

Yom Kippur (Hebrew: יוֹם כִּפּוּר or יום הכיפורים), Also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days (or sometimes “the Days of Awe”).

Yom Kippur 2020 (the Day of Atonement): September 27–28

Yom Kippur is the holiest day of the year—the day on which we are closest to God and to the quintessence of our own souls. It is the Day of Atonement—“For on this day He will forgive you, to purify you, that you be cleansed from all your sins before God” (Leviticus 16:30).

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

“For nearly twenty-six hours—from several minutes before sunset on 9 Tishrei (September 27) to after nightfall on 10 Tishrei (September 28)—we “afflict our souls”: we abstain from food and drink, do not wash or anoint our bodies, do not wear leather footwear, and abstain from marital relations. Instead our time is spent in prayer to God.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

On this holy day of Atonement, I am trapped in the belly of a huge fish with no chance to seek the forgiveness of either my friend or of my enemy. I am just a refugee without a refuge. I do not know my final destination. How will I find peace while I exist as a slave in a free country? If I have to suffer, I ask God to grant me His Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. LORD, let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment

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Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

The idea of repentance is well expressed in different Cultures but the interpretation of its consequences is not the same. The Jews associate the idea of repentance with Divine Atonement and Absolution of sins.

JUDAISM AND THE DOCTRINE OF ATONEMENT:

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD
let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

Repentance is a common theme of Old Testament Prophets. Prophet Jeremiah had more to say about repentance than any other Prophet. He called upon Jews to repent and condemned them for their false worship and social injustice.

To Jews, repentance means living in obedience to Yahweh’s Will for the individual and the nation of Israel. For a Jew, atonement is expiation for his own sin in order to attain God’s forgiveness. He may achieve this in various ways, including repentance, payment for a wrong action, good works, suffering, and prayer. Repentance and changed conduct are stressed as the most important aspects of Atonement.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

God set up Laws for the Israelites mostly regarding holiness and worship. The Old Testament Book of Leviticus, Chapter 16, verse 34: “This is to be a lasting ordinance for you; Atonement is to be made once a year for all the sins of the Israelites.”

The Day of Atonement or YOM KIPPUR is the most important and solemn of the Jewish holidays. It is the tenth and final day of the Ten Days of Repentance which begins with Rosh Hashanah.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

God has issued a lasting ordinance and has called upon the Jews to obtain Atonement once a year. After the destruction of the Second Temple at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Jews discontinued the practice of ritualistic animal sacrifice to make the sin and burnt offerings to seek Atonement.

The observance of Yom Kippur includes a 25 hour period of fasting and intensive prayer. At the end of Yom Kippur, the man considers himself absolved from his sin and is reconciled to God.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

Repentance is not a personal choice for the Jews.

Yom Kippur 2020. My prayers for the Divine Mercy, Grace, and Compassion. If I have to suffer, LORD let me suffer living as a prisoner in the enemy’s camp.

The US Supreme Court must eliminate the Affordable Care Act for it fails to Protect America From its Pre-Existing Condition

The US Supreme Court must eliminate the Affordable Care Act for it fails to protect America from its pre-existing condition.

In my analysis, America cannot afford the expense of the Affordable Care Act. In fact, the Obamacare Act does not protect America from its Pre-Existing Condition. Obamacare offers no remedy to the life-threatening condition impacting the fiscal health of the nation. The Repeal and Replacing the Obamacare Act would be a “Huge Win” for America’s Fiscal Health.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment

The US Supreme Court must eliminate the Affordable Care Act for it fails to protect America from its pre-existing condition.

Trump says elimination of Obamacare would be a ‘win for the USA’

By Mark Moore

September 27, 2020 

The US Supreme Court must eliminate the Affordable Care Act for it fails to protect America from its pre-existing condition.

President Trump said it would be a “win for the USA” if the Supreme Court eliminates the Affordable Care Act.

“Obamacare will be replaced with a MUCH better, and FAR cheaper, alternative if it is terminated in the Supreme Court. Would be a big WIN for the USA!” the president said Sunday in a tweet.

The statement came as Democratic leaders Rep. Nancy Pelosi and Sen. Chuck Schumer claimed the only reason he’s in a rush to get Judge Amy Coney Barrett on the bench is to kill the health-care plan.

“What I am concerned about is anyone that President Trump would have appointed was there to undo the Affordable Care Act. That is why he was in such a hurry,” Pelosi said on CNN’s “State of the Union.”

The Supreme Court is scheduled to hear oral arguments on the Affordable Care Act on Nov. 10 — one week after the election.

If Barrett clears the nomination process and is confirmed by election day — Nov. 3 — as the president and Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell intend, she would be able to participate in the arguments over the Affordable Care Act.

Pelosi argued Americans would lose health care at a time the coronavirus pandemic has killed more than 200,000 people in the US.

“What matters is what it means personally to the American people. If you have a pre-existing medical condition, that benefit will be gone. If you are a woman, you will be back to a time where being a woman is a pre-existing medical condition. If your adult children are on your policy, no longer will they be and that at time of a pandemic,” she said.

Schumer, at a news conference later Sunday about Trump’s court selection, said Barrett has already criticized Chief Justice John Robert’s 2012 vote upholding the Affordable Care Act, and that a reading of the law should “invalidate” it completely.

“Judge Barrett strongly criticized the ruling to uphold the Affordable Care Act, claiming that if justices read the law the way she does, they would ‘have had to invalidate’ the entire health care law,” the New York Democrat said.

Along with gutting the Affordable Care Act, Schumer said Barrett and the “far-right majority on the court” … “could also turn back the clock on women’s rights and a woman’s right to choose, workers’ rights, voting rights, civil rights, LGBT rights, environmental protections and more.”

The Trump administration and Congress did away with Obamacare’s individual mandate — requiring most Americans to have the plan or pay a penalty — and eliminated the penalty for not having insurance.

Opponents argued that without the penalty the health-care plan was unconstitutional.

“Chief Justice Roberts pushed the Affordable Care Act beyond its plausible meaning to save the statute,” Barrett wrote at the time.

“He construed the penalty imposed on those without health insurance as a tax, which permitted him to sustain the statute as a valid exercise of the taxing power.”

Trump, who campaigned on “repealing and replacing” Obamacare during his 2016 campaign, signed a series of executives orders last week to protect pre-existing conditions and introduce a number of affordable health-care options.

“We’re delivering better care with more choice at a much lower cost and working to ensure Americans have access to the care they need,” Trump said of his “America First Health Care Plan” at an event in Charlotte, NC.

The US Supreme Court must eliminate the Affordable Health Care Act for it fails to protect America from its pre-existing condition.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons.

The fall equinox arrives on Tuesday, September 22, 2020, at 9:31 A.M. EDT. The equinox occurs at the same moment worldwide. Fall begins in the Northern Hemisphere and Spring begins in the Southern Hemisphere.

The word “equinox” comes from Latin aequus, meaning “equal,” and nox, “night.” On the equinox, day and night are roughly equal in length.

During the equinox, the Sun crosses what we call the “celestial equator”—an imaginary extension of Earth’s equator line into space. The equinox occurs precisely when the Sun’s center passes through this line. When the Sun crosses the equator from north to south, this marks the autumnal equinox; when it crosses from south to north, this marks the vernal equinox.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX:

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX. VERNAL EQUINOX AND AUTUMNAL EQUINOX ARE TWO POINTS ON THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WHERE THE PATH OF SUN’S APPARENT MOTION IN SKY OR ECLIPTIC AND THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR INTERSECT. BUT THE SEASONAL CHANGE IS NOT INFLUENCED BY SUN’S REAL MOTION AROUND MILKY WAY GALACTIC CENTER.

Photoperiodism is described as the behavioral or physiological reaction of an organism to changes of duration in daily, seasonal, or yearly periods of light and darkness. The changes in activities occur on daily basis as well as with a consistent pattern when the seasons change. For example, the Autumn or Fall season in the Northern Hemisphere includes the months of September, October, and November. Fall is the season of the year in which many trees change in their appearance; the color of their leaves changes and then trees lose their leaves. Autumn is the season that comes between Summer and Winter seasons. In the astronomical year, the Fall season is the period between the Autumnal Equinox and the Winter Solstice.

The characteristic of Fall is the beginning of a decline in activities of several living organisms to prepare for subsequent changes expected to come in future. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities occur. An important prerequisite to the response to light that occurs in Winter and Spring is exposure to short days or long nights in Autumn. This phase of the annual cycle is called the Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Under experimental conditions, it is shown that the failure to complete the Preparatory Phase will undermine the organism’s subsequent response to changes in the next phase. Hence, Autumn is a season of preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring seasons. This preparation has the characteristics of planning and designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the future.

This ability to connect the activities of past and present with activities that occur in the future requires the operation of an unchanging principle that is not influenced by changes of time. The colorful changes that we witness during the Autumn season would relate us to works of a Whole Designer, a Whole Architect, a Whole Planner, and a Whole Artist.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumn Season is a Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Autumn is a Season of Preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring Seasons. It displays all the characteristics of Planning and Designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the near future.

SEPTEMBER EQUINOX – AUTUMNAL EQUINOX:

Equinox(aequus=Equal + nox=night) is the time when the Sun crosses the equator, making night and day of equal length in all parts of Earth.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumnal Equinox. In the Northern Hemisphere it occurs on September 22/23, the point at which the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator from north to south. This crossing marks the beginning of Autumn and on that date, night and day are of equal length.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Vernal Equinox and Autumnal Equinox are two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic( the path of Sun’s apparent motion in the sky) and the celestial equator intersect. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities among living organisms occur. Man exists on the surface of planet Earth experiencing the daily alternating periods of light and darkness and marks his calendar as seasons bring changes with marked regularity.

Photoperiodism was first reported in 1920 when the flowering of certain plants was demonstrated to be controlled by the daily duration of light. The photoperiodic response of plants may actually depend on the duration of the darkness. Some of the conspicuous activities of animals closely correlated with certain seasons of the year or with changes in day length are bird migration, reproduction, and changes in coat and plumage. In most birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, breeding is seasonal. For species such as brook trout, deer, sheep, and goats breeding begins in Autumn. The light stimulates the release of special hormones from the brain which in turn stimulate the pituitary gland which secretes the hormones that function to control the growth of the reproductive organs. The length of the dark period and the ratio of light to darkness are important factors in determining the reproductive response. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in poultry management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in Poultry Management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

The most conspicuous seasonal change in coat and plumage occurs in those mammals and birds that are white in Autumn and Winter and brown in Spring and Summer.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. The seasonal change in the coat is conspicuous in this hare which is brown during Spring and Summer, and changes to white during Autumn, and Winter.

Tuesday, September 22 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

PHOTOPERIODISM – BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND BIOLOGICAL CLOCK:

Organisms have synchronized their living functions to their rhythmic environments and have become periodic in diverse aspects of their physiology and behavior. Periodic biological phenomena fall into two distinct, different categories: 1. Those correlated with periodic changes of the planet or geophysical correlates, and 2. Those correlated to an internal timing mechanism often called the ‘Biological Clock’. The living things to some extent behave like ‘Living Clocks’; 1. A timing capacity geared to the rhythmic variations of the natural environment, the alternating periods of light and darkness called day and night, and 2. A timing capacity that operates in response to the flow of time as the planet Earth spins and moves without providing sensory stimuli of its motions. Timing information continuously flows in from the environment and no organism can exist under constant conditions of life. All life exists on planet Earth which exists in a constant state of motion as a member of the Solar System which also exists in a constant state of motion. The biological rhythm results in part as a direct response to the environment and in part as an indirect response via the complex clock-timed organization.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. There are two kinds of biological responses or rhythms. 1. The activities like Sleep and Wakefulness are related to the fluctuations of the physical environment such as darkness, and light, or night and day variation, and 2. The rhythms such as heartbeat and respiratory rate occur without external geophysical correlates as a consequence of the movements of the Earth.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Man’s biological functions are influenced by Earth’s Rotational Spin. A man has the sensory awareness of an environmental change called Day/Night. Otherwise, man is blissfully unaware of Earth’s Motion that happens all the time. Man is always influenced by the flow of time and his existence is measured as if there is a precise internal clock.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – EARTH’S ROTATIONAL SPIN – REALITY vs ILLUSION:

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Earth’s Rotational Spin is a unique mechanism that is indissociable from Life itself. While the Sun shines with all its brightness 24-hours all the time, Earth’s Spin allows the man to experience alternating periods of light(Day), and darkness(Night) to plan his physiological functions and activities in the external environment. There is this equally important aspect of Earth’s Spin; man’s existence on the surface of planet Earth depends upon lack of direct sensory awareness of speed/velocity of Earth’s Spin.

Biological Clocks time the Solar Day, the period of Earth’s spin or rotation relative to the Sun. While Earth spins or rotates, man experiences the illusion of Sun’s apparent motion across the path called Ecliptic and exists on the surface of Earth in a state of blissful ignorance of Earth’s Angular Speed, or Linear Velocity. The daily rhythm of about 24 hours’ duration makes it appear as though the organism is keeping track of each day and behaves as if it is a Living Clock. Light appears to be the dominant Phase Setter or Synchronizer of activity pattern during the 24-hour cycles. The 24-hour rhythms are called Solar Day, Circadian, Diel, Daily, Diurnal(day-active), and Night-Active rhythms. Plants show their daily rhythm in sleep movements such as the daytime raising and nighttime lowering of their leaves, and the timing of flowering activity. In man, the daily alternation of sleep and wakefulness is accompanied by many chemical and physiological changes that include the activities of the nervous, endocrine systems, and the liver and kidneys. Daily variations occur in body temperature, in heart and respiratory rates, and in blood pressure and composition of blood. There are daily variations in chemical syntheses and in cell divisions. Living systems display a timing capacity and behave as if they contain a highly dependable clock. The specialized properties of this clock suggest that it involves some unique biological mechanism indissociable from life itself.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. The Magical Spell of Seasons. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox. The changes called Day and Night, and the changes called Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer Seasons manifest while the Sun is shining with its full brightness at all times.

I suggest that all natural phenomena require the operation of an unchanging condition that gives the opportunity to experience the change that is manifested. The change called Day and Night, and the changes called Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer Seasons are manifested because of an unchanging condition; the fact of Sun shining with its full brightness 24-hours, and at all times. The rhythmically recurring phenomena called biological rhythms are manifested for living functions operate under the influence of an unchanging, vital, animating principle called Soul, or Spirit.

The ‘immutability’ of Soul or Spirit can be observed as its operations are not influenced by time or external geophysical correlates.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

Tuesday, September 22, 2020. Autumnal Equinox brings longer nights starting from today.

Spirituality Science-For Whom the Bell Tolls?

Washington National Cathedral Bell Tolls for 200,000 Covid-19 Victims

Spirituality Science-For Whom the Bell Tolls?

In the next day or two, the official number of people who have died from Covid-19 in the United States will pass 200,000 (the actual death toll passed 200,000 back in July). To mark the grim occasion yesterday, the Washington National Cathedral tolled its mourning bell 200 times in remembrance, once for each 1000 people who have died.

We toll this 12-ton bell for every funeral held at the Cathedral. Funerals mourn the loss, but they also celebrate the lives of our loved ones, and point us to the hope of resurrection.

This gesture cannot replace the lives lost, but we hope it will help each American mourn the toll of this pandemic.

The tolling goes on for more than 19 minutes and you hear a number of deaths equal to 9/11 every 17 seconds. I recommend listening as long as you are able, to remember those who have been lost, and to inspire action so that 200,000 more Americans don’t have to die before this is all over.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Spirituality Science-Biotic Interactions and Consciousness

The objective of this presentation is to define ‘Spiritualism’ as an internal, mutually beneficial partnership, relationship, association, or bonding between individual living cells of the same organism, or between two different organisms. Spiritualism has to be explained in the context of biotic interactions and consciousness determines the nature and characteristics of such biotic interactions.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Spirituality Science. Biotic Interactions and Consciousness.
For Whom the Bell Tolls? Dr. Heinrich Anton de Bary( 1831 – 1888 ), German Physician, Botanist, Founder of Modern Mycology, Microbiologist, Founder of Plant Pathology had coined the term ‘Symbiosis’.

Dr. Heinrich Anton de Bary had coined the term ‘Symbiosis’ in 1879. It describes the living together of unlike organisms; the intimate association of two dissimilar organisms from which each organism benefits. Symbiosis ( sym – together; bios – life ) refers to various kinds of close and permanent associations between members of different species and the term could also be used to describe the nature of social relations between different human beings.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? CARIBOU LICHEN – In 1866, Dr. Bary was the first to show that Lichens consist of a fungus and an alga in intimate association for mutual benefit.

WHAT IS A BIOTIC COMMUNITY?

A biotic community is a biological or natural community consisting of two or more interacting and interdependent populations of living cells or living organisms. No species, and no individual member lives in isolation from other species or other living members in a biological community. The life of the community and of all its members, and of all organisms in it requires energy. In a biotic community, Life and Death are not the final events. The dying process precedes the living process, certain members of the biotic community experience death while new members are born to take part in the life of the community

NO MAN IS AN ISLAND, ENTIRE OF ITSELF:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? John Donne( 1572 – 1631 ), Jacobean metaphysical poet, author of Devotion Upon Emergent Occasions( 1624 ).

Ernest Hemingway’s novel “For Whom The Bell Tolls” gives this modern version of the quote from John Donne’s Meditation XVII, “Devotion Upon Emergent Occasions”:


No man is an island,
Entire of itself.
Each is a piece of the continent,
A part of the main.
If a clod be washed away by the sea,
Europe is the less.
As well as if a promontory were.
As well as if a manor of thine own
Or of thine friend’s were.
Each man’s death diminishes me,
For I am involved in mankind.
Therefore, send not to know
For whom the bell tolls,
It tolls for thee.
For Whom the Bell Tolls: Spirituality Science. Biotic Interactions and Consciousness

“No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent a part of the main.” In this blog post I would like to examine the biological basis for human existence and understand the nature of man and the status of man as an organism existing at a given place, and given environment because of mutually beneficial biotic interactions.

WHAT ARE BIOTIC INTERACTIONS? 

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Science and Spirituality – Spirituality represents a biotic interaction like Mutualism

Living organisms interact with each other competitively and sometimes beneficially. Some of these interactions are temporary, casual and of minor importance whereas others are permanent, vital and of major significance. Many interactions are highly specialized and complicated involving adaptive changes in structure, function, behavior, and ecology. Some interactions create negative effects on the interactants, reducing survival or reproductive success; other interactions produce effects increasing survival or reproductive success. In some cases, members of an interaction are apparently unaffected. Biotic interactions could be divided into two categories; a. Intraspecific Interactions; interactions between the individual living cells that comprise the same multicellular organism, or interactions between members of the same species, and b. Interspecific Interactions; interactions between members of two or more different species. The biotic interactions may involve nutritional benefits, support of other metabolic functions, space in which to live, shelter, or protection, transport, or reproductive capability. Biotic interactions are significant not only because they influence individual species but also because they constitute the principal stabilizing, connective linkages among the various species contained in a biotic community. Individual members of any given species in a biological community persist in relative harmony because of biotic interactions despite individual gains and losses. As consequence of this web of interactions, the biotic community as a whole persists with all of its members ultimately contributing to its continuation. The consequences of biotic interactions could be positive, negative, or neutral. Mutualism is association of two different species that result in mutual benefit or gain. Facultative Mutualism or Protocooperation involves facultative interactions between plants and animals in ways that are general and indirect but beneficial to both species. The interactions that occur between soil bacteria and fungi and between them and higher plants growing in the soil are Protocooperative. In the zone of plant roots, soil bacteria and fungi interact with each other, some producing nutrients or metabolites required by others and all obtaining nutrients ultimately from root exudates and decaying organic matter. Plants benefit from the actions of this microflora by acquiring needed minerals, and nitrogen compounds. The important association of nitrifying bacteria in the process called Nitrogen Fixation, extraction of Nitrogen from the environment by the roots of leguminous plants is well-known. Collectively all microflora and higher plants, with associated soil fauna, participate in determining soil composition, soil structure, and soil fertility. Man exists in nature as a terrestrial organism because of these biotic interactions that transform the characteristics of soil and its ability to support life. Biotic communities that are based on Obligative Mutualism are characterized by stable, persistent, and interdependent associations between species. Coexistence in a given habitat is always required as this association is mandatory for the survival of each participant. This kind of association is perpetrated from one generation to the next. To guarantee coexistence of the partners, the species involved show relationships based upon structure, behavior, and life history. In lichens, the fungal member penetrates algal cells with feeding tubes or haustoria, thus effecting an intimate physical interconnection. This nutrient exchange helps the algal cells to develop resistance to drying or to extreme temperatures. Commensalism is an association in which one member benefits while the other remains unaffected. Physical Commensalism involves the need for living space and the examples are provided by woody plants that physically support numerous orchids and ferns. Nutritional Commensalism is well illustrated by the many organisms found in the alimentary tracts of man and other higher animals. Such microbial gut flora use host waste products for food and acquire water and a suitable climate in which to live. No harm is done to the hosts. In Parasitism, the smaller organism benefits at the expense of the larger organism. Both plants and animals are attacked by parasites. Many parasites cause disease and death of the host organism. Parasitism constitutes a considerable burden on a host population. Many disease-causing organisms are parasites carried from host to host by some other organism; for example Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite transmitted by mosquitoes. In such situations, the biotic interactions involve three necessarily coexisting species: the pathogen, the carrier or vector species, and the host. An intermediate host interposed between the target host and parasite adds ecological complications to host-parasite interactions: the parasite, host, and intermediate host must all be present in the same community in suitable numbers at the same time. Consumption describes organisms eating organisms. It is the most important class of biotic interactions. Herbivory describes animals eating plants. Predation refers to a large or strong animal that consumes a small or weak animal. Scavengers eat or consume dead or decaying organisms and organic material. Consumption is the basic food association( trophic link ) through which the composition dynamics and variation of biological community’s structure takes place. All organisms form links in the community food chains and food webs, the nutritional pathways characteristic of given biological community. Amensalism is an association between organisms of two different species in which one is inhibited or destroyed and the other is unaffected. There are two basic modes of Amensalism; 1. Competition occurs when two species utilize a common, limited resource such as food, space, and water, and in doing so, one species interferes with, injures, or deprives the other species. Competition may involve a larger or stronger organism that excludes a smaller or weaker one from living space or deprives it of food; Intraspecific Competition occurs when competitors are of the same species. Competitive interactions may lead to Competitive Exclusion or Competitive Displacement, and 2. Antibiosis, in which one organism is unaffected but the other is damaged or killed by a chemical secretion. The classic example of Antibiosis is the discovery of Penicillin antibiotic by Dr. Alexander Fleming who had observed that the bread mold Penicillium notatum had effects upon the growth of colonies of bacteria. Mutual Antagonism occurs when a biotic interaction between two species results in harm or death to both.

INTERACTIONS WITHIN MEMBERS OF THE SAME SPECIES: THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS :

Intraspecific Competition provides the ultimate force limiting abundance of a species in a community. Natural enemies could be present or absent but others of the same species are always present providing the Competition that insures against over exploitation of available resources and the irreversible destruction of a community due to overpopulation. Fighting and territorial defense are some of the overt methods by which Competition manifests itself. Territoriality, the dividing up of resources, mostly space, is a common means of defense against overcrowding. Instead of involving individuals against individuals, it involves groups of individuals. It also produces the response of migration of individuals and mass flight of large groups of individuals. Competitive Intraspecific Interactions between humans and Mutual Antagonism among human social groups may endanger human existence.

THE ROLE OF POSITIVE INTRASPECIFIC INTERACTIONS:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Man’s life journey begins as an Embryo which gets implanted into the maternal tissues by about 6 days after its conception. Thus, mother is the source of Food and Energy to establish human life. Man has no existence in  absence of this positive Intraspecific Interaction between Embryo and Mother.

Man’s life journey begins with conception and implantation of the embryo into maternal tissues at about six days after conception. The prolonged period of gestation, the anatomical connection between developing fetus and mother, the psychological bonding and the extended period of dependence of newborn and the role of parental care reveal importance of Positive Intraspecific Interactions for human existence. Numerous interactions among individuals of the same species lead to the development of social groups. Parental Care and protection provides the basis for many aggregations of like individuals, and social units like families.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Tropical Orchids provide an example of Physical commensalism.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
A medical historian described the proboscis of the female Anopheline Mosquito:"Down this tiny tube crept microscopic poison which swept away two of the mightiest empires( of Greece and Rome ) the world has ever seen." Half the morbidity of the human race until very recently due to Malaria transmitted by bites of female Anopheles Mosquito.
For Whom the Bell Tolls? A medical historian described the proboscis of the female Anopheline Mosquito:”Down this tiny tube crept microscopic poison which swept away two of the mightiest empires( of Greece and Rome ) the world has ever seen.” Half the morbidity of the human race until very recently is due to Malaria transmitted by bites of female Anopheles Mosquito.
For Whom the Bell Tolls? A tapeworm is a ribbon like parasitic flatworm that belongs to the Class Cestoda. The Pork Tapeworm or Taenia solium grows up to 33 feet long and lives in human small intestine which is about 20 feet long. I had dissected a human cadaver in which I found the Pork Tapeworm tightly coiled in the entire extent of the small intestine contributing to the death of my human anatomy specimen.

MAN’S BIOLOGICAL EXISTENCE AS THE HOST OF A BIOTIC COMMUNITY:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Escherichia Coli – Example of microbial flora of human gastrointestinal tract. Man exists as a natural host to a biotic community of trillions of microorganisms.

Man exists in nature as a natural host to a biotic community of trillions of microorganisms. At birth, the stomach and gastrointestinal tract are usually sterile. With the first intake of food and contact with other humans present in the environment, bacteria commence colonization of infant’s digestive tract. These microorganisms perform functions beneficial to the host. The microbes are provided with a protected place to live and their environment is rich in nutrients. This mutual beneficial, symbiotic relationship is always present during the entire course of life after birth. The human body consists of about 100 trillion cells and it carries about ten times as many microbes in the intestines. The microbial flora include enteric bacteria, bacteroides, enterococci, lactobacilli, and clostridia. The small intestine contains low numbers of bacteria, about 100,000 to 10 million bacteria per millilitre of fluid. In the large intestine, the bacterial members can reach 100 billion per millilitre of fluid. It is estimated that these gut flora have around 100 times as many genes in aggregate as there are in the human genome. The metabolic activities performed by these bacteria resemble those of an internal organ of human body. The microbes are important to the health of humans. These bacteria are useful for efficient processing of food, absorption of water, absorption of nutrients like Magnesium, Calcium, and Iron. They perform a variety of useful functions such as synthesis of essential vitamins like Biotin, Vitamin K and production of short-chain fatty acids. The gut flora may produce hormones to direct the host to store fat. They train the host immune system to respond only to pathogens and thereby prevent the growth of harmful, pathogenic bacteria. They stimulate increased growth of human gut cells and stimulate the growth of indigenous bacteria. Gut flora have enzymes that human cells lack for breaking down complex sugars called polysaccharides. The gut flora help in digestion of unutilized energy substrates and may contribute up to 60 percent of the weight of the feces for human excretory function. Microbial flora of the gut can influence the phenomenon known as “Oral Tolerance” which may reduce overreactive immune response like those found in allergies and auto-immune disease. Gut flora play a major role in metabolizing dietary carcinogens and hence have role in prevention of cancer. Human existence demands the play of these biotic interactions for its own benefit and for the benefit of the biotic community as its natural host.

SPIRITUALITY – THE NATURE OF SPIRITUAL INTERACTIONS:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Sweetness is the name of this Biotic Interaction. This Interaction has the characteristics of Spiritualism or Spiritual Interaction.

The term ‘spiritual’ describes the nature of a relationship, partnership, an association, or bonding between two living entities based upon characteristics such as compassion, sympathy, cooperation, mutual assistance, tolerance, voluntary subservience, devotion, and functional subordination to provide some benefit to the members participating in the biotic interaction at a given place and in a given environment. Depending upon size, complexity, and structure and functions of the Whole Organism, Spiritual Biotic Interactions and Spiritual Relationships are also based upon thoughts and feelings of sympathy and compassion that are attributes of mental functions and emotional makeup of the partners interacting. The Spiritual nature of biotic interactions is reflection of the Spiritual nature of the Creator of the living entities who has provided different modes of interactions using inspiration and imagination. Hence, Spirituality as a biotic interaction describes an internal, mutually beneficial partnership between individual cells of the human organism and the Whole Organism that represents it as a Human Individual.

THE STATUS OF MAN IN NATURE:

The First Book of Moses, The Old Testament Book of Genesis describes the story of Creation; in Chapter 2, verse 7, it narrates man’s creation: “And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.”

For Whom the Bell Tolls? The Book of Genesis, Chapter 1, verse 27:”So God created man in His own image; in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them.”

MAN IS A CREATED BEING:

Man is a created being as he always exists as one of its own kind of unique, original, and distinctive object. Man always arrives from a previously existing egg cell and yet his genome has not existed before, and would not exist again. Man exists as an object that is created using the powers of inspiration and imagination that keeps man as an Individual with Individuality without any choice of his own.  

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Spirituality Science. Biotic Interactions and Consciousness. The Man is constituted as a Spiritual Being.

MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING:

The status of man in nature describes man as a created object; a new object, one of its own kind, distinctive, and unique. The principle of Creation  involves use of inspiration and imagination as opposed to the view proposed by Theory of Evolution. The fundamental issue is about understanding man’s status in nature. Did man come into existence by gradual changes caused by random and unguided events called genetic mutations? Or, does man actually exist in nature because of his relationship with other objects present in his living environment? What defines man’s existence? What establishes the reality of man’s physical existence? Should we focus on the changing form? Alternately, should we give attention to an unchanging relationship that is a prerequisite for the existence of all life forms? If an object cannot come into its state of existence, how could that object get a shape or form? In the context of a discussion about man’s existence in nature, I state that  man is a created object, and hence man exists as a Spiritual being. The term Spiritual describes the nature of this connection between man and His Creator. Soul is the immortal part of man as distinguished from his body; it is the vital principle which moves and animates all Life. Soul may represent essence of a human being, it could be the quality which confers individuality, humanity, and the moral nature of man. I divide man into two categories; the first category is called the ‘SELF’ which represents man as a physical, mental, and social being; and the second category is called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’ which represents man as a moral, rational, and spiritual being. These two categories function together and the functional unity of the human person is an attribute of a neurobiological function called Consciousness. Man’s physical being is represented by a changing external or morphological appearance and while the physical Identity is constantly changing, the unchanging Individuality is supported by man’s spirituality or the nature of his constant spiritual relationship.  

THE ETERNAL REALITY OF SOUL’S IMMORTALITY  :
For Whom the Bell Tolls? Ajanta Caves near Aurangabad, Maharashtra State, India, Fresco-type wall painting Man’s spiritual dimension describes man’s humanity, moral nature, individuality, and Consciousness.

Religious thinkers have further defined Soul as that part of the individual which partakes of divinity. People of all races, cultures and religions would like to investigate the nature of this God-Connection as they perceive the world and the universe in which they exist as a fact of Creation. I need to find evidence that would fundamentally deny the fact of Creation.

 MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? French philosopher Auguste Comte(1798-1857) coined the term Sociology. He believed that the scientific study of social organization would make possible reconstitution of the social order based on principles of moral progress.

Apart from being a created Physical being, man is recognized as a Social being as he displays social instincts and social behaviors in all of his activities. A rudimentary understanding of Sociology or Theories of Social Science would clarify this matter. Social instincts and Social Behaviors are seen in all animals including bacteria. At a cellular level, the social function is called ‘Association’. Man is association of trillions of cells. Each human organ and organ system represents association of cells that display functional subordination to perform selective tasks. Life is just impossible without social structure and organization.

MAN IS A MORAL BEING: 

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Man is a Spiritual being and is endowed with Moral nature. James Tissot in his painting captures essence of man. The Book of Matthew, Chapter 27 verses 3-5 narrate the story of Apostle Judas Iscariot and his moral failing that caused dissolution of his biological existence-“When Judas who had betrayed Him, saw that Jesus was condemned, he was seized with remorse and returned the thirty silver coins to the chief priests and the elders. “I have sinned,” he said,”for I have betrayed innocent blood.” So Judas threw the money into the temple and left. Then he went away and hanged himself.”

Man is an individual who exists in a social group. At the same time, man is a Moral being, as he displays moral behavior even when he is corrupt. Man displays the ability of Repentance for his thoughts, for his actions of commission and omission. Man has ability to admit his sins, express remorse and may often punish himself for his sinful conduct. Man experiences grief for his actions that are sinful. Man actively searches for solutions for his sinful conduct. Man cannot sustain his biological existence if he had morally failed. A famous example would be that of Apostle Judas Iscariot, the betrayer of Jesus.

 MATTER, ENERGY, AND KNOWLEDGE  :
Greek philosopher  Aristotle had observed that corporeal substances are composite of two principles, form and matter. What is called matter is potentiality, what is called form is actuality. The totality of things have been divided in various ways. The three fundamental distinctions are 1. the distinction between the natural and the supernatural, 2. the distinction between the material and the spiritual, and 3. the distinction between the lifeless and the living. When we make distinction animate/inanimate, living/non-living, and inorganic/organic, a question arises about the nature of that distinction. The difference, is that one of kind or degree? The Mechanistic View claims continuity of nature in terms of universality of purely mechanical principles. I have defined Life as ‘Knowledge in Action’. Please view the blog post at https://bhavanajagat.wordpress.com/2010/08/05/what-is-life-life-is-knowledge-in-action/
I define Life as organization of matter with implanted supernatural Knowledge. Establishment of supernatural Knowledge in matter describes operation of ‘God Principle’, Spirit, or Soul. Life comes into existence when matter and energy come together with establishment of ‘God Connection’.
 
LIFE AND CONSCIOUSNESS  :                    
For Whom the Bell Tolls? Amoeba proteus, unicellular, protozoan organism is conscious or aware of its own state of existence. It has the abilities of Motion, Nutrition, and Reproduction. All of its living functions are goal-oriented. It responds to its environment and survives adverse environmental conditions by a process called encystment.

The basic characteristic of a Living Cell or organism is presence of consciousness. I recognize a cell as a Living Cell if it displays functions that characterize presence of awareness or consciousness. The Living Cell or Living Object need not be aware or conscious of the Subject who may be investigating or observing the properties of that Object. The Living Object need to be aware of its own existence and its condition called Living. Atoms and molecules display their properties and interact according to the Laws of Physics and Chemistry. Living organic molecules show individualistic behaviors under experimental conditions that could be repeated and be verified. The Living Cell is very selective and it responds in a variable manner to physical and chemical stimuli. It can communicate or send signals to other Living Cells present in its environment. It responds according to its internal condition in relation to the environment in which it exists. The interactions of non-living physical matter are not goal-oriented. The interactions of Living matter are goal-oriented and they specifically achieve the purpose of sustaining, preserving, defending, and continuing the Living functions.

MAN IS A MORTAL, PHYSICAL BEING:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Man is a mortal being who must eventually die. When Lazarus died and was laid in a tomb for four days, Jesus performed a miracle and Lazarus came back to life from death. The Book of John, Chapter 11, narrates this event. In verses 41 and 42, Jesus said,”Father, I thank You that You have heard Me. And I know that You always hear Me, but I said this for the benefit of the people who are standing here, that they may believe that You sent Me.” The risen Lazarus had eventually died.

LIFE AND DEATH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Life always comes into a state of existence from a previously existing Living Cell. Life and Death is a continuous process and is recognized by the presence of Consciousness and Individuality.

When does Life begins? When does Life ends? Every Living Cell is derived from a previously existing Living Cell. Life has not experienced the final event called DEATH. Life continues its act of Living through a function called Reproduction. A given species is considered to be totally extinct only if there is no surviving member to represent that particular species. Death is a programmed event and it gives meaning to the Identity of a Living Object. Dissolution of a single Living Object should not obscure the fact that Life is a continuous process. Life continues as Living Objects get new Identities. It is very reasonable to expect that Life would continue after the death of a given Living Object. People all over the world are a witness to that simple and direct observation. During the Life-Death continuum, the connection between the Creator and the created Living Object is manifested by the biological function called awareness or consciousness. Presence of Soul is evidenced by the presence of consciousness. As long as the Soul is functioning and is united with the physical being, the presence of consciousness could be detected and could be verified.

THE SOUL AND GOD CONNECTION: 

For Whom the Bell Tolls? All types of Living Cells with or without nucleus represent thermodynamically unstable systems. Without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. Biological existence is possible because of an association or connection, or partnership between energy seeker and energy provider.

There has been no clearly defined and universally accepted metaphysical conception of the term Soul. It is a term rarely used with precise definition in philosophy, religion, or common life. In this discussion we face the problem of using words to which no definitive meaning is attached. If I make an attempt to define the word ‘God’, you may even speculate that I may belong to a new religious order. We need to come to a consensus even if an entity called ‘God’ does not exist. We need to formulate a view, a hypothetical view about Soul and test that hypothesis by countering it with a skeptical hypothesis. The Science called Physics deals with the properties, changes, interactions, etc. of matter and energy in which energy is considered to be continuous. In the ultimate analysis, matter is  representation of its energy content. The Science called Biology deals with Life and Life processes. While Life is made up of physical matter, Life processes are not explained by simple mechanistic interactions. However, I am willing to use the principles, the methods, and the tools used by Physics. Molecular Biology explains biological events by studying the molecules within cells; the molecular basis of genetics – Nucleic Acids and its relationship to energy cycling and replication. If this universe is seen as matter and energy, I would define God as the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. All living things are essentially made up of the same kind of living matter and yet they appear to be different. Life could be attributed to ONE common principle which has ability to be simultaneously different. Each living object comes into a state of existence as a new object, as an original object, one of its own kind, unique, and distinctive. This morphological variation is an attribute of the organic molecules that establish the phenotype or the physical identity of that living organism. Physics provides those powerful tools to see the molecules and to recognize their individualistic behavior. Life comes into existence using a creative principle, and creative mechanisms that need inspiration, and imagination apart from the use of simple mechanistic laws. If Life is governed by the Law of Individuality, I would define God as a Creative Force/Power/Energy.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Life is a condition that describes Synchronized Existence, synchronization of activities, the connection between energy dependent life functions and its Source of Power.

 Majority of these life forms that we know and have studied, have synchronized their state of existence with an event that produces alternating periods of light and darkness while that source of light is not being turned ‘on’ and ‘off’. Rather we are forced to experience the effects of an illusion. Sunrise and Sunset is the reality that govern majority of Biological Rhythms that control the life processes. Illusion is the necessary condition for the biological existence of Life. If Earth’s rotational spin generates this illusion, God uses Force/Power/Energy to cause illusion. In the universe that exists today, to the extent we have verified; there are no two identical celestial objects that exhibit the same rotational spin. In this context, it may be said that the Force/Power/Energy called God has created Earth to provide a home to the life forms that He has created as Individuals. These life forms have ability called reproduction and yet lack the ability of producing two identical new objects. Sexual or Asexual reproduction always results in  production of new Individuals which could be easily verified by using the Biometric Identification Technology. Even the clones, sharing identical genomes, in reality exist as individuals. This Individuality when investigated by the tools supplied by Physics, it is discovered that the organic molecules behave as Individuals and man is not able to modify that behavior. Under the same experimental conditions, the molecules behave as individuals. When we examine the nature of this biological existence, it indicates that life processes are supported by the provision of energy from an external source. The Living Cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without a continuous input of energy a Living Cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. This lack of energy independence would direct us to define God as the Power/Force/Energy which delivers Compassion/Mercy/Grace which helps energy acquisition by energy dependent living organisms. Life forms on planet Earth exist depending upon an extraterrestrial source of energy or Cosmic Power/Force/Energy. Life exists because of its ability called ‘Association’. The act of associating, the state of being associated; the companionship, the fellowship, and the partnership is the defining feature of the State or Condition, or Act of Living. Association or partnership between energy seeker and energy provider could be described as God-Connection. Organisms that are single do not live as single cells but develop association with other single cells to form distinct Colonies. Organisms that are multicellular represent organization of individual cells that are associated having common interests, purposes, sensations, etc., Since association has a purpose, in the context of biological existence, the association or connection, or partnership between the energy seeker, and the energy provider is a meaningful event and not a simple, mechanical, physical event governed by the Laws of Interactions between Matter and Energy. There are Four Fundamental Interactions and they do not regulate or define this Interaction between Living matter and the Cosmic Force/Power/Energy. Living matter uses and exploits energy in a creative manner to build organic molecules and to break down organic molecules. The life processes are very similar and yet the results are totally different. While using energy mostly following a similar metabolic pathway, each organism supports its identity and individuality.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? WHO HAS ESTABLISHED THE CONNECTION BETWEEN AUTOTROPHS AND HETEROTROPHS? The creative mechanism to trap Solar Energy describes implanted Knowledge to formulate the connection between autotrophs and heterotrophs.
For Whom the Bell Tolls? In mitochondria, many substances(food) are oxidized and ATP, the energy-storing chemical of the Cell is produced. The most important equations for living things are mutually inverse. Respiration of humans, and Cellular Respiration represents the reverse of Photosynthesis.

SOUL AND DEATH:

The idea of ‘Soul’ always comes in the context of Death. If man is immortal, we will not be spending our time and energy discussing to verify the existence of an immortal principle. The human subject has a limited life span and it arouses a sense of curiosity about the existence of something that could defy Death. I am trying to define the word ‘Soul’ in a manner to promote an understanding that ‘Soul’ is immortal if we look at man as an Association of individual living cells. We need to establish the Identity of that Individual for whose purpose or interest this Association of Individual living cells exists. If we think of Death as a final event, it is not supported by factual evidence. In this Association, death is a daily event. We simply fail to acknowledge this daily event as there is an immortal principle that is escaping this death experience. The Individual thinks that he is alive and sustains his Individuality without getting overwhelmed by the dying process that is continuous. While the human organism is changing its external appearance and identity all the time, the Individuality survives if ‘Soul’ the vital, or operating immortal principle is functioning. The issue or question about ‘transmigration’ of Soul would not arise if every living organism exists strictly as an Individual with an Individuality. As stated before, the man has no choice and he must always exist as an Individual even when we use Reproductive Genetic Engineering Technology to produce identical clones with the same genome. Dissolution of matter may not change the Law of Conservation of Energy. If Soul is defined as the God Connection that gives the ability of energy acquisition, the Soul when removed from a physical object to which it has given Individuality, would operate as per the commands of the Controller of Force/Power/Energy. It provides the possibility of carrying the impressions of a previous state of existence into a new state of existence with a new identity and Individuality. During the life span of a given Individual, association of cells in which death is a daily event, Soul is a continuous principle as its purpose and interest is to maintain Individuality of that Individual.

SOUL AND THE LIVING CELL:

I define man as a physical, mental, social, moral, rational, and spiritual being as I define the term ‘health’ as the physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual well-being of the man in his environment and community and not merely as absence of disease. This definition of ‘health’ would help me to provide ‘comprehensive health care’ in my role as a Primary Care physician. Specialists and Super specialists provide health care in specific areas involving an organ or an organ system.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Jean Paul Sartre had stated that Nothingness(Non-thing or Neant) is a condition of not having Being and yet it is supported by Being. Nothingness comes into the world by the Being-for-itself. The Conscious Knowing-Self or the Essence of man is preceded by the Subjective Reality of physical Existence.

I attach my ideas to some ideas expressed by others. Sartre is a well-known person. He had won the Nobel Prize for literature but declined to accept it. I may not totally agree with him and his views about consciousness. He had stated his view in a manner that people can easily understand. He makes distinction between objective things and human consciousness. He claims that consciousness is a ‘non-thing'(‘neant’ or nothingness ) and its reality consists in standing back from things and taking a point of view on them. Because consciousness is a non-thing, it does not have any of the causal involvements that things have with other things. If you stand before a mirror, the reflection exists only if it is supported by the presence of a physical being or thing. If the physical thing is taken away, the reflected image is gone but the reflective surface retains its ability to reflect the images of things.

 THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE AND CONSCIOUSNESS:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? The Biological Membrane is not a simple physical barrier separating the Living Cell from its environment. The Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, the Living Matter uses its Biological Membrane with a sense of awareness or consciousness which recognizes the fact of its existence and the fact of something present in its environment.

 In a Living Cell, consciousness reflects its ability to know its external environment and its internal condition or internal environment. The Living Cell knows, it is aware of its state, fact, and act of its Living. The Living Cell makes contact with its environment by using a cell membrane, a biological membrane, or a bio-membrane. If you carefully look at some of the functions of this membrane, you would discern that the Living Cell has consciousness or awareness of these functions. The Biological Membrane behaves in a conscious manner and it is not a simple, physical barrier between the Protoplasm, the Living Substance and its environment. If the term ‘soul’ describes a vital principle, or a source of Knowledge, it provides information with which these functions could be performed. Some molecules and ions can freely move across this Bio-membrane and some are actively pumped in or out of the Cell that involves expenditure of energy. The Living Cell has ability to recognize condition of its nucleus, if the DNA is damaged, the Cell can initiate a process and cause its own dissolution.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Red Blood Cells display functional subordination to serve the purpose of the Whole Organism. Functional differentiation, and Functional Unity are important to support the existence of the Subject or Individual who is in reality association of trillions of cells.

In multicellular organism, the consciousness works both at the level of each individual cell and to establish the functioning of the organism as an individual unit. Without functional unity, the organism cannot maintain its biological existence. Cell differentiation is the process by which the individual cells use adaptation to perform specific tasks. Red Blood Cells perform specific tasks.

 THE NEURO-BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Reticular Formation of Brain Stem has connections with almost all other parts of the Central Nervous System and it helps to coordinate and integrate actions of different parts of the CNS. It is important for Behavioral Arousal, and the Capacity for Consciousness.

In the human Brain Stem, several neurons, and nuclei which are in an area called Reticular Formation are functionally adapted to compose the contents of human consciousness. The Reticular Formation gives the Capacity for Consciousness. The contents of this consciousness are read in the cortical areas of the cerebral hemispheres and described as Cortical awareness. Most philosophers, most of the psychologists, and several of the religious thinkers pay attention to this Cortical awareness and describe that as human consciousness. We tend to ignore the fact that there would be no Cortical awareness unless there is a Capacity for Consciousness. Most recently, the surgeons had removed the complete left cerebral hemisphere from a child to stop convulsive seizures. The child is alive, fully conscious, and hopefully would continue to live in future with some neurological deficits. Just like the human heart which has four different muscular chambers and each has a function of its own; we need to understand consciousness by knowing its components. We need to use separate terms to distinguish these different components. There would be confusion if a term is used without attaching a specific meaning. Cortical awareness is important and is very interesting and yet man can exist and survive with minimal cortical awareness. We have seen children with severe degrees of mental retardation, and they can keep their biological existence if they retain the ability to Compose Consciousness. I want to designate the upper Brain Stem as the Seat of Consciousness and the word consciousness itself must describe the functions of the Brain Stem which are most important for man’s biological existence. A man is clinically dead in absence of these Brain Stem functions involved in the Capacity of Consciousness. In Clinical Medicine, the term conscious is often used to measure the degree of Arousal or Cortical awareness and hence this subject matter would remain confusing for a long time. If a subject is unconscious, I would not issue a ‘death certificate’. In Clinical Medicine, the term used is ‘Brain Death’ and when Brain Death is diagnosed, the human person for all practical purposes is dead. I would suggest that we must use the term ‘Unconscious’ specifically to indicate the Brain Death which is diagnosed by testing the Brain Stem Reflexes. If the human person is viewed as a single physical thing or object, integration of functions is achieved at the Brain Stem( Reticular Formation), and he maintains his individuality throughout his physical existence only when this part of the brain is functioning. If you like the term individual soul or Jeeva Atma, its existence is reflection of this function. To see a reflection, we need two things; the physical object and a reflective surface. Ability to reflect objects may depend upon presence of Knowledge. It is not known if this particular kind of knowledge exists as organic molecules; however, it is very well understood that most of the knowledge to perform a variety of biological functions is contained in organic molecules and the most well-known group of these organic molecules are known as DNA. There are Viruses which can function with RNA. Hence, there is still possibility of finding organic molecules that could be associated with the functional ability called consciousness, awareness, cognition, recognition, responsiveness, perception, memory, intelligence, and association. The most important aspect of ‘association’ is ‘God Connection’ and without this function of ‘association’ man cannot keep his biological existence.

For Whom the Bell Tolls? Consciousness is awareness of existence, the facts that relate to the state or condition of existence. Behavioral Arousal and Cortical awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations is an important component of total Biological Existence.

IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY:

For Whom the Bell Tolls? The Eternal Reality of Soul’s Immortality is described in The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter II, verse 12. Lord Krishna spoke to the Pandava Prince Arjuna :”Na tv evaham jatu nasam na tvam neme JanadhipaH;Na chaiva na bhavisyamaH, sarve vayam ataH param.” For each of us our Individuality existed in the past and our Individuality will continue in the future without interruption. Certainly, never at any time did I not exist, nor you, nor all these Kings and certainly never shall we cease to exist in the future.

The issue of spirituality, the nature of Soul and consciousness must be explored in the context of arriving at an understanding of man’s Identity and Individuality. If man is viewed as an association of trillions of cells, we need to know the Identity of that Subject who lives because of the functions of the trillions of cells. The purpose of consciousness at cellular level is to foster functional unity of the multicellular organism and to establish it as an Individual. In a multicellular organism, cells have short lives as individuals. The Subject or the whole organism has a life span of its own and it has effects on individual cells. Multicellularity is accompanied by adaptive subordination of all cells to the requirements of the organism as a whole. To achieve proper numerical balance between functionally related cell groups, the death of many cells is necessary for other cells to reach maturity. This programmed cell death plays an important role in embryological development. Such programmed cell death events are essential if the organism as a whole is to develop its normal final form. Waves of genetically driven cell deaths are critical to the proper modeling of organs and organ systems. We need to know and understand that death of cells is a must to establish the Identity and to sustain the Individuality of the human being. The dying process helps man to understand his Individuality. The Individuality is preserved while death is a daily event at the cellular level. The phenotype or the morphological appearance of the human Subject undergoes constant change during the Life journey and yet the Individuality remains unchanged. We recognize the death of this human Subject when his Soul departs from his body. Soul may be stated as an entity which is regarded as being immortal or spiritual part of the person. The Spirit of a dead person generally refers to a principle separate from the body and leading existence of its own. If Soul is viewed as a Non-thing or Nothingness, it comes into the world of existence by entering the physical being at its conception which becomes conscious or aware of its existence. This consciousness has also existed in a previously existing Living Egg Cell which is the Mother of Life, Energy, and Knowledge. Consciousness by its very nature is immortal, it is eternal, and it has no birth or death. We recognize the arrival and departure of the new product during the Life-Death continuum where the Individuality is unaffected by the changes that are caused by the powerful influence of Time.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

For Whom the Bell Tolls? THE MAN LEADS A TRANSIENT, CONDITIONED, MORTAL EXISTENCE. BUT, SOMETHINGS ENDURE, FAITH, HOPE, AND LOVE. 1 CORINTHIANS 13:13. Image by Janetateher.

My reflections on Jewish Holiday Rosh Hashanah-The King must grant me a day to rest

On Sunday, September 20, 2020, I ask the King of Heaven and Earth to grant me a day to rest as promised.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment

My reflections on Jewish Holiday Rosh Hashanah-The King must grant me a day to rest.
My reflections on Jewish Holiday Rosh Hashanah-The King must grant me a day to rest.

Genesis 2:2-3 New King James Version

And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created and made.


Rosh Hashanah

Begins sunset of  Friday, September 18, 2020
Ends nightfall of  Sunday, September 20, 2020No work is permitted.

  • The Month of Elul – August 21 – September 18, 2020
  • Fast of Gedaliah – September 21, 2020

Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year. It is the anniversary of the creation of Adam and Eve, and a day of judgment and coronation of G‑d as king.

Rosh Hashana is not just the anniversary of Creation. It is also the anniversary of the beginning of God’s rule over mankind.

Although one might be led to believe that the primary theme of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, is apples and honey or nice clothes and good meals or a day off work, it simply isn’t the case. Although they, too, are important, Rosh Hashanah is essentially a celebration of God as King of the World. Period. It is also the day that God judges the world and seals each and every person’s fate for the coming year.

Why is Rosh Hashanah the day when our coming year is decided? It is the anniversary of the creation of the world and the beginning of the Jewish new year. As we say in the Rosh Hashanah prayers, “This day is the beginning of Your works, the commemoration of the first day.”

However, the meaning of “creation of the world” is not as clear-cut as it may seem. Notice how on Fridays, the daily prayers include the following excerpt from Psalms: “God will have reigned, He will have donned grandeur.” (Psalms 93) This verse is recited because it is on a Friday that God completed His work and began ruling over His creations.

Why is mankind so vital for the success of God as king? It is because of the free choice that we have. Human beings can make choices in life. We know what is right and what it wrong, what is moral and what is not, which choices will please Him and which choices will anger Him. We choose whether we are going to follow the Torah or not.

God is a king, not a dictator. A king is generally a figure that the people have chosen to accept upon themselves. Before the creation of man, there was no one to accept God. Animals and vegetation cannot make choices. They cannot declare God as king. They have no mitzvot (commandments) to observe. Only with the creation of man did God become king in every sense of the word.

We see from here that Rosh Hashanah is not just the anniversary of Creation. It is also the anniversary of the start of God’s rule over mankind. Our thoughts and prayers should be focused on Adam, the first human creation who was also the first of the king’s subjects. We have to reaffirm the choice that Adam made when celebrating the acceptance of God as our king and before whom we stand in judgement.

Adam symbolizes Rosh Hashanah in another way as well. Even though Adam and Eve sinned, they acknowledged before whom they sinned. We also sin; we sin all the time. Rosh Hashanah is the time to recognize our sins and to recognize before whom we have sinned.

On the day of judgment, let us pray that our slates are cleaned up, that we may start afresh and that we are blessed with a great new year. Indeed, may He answer our prayers and bless us with a good year in the great merit that we generate on Rosh Hashanah by declaring God as our one and only king!

By: Rabbi Ari Enkin, rabbinic director, United with Israel

My reflections on Jewish Holiday Rosh Hashanah-The King must grant me a day to rest.

Bharat Darshan- The Legacy of the Communal Award of 1932

In my analysis, the national entity called the Republic of India has not attained its full political independence from the British Raj on August 15, 1947. India is a slave to the British Policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ and India never gained full independence for it embraced the Communal Award Policy of 1932 imposed by the British Prime Minister McDonald.

The McDonald Award was based on the British theory that India was not a nation, but is a conglomeration of racial, religious and cultural groups, castes and interests. The British knew the strengths and weaknesses of the Indian Society and knew that Indian society had a tendency to gravitate towards localism and regionalism and the reason was obvious: India was a self-sufficient country based on self-sufficient units and there was very little interaction between the two. The British were very much aware that a sense of nationalism is always an antidote to imperialism. We can also say that the British had a single point agenda to strike down the nationalism and to create parochial loyalties among the smaller communities. This was one of the reasons that British came up with the concept of separate electorate, as Elections are a powerful means for the allocation of power and therefore, Thus, McDonald award was to debilitate national unity by creating different spheres of interests. It was dangerous and Gandhi knew it. The new challenge was to combat with the feeling of separatism. This award started a policy of appeasement and quota, which is still killing India, slowly.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment

Bharat Darshan-The Legacy of the Communal Award of 1932. On this day in 1932, in his cell at Yarawada Jail near Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi begins a hunger strike in protest of the British government’s decision to separate India’s electoral system by caste.

On August 16, 1932, the British Prime Minister McDonald announced the Communal Award. Thus it is also known as McDonald Award. The Communal Award was basically a proposal on minority representation in the conduct of elections to choose public officials.

Major proposals were as follows:

  1. The existing seats of the provincial legislatures were to be doubled.
  2. The system of separate electorates for the minorities was to be retained.
  3. The Muslims, wherever they were in minority, were to be granted a weightage.
  4. Except North West Frontier Province, 3 % seats for women were to be reserved in all provinces.
  5. The depressed , dalits or the untouchables were to be declared as minorities.
  6. Allocation was to be made to labor, landlords, traders and industrialists.

Thus, this award accorded separate electorates for Muslims, Europeans, Sikhs, Indian Christians, Anglo Indians, Depressed Classes, and even Marathas. (Some seats in Bombay were given to Marathas)

  • The depressed classes were given seats which had to be filled by election from the special constituencies in which only they could vote.
  • However, they were eligible to vote in the general constituencies as well.
  • The labor, Commerce and Industry, Mining and Planting, Landholders were also given special electorates.
  • Sikhs were 13.2% of the population in Punjab. Here they were given 32 seats out of the total 175 seats.

McDonald as another manifestation of British policy of Divide and Rule

The McDonald Award was based on the British theory that India was not a nation, but is a conglomeration of racial, religious and cultural groups, castes and interests. The British knew the strengths and weaknesses of the Indian Society and knew that Indian society had a tendency to gravitate towards localism and regionalism and the reason was obvious: India was a self-sufficient country based on self-sufficient units and there was very little interaction between the two. The British were very much aware that a sense of nationalism is always an antidote to imperialism. We can also say that the British had a single point agenda to strike down the nationalism and to create parochial loyalties among the smaller communities. This was one of the reasons that British came up with the concept of separate electorate, as Elections are a powerful means for the allocation of power and therefore, Thus, McDonald award was to debilitate national unity by creating different spheres of interests. It was dangerous and Gandhi knew it. The new challenge was to combat with the feeling of separatism. This award started a policy of appeasement and quota, which is still killing India, slowly.

Reaction of Gandhi on Communal Award

It was declared by Gandhi for more than once that the separate electorates for the depressed class was an attempt to divide and detach the depressed classes from the main body of Hindus. It seemed to him the these Firangies are going to break the country on the basis of the communities and so, he wrote a letter to the Prime Minister that if the award, so far it was related to the Depressed class, is not changed, he would sit on a fast unto death. On 16 September 1932, Gandhiji sat on the fast unto death in the Yarawada Jail, in which he was lodged at that time.

September 16, 1932

Gandhi begins fast in protest of caste separation

On September 16, 1932, in his cell at Yarawada Jail in Pune, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi begins a hunger strike in protest of the British government’s decision to separate India’s electoral system by caste.

A leader in the Indian campaign for home rule, Gandhi worked all his life to spread his own brand of passive resistance across India and the world. By 1920, his concept of Satyagraha (or “insistence upon truth”) had made Gandhi an enormously influential figure for millions of followers. Jailed by the British government from 1922-24, he withdrew from political action for a time during the 1920s but in 1930 returned with a new civil disobedience campaign. This landed Gandhi in prison again, but only briefly, as the British made concessions to his demands and invited him to represent the Indian National Congress Party at a round-table conference in London.

After his return to India in January 1932, Gandhi wasted no time beginning another civil disobedience campaign, for which he was jailed yet again. Eight months later, Gandhi announced he was beginning a “fast unto death” in order to protest British support of a new Indian constitution, which gave the country’s lowest classes—known as “untouchables”—their own separate political representation for a period of 70 years. Gandhi believed this would permanently and unfairly divide India’s social classes. A member of the more powerful Vaisya, or merchant caste, Gandhi nonetheless advocated the emancipation of the untouchables, whom he called Harijans, or “Children of God.”

“This is a god-given opportunity that has come to me,” Gandhi said from his prison cell at Yarawada, “to offer my life as a final sacrifice to the downtrodden.” Though other public figures in India–including Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambdekar, the official political representative of the untouchables–had questioned Gandhi’s true commitment to the lower classes, his six-day fast ended after the British government accepted the principal terms of a settlement between higher caste Indians and the untouchables that reversed the separation decision. The British Policy of Divide and Rule survives to-date as Electoral Quota System.

Bharat Darshan-The Legacy of the Communal Award of 1932.. Scheduled caste/Scheduled Tribe quotas born with Brits, took on life of their own after 1947.

Bharat Darshan-The Legacy of the Communal Award of 1932.. Scheduled caste/Scheduled Tribe quotas born with Brits, took on life of their own after 1947.

The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet

In my analysis, I describe the India-China Standoff along the Himalayan Frontier as “The Battle of Right against Might” to evict the military occupier of Tibet. I want world sympathy.

The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet. Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi (R) meets with Indian External Affairs Minister Subrahmanyam Jaishankar on the sidelines of a meeting of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Council of Foreign Ministers in Moscow, Russia, on Sept. 10, 2020. (Photo: Xinhua)
The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet.The Pangong Lake in Leh district of Union territory of Ladakh bordering India and China. (File Photo by Prakash SINGH / AFP)

China is on the horns of a dilemma. Can it afford to risk losing the sovereignty over a part of its proud belt and road project? That would not be the end of the saga of sovereignty. At stake would be Hong Kong, Tibet and Xinjiang, the Muslim province to its west which Mao Zedong captured rather curiously in 1950; it was formerly known as East Turkestan.

5-point road-map gives political impetus to efforts to ease border row: Chinese envoy

Sun Weidong blamed New Delhi for trespassing on the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and altering the status quo, in a lengthy statement issued by the Chinese embassy three days after the two sides finalised the roadmap during a meeting of external affairs minister S Jaishankar and his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi in Moscow.

Rezaul H Laskar | Edited by Sohini Sarkar
Hindustan Times, New Delhi

The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet.The Indian side has blamed the tensions on the LAC on unilateral efforts by China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to alter the status quo in the Ladakh sector. It has also blamed the latest flare-ups on the LAC on “provocative military manoeuvres” by the PLA.(AP PHOTO.)

Chinese envoy Sun Weidong on Monday said the five-point road-map agreed to by India and China to address tensions on the disputed border provides “political impetus” to efforts to ease the situation, even as he blamed New Delhi for trespassing the Line of Actual Control (LAC) and altering the status quo.

Sun made the remarks in a lengthy statement issued by the Chinese embassy three days after the two sides finalized the five-point road-map during a meeting of external affairs minister S Jaishankar and his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi on the margins of a Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) meet in Moscow on Thursday.

There was no immediate response to the Chinese envoy’s remarks from Indian officials.

Despite the road-map, sharp divergences remained between the two sides, with experts pointing out that the joint statement issued after the Jaishankar-Wang meeting made no mention of the restoration of the status quo on the LAC as it existed in April.

Sun said the five-point consensus – which includes following the top leaders’ consensus, easing tensions, maintaining peace and tranquility in border areas, continuing diplomatic communications, and expediting work on new confidence-building measures – “is an important step towards the right direction, and will provide political impetus to ease the border situation and promote the bilateral relations”.

He added, “I hope and believe that as long as the two sides earnestly implement the consensus reached by the two foreign ministers to the frontline troops and adhere to the correct means of dialogue and negotiation, the two sides will find a way to overcome the current difficulties.”

The Chinese envoy contended that “public opinion in India” was generally positive towards the five-point road-map, and was of the view that “both sides have demonstrated political will to resolve the border situation”.

However, Sun referred to statements by relevant Indian ministries that Indian troops “pre-empted” Chinese military activity on the south bank of Pangong Lake, and contended this “obviously revealed that there are illegal trespassing the LAC and status quo change in the border areas (sic)”.

He noted that sections of the Indian media had quoted government sources to disclose that the “Indian Army fired shots on two different occasions”, and said, “For the first time since 1975, the calm in the border areas was broken by gunfire.”

Sun further noted that Wang had reiterated during his meeting with Jaishankar that the “imperative is to immediately stop provocations such as firing and other dangerous actions that violate the commitments made by the two sides”, and that it is “important to move back all personnel and equipment that have trespassed”.

He added, “The frontier troops must quickly disengage so that the situation may deescalate. The Chinese side supports enhanced dialogue between the frontier troops on both sides to solve specific issues, and will stay in touch with the Indian side through diplomatic and military channels.”

The Indian side has blamed the tensions on the LAC on unilateral efforts by China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) to alter the status quo in the Ladakh sector. It has also blamed the latest flare-ups on the LAC on “provocative military manoeuvres” by the PLA.

The external affairs ministry has said the PLA engaged in such manoeuvres during August 29-30 to change the status quo on the south bank of Pangong Lake and Indian troops responded with “appropriate defensive measures”. The Indian Army has accused the PLA of firing in the air when Chinese troops were prevented from closing in on an Indian forward position on September 7.

The Chinese envoy said the “way ahead for [a] solution is very clear” – he pointed to the agreement reached by the two foreign ministers that as the situation eases, the two sides should expedite work on new confidence-building measures to maintain and enhance peace and tranquility in the border areas.

Sun said the top leadership of the two countries had reached a series of consensus, including the basic judgement that China and India are partners rather than rivals. “Therefore, we need peace instead of confrontation; we need to pursue win-win cooperation instead of zero-sum game; we need trust rather than suspicion; we need to move our relationship forward rather than backward,” he said.

He reiterated Wang Yi’s observation that it is normal for China and India to have differences, but it is important is to put these differences in a proper context vis-a-vis bilateral ties. “At present, the challenge we’re facing is to fight the epidemic, revive the economy and improve people’s livelihoods,” he said.

India-China Standoff. The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet. “Our biggest worry is that they have laid optical fiber cables for high-speed communications,” the first official said, referring to the Pangong Tso Lake’s southern bank, where Indian and Chinese troops are only a few hundred metres apart at some points.
India-China Standoff. The Battle of Right Against Might to evict the military occupier of Tibet.
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