March 03, World Wildlife Day. The principle of unity underlying the biodiversity

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – IMPERISHABLE, IMMUTABLE, AND IMMORTAL PRINCIPLE OPERATING ALL LIVING THINGS

March 03, World Wildlife Day. The principle of unity underlying the biodiversity. Qing Mendous, extinct species was part of a group of Lobe Finned Fishes.

Living Things are made up of 1. Living Matter, and 2. Physical Form. The Form or Morphological Appearance of Living Things is used in their identification and for classification.

Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of all Living Things. Living Things Change Under Influence of Time. Changes of Growth and Development.

Theory of Evolution carefully records similarities between different living things and claims that living things are constantly changing and descend into new forms of living things that are again identified by their morphological appearance. Change is a Natural Phenomenon. Things in Nature change under influence of Time.

Protoplasm or Cytoplasm is the clear, soft, gelatinous living substance found inside all living cells. A most striking characteristic of Protoplasm is its vital property of Nutrition. Nutrition is the power which Protoplasm has of attracting to itself the materials that provide energy and are necessary for its growth and maintenance.

However, the problem of biodiversity is not resolved by Theory of Evolution. Living things change in appearance due to natural process called Growth and Development or due to aging process.  Changes in Genetic Code called Mutation does not affect Chemical Composition of Living Matter while it may cause change in form or appearance.But any such observed change in appearance is possible if and only if Living Matter retains its basic chemical composition and behaves as if it is operated by Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle.

Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Chemical components of living cells such as Bacteria remains same unaffected by Mutations which may change Genetic Code.

All living things exist in nature by consuming other living things or consuming products made by other living things. All living things appear to be varied and yet consist of the same kind of Chemical Compounds. To a great extent, Chemical Elements retain their attributes as if they are imperishable, immutable, and can even said to be immortal. This unchanging nature or Spiritual attribute helps formulation of Fundamental Laws of Matter described by classical Physics and Chemistry. Over billions of years, Living Matter retained its basic Chemical Composition as Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds governed or operated by imperishable, immutable, and immortal or Spiritual Principle not influenced by time or changes in climate, or other variable external conditions.

Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. The Organic Material called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm exhibits Nature that can neither be created nor destroyed. There is no ‘Evolutionary Change’.

The Organic Material called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm exhibits Nature that can neither be created nor destroyed. Its Nature is not subject to ‘Evolutionary Change’.

Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. This Ray Finned Fish shares the same characteristics found in all Living Things without significant variation in Chemical Components.

In my analysis, Theory of Evolution is fundamentally flawed for its focus on change in morphological appearance does not take into account the Unchanging Nature of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds. There is no evolution for the chemical composition of the living matter has essentially remained the same.

Spirituality Science – Concept of Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) and Tree of Life.

Biological Diversity is reflected by the number of Living Animal and Plant species. All of these lifeforms are operated by the same Unchanging Spiritual Principle. I explain Biological Diversity is the product of a creative mechanism that formulates the morphological appearance of living things while they are essentially made up of the same Living Substance. Every living thing fundamentally exists as an Individual with Individuality. There are no two perfectly identical living things. For there is such vast diversity of living things, for purposes of convenience, they may be grouped and classified using principles shared by Taxonomy. Some Forms of Life became extinct over course of time but Life has not perished and Living Matter continues to exist as before. Indeed all varied Forms of Life are formed by the same Chemical Elements.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG


World Wildlife Day
3 March

Illustration for the March 03, 2020 World Wildlife Day campaign under the theme “Sustaining all life on Earth.” Credit: World Wildlife Day/Patrick George.

The incalculable value of wildlife

The animals and plants that live in the wild have an intrinsic value and contribute to the ecological, genetic, social, economic, scientific, educational, cultural, recreational and aesthetic aspects of human well-being and to sustainable development.

World Wildlife Day is an opportunity to celebrate the many beautiful and varied forms of wild fauna and flora and to raise awareness of the multitude of benefits that their conservation provides to people. At the same time, the Day reminds us of the urgent need to step up the fight against wildlife crime and human-induced reduction of species, which have wide-ranging economic, environmental and social impacts. Given these various negative effects, Sustainable Development Goal 15 focuses on halting biodiversity loss.

Sustaining all life on Earth

The theme of World Wildlife Day 2020, “Sustaining all life on Earth”, encompasses all wild animal and plant species as a component of biodiversity, as well as the livelihoods of people, especially those who live closest to the nature. This aligns with UN Sustainable Development Goals 1, 12, 14 and 15, and their wide-ranging commitments on alleviating poverty, ensuring sustainable use of resources, and on conserving life both on land and below water to halt biodiversity loss.

Earth is home to countless species of fauna and flora – too many to even attempt counting. Historically, we have depended on the constant interplay and interlinkages between all elements of the biosphere for all our needs: the air we breathe, the food we eat, the energy we use, and the materials we need for all purposes. However, unsustainable human activities and overexploitation of the species and natural resources are imperiling the world’s biodiversity. Nearly a quarter of all species are presently at risk of going extinct in the coming decades.

The year 2020, known as “biodiversity super year,” will host several major global events that place biodiversity at the forefront. It provides a unique opportunity to deliver transformative progress for the conservation and sustainable use of the species of wild animals and plants.

Get involved

Share what you’ve learned with your friends and family.

CSpread the word, especially to children and youth. They are the future leaders of wildlife conservation and they deserve a future where we humans live in harmony with wildlife that share the planet with us.

Remember to use the hashtags #WorldWildlifeDay #WWD2020 #SustainingAllLife #Biodiversity2020 #SustainableUse

Video for World Wildlife Day

Let us remind ourselves of our duty to preserve and sustainably use the vast variety of life on the planet. Let us push for a more caring, thoughtful and sustainable relationship with nature. António Guterres

World Wildlife Day poster

March 03, World Wildlife Day. The principle of unity underlying biodiversity.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Lobe-Finned Fish often called ‘Living Fossil’ remains Unchanged over millions of years.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Extinct Form of Fish called COELACANTH. Some forms of life became extinct, but life has not perished for Living Matter continues to exist as before.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Lobe-Finned Fish continues to live while some forms of Life became extinct during course of time.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Lobe-Finned Fish belongs to Order Sarcopterygii. No distinction between Living Things can be made on the basis of their Chemical Components.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Lungfish. While individual living things are born and die, Life continues without change in Chemical Components.
Spirituality Science – Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle of Living Things. Extinct Form of Lobe-Finned Fish. Individual Living Things experience Birth and Death while Life continues as before with same Chemical Components.

FEBRUARY 29. MUSINGS ON LEAP YEAR 2020. LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP

LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP – WHAT IS PRUDENCE?

February 29. Musings on Leap Year 2020. Look Before You Leap. What is Prudence?

LORD HANUMAN’S LEAP – PRUDENCE IS INDISPENSABLE TO GOOD HUMAN LIFE

LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP

The Indian epic poem of ‘RAMAYANA‘ describes life journey of Lord Rama, the Prince of the Ayodhya Kingdom who was exiled to live in the forest. The story narrates the abduction of His wife, Princess Sita. While searching the forest to find Sita, Lord Rama befriends the ‘VANARA’ or Monkey Forces of Kishkindha Kingdom. The Vanara King Sugriva in an effort to find Sita dispatched his forces in all directions with very strict orders to report back within a month. The search party that proceeded southwards eventually reach the southern sea-shore at the end of their appointed time for reporting back to the King. While they were feeling anxious about their delayed mission, they receive a vital clue about Sita held captive in the island kingdom of Lanka ruled by the demon King Ravana. The search party now gets fearful about the course of action they have to choose. They seek counsel from the eldest member of their party. They decide against returning home with secondhand information about Princess Sita’s whereabouts. After due deliberation, they choose to physically verify the accuracy of the information about Princess Sita’s presence in the island. The action that they selected requires crossing the sea, entering an enemy kingdom, searching diligently tightly guarded places, and returning safely crossing the sea one more time. In the context of this story, as there is no land bridge to reach the island, the safest way to get there is to jump across the sea in one leap. The party’s elder leader recommends entrusting Hanuman with this difficult and challenging mission. The choice of Hanuman is prudent because of His strength, courage, intelligence, and other special abilities like changing of body size at His discretion. The story describes that Hanuman stood on a hill by the name of Mahendra to gain advantage for the proposed leap. He looks at the sea and directs His mind towards the island of Lanka. He is sure about His devotion to Lord Rama and He is certain about His desire to fulfil Lord Rama’s purpose. He said to Himself: “I shall search and find Sita. I shall fly in the sky and cross the sea”. However, He undertakes this mission with a sense of absolute modesty and humility. He offers worship and prayers to God and to all creation before He leaps into the sky with a roar of triumph. With that leap, Hanuman’s role in the story of Ramayana reaches heroic proportions and continues to be very exalted till the end of the story.

THE QUALITY OF PRUDENCE

February 29. Musings on Leap Year 2020. Look Before You Leap. What is Prudence?

The quality of prudence is most concerned with action. Prudence is a product of experience and a possession of reason. The maxims of prudence are counsel, deliberation, and judgment. A prudent man knows how to deliberate or calculate well about things to be done. He evaluates the negative as well as the positive consequences of his actions. Prudence also shapes the character of the person. Use of unjust or dishonest means to achieve the end or goal set for oneself is not prudence. ‘ One cannot have prudence unless one has the moral virtues; since prudence is the right reason about things to be done, to which end man is rightly disposed by moral virtue’. The choice of the best means is as important as the election of the right end. The clever thief who plans and executes a successful robbery exhibits no prudence but its counterfeit called cunning. The rightness of the means requires not merely that they are adapted to an end, but that the end itself be right. Prudence has a role in all the concerns of life. The right end, whether that be the goal of personal happiness or the common good of society, or the performance of one’s duties, cannot be achieved unless the means to it are rightly chosen. Prudence can be acquired through learning to take sufficient counsel and to deliberate enough before taking any action. The habit of prudent action can be gained by a remembrance of the past experience, by the understanding of what is present, and providing for the future by resolving thoughts and making decisions and commanding their execution.

A PRAYER TO LORD HANUMAN

February 29. Musings on Leap Year 2020. Look Before You Leap. What is Prudence?

Having known that my human body is deficient of intelligence, I call upon Pavan Kumar(Son of Wind God or VAYU) asking Him to grant me strength, intelligence, and true knowledge to dissolve all of my blemishes which cause pain and misery.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

https://bhavanajagat.com/2008/12/23/nine-years-service-medal-a-salute-to-the-law-of-temperance/

February 29. Musings on Leap Year 2020. Look Before You Leap. What is Prudence?

February 28. My Musings on the discovery of the chemical structure of DNA Molecule

DISCOVERY OF CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF DNA – FEBRUARY 28, 1953

Discovery of Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”

DNA is found mostly in the cell nucleus, but another type of nucleic acid, RNA, is common in the cytoplasm. Watson and Crick proposed that RNA must copy the DNA message in the nucleus and carry it out to the cytoplasm, where proteins are synthesized. Crick also predicted the existence of an “adaptor” molecule that reads the genetic code and selects the appropriate amino acids to add to a growing polypeptide chain. This proposed flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein became known as the “Central Dogma.”

As it turned out, several types of RNA are involved in the utilization of genetic information. In the nucleus, the DNA code is “transcribed,” or copied, into a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. In the cytoplasm, the mRNA code is “translated” into amino acids. Translation is orchestrated at the ribosome — itself partly composed of RNA — with transfer RNA playing the role of adaptor.

The Discovery of Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953.
Discovery of DNA Chemical Structure on February 28, 1953 by Cambridge University Scientists James Watson and Frances Crick. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”

On this day, February 28, 1953, James Watson and Frances Crick announced their discovery of chemical structure of DNA. It is important to recognize DNA molecules as source of biological information, genetic information, or innate knowledge that enables living cells to perform a variety of guided, sequential, purposeful, and goal-oriented ‘immanent’ actions. It helps me to define term ‘Life’ as,  “Life is Knowledge in Action.”

The Discovery of the Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953.

However, DNA molecules do not acquire energy from an external source. Cytoplasm or Protoplasm has power called ‘Nutrition’ with which it attracts matter found in external environment of cell. For this reason, Viruses that are basically constituted by DNA or RNA molecules are not capable of independent existence and their living functions such as replication demand assistance from a living host cell.

WHO AM I? This question must be answered by applying a reasoning process to Inferential Knowledge about Cell Structure(ANATOMY) and Cell Functions(PHYSIOLOGY). Life is defined as “Knowledge in Action.” February 28. My Musings on the Discovery of the Chemical Structure of Dna.

DNA is an important biomolecule for it directs protein synthesis and yet it does not qualify as the vital, animating principle found in all living organisms.

Animal cells contain three main regions:  plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm.  The nucleus is a cell’s central organelle, which contains the cell’s DNA.  The cytoplasm is composed of two parts, the cytosol and organelles.  Cytosol, the jelly-like substance within the cell, provides the fluid medium necessary for biochemical reactions.  An organelle (“little organ”) is one of several different types of membrane-enclosed bodies in the cell, each performing a unique function. Just as the various bodily organs work together in harmony to perform all of a human’s functions, the many different cellular organelles work together to keep the cell healthy and performing all of its important functions.

In my analysis, I use the term ‘Spiritual’ to describe the harmonious interactions between the plasma membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, and the various intracellular organelles in the performance of various living functions. These harmonious interactions are possible on account of the ‘Spiritual’ Nature of the Corporeal Substance or the Living Matter called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
BHAVANAJAGAT. ORG

LIFE IS KNOWLEDGE IN ACTION

Feb 28

THIS DAY IN HISTORY

The artistic depiction of the Double-Helix structure of the DNA molecule. The DNA molecule always exhibits individualistic variation in its behavior. In other words, with a natural, or synthetic genome, two living entities will always exist as Individuals with Individuality. Life as such is a created phenomenon, with or without patent, no individual, or corporation has the ability to transgress this fundamental Law of Nature.

This Day In History: 02/28/1953 – DNA Structure Discovered

On February 28th many historical events occurred. These events are recapped by Russell Mitchell in this video clip from “This Day in History”. The discovery of DNA by James Watson and Frances Crick being a major one for the scientific community. Not only was DNA discovered on this day, but the Republican Party was founded in Wisconsin. The well-known album Thriller by Michael Jackson won eight Emmy awards as well.

1953

Watson and Crick discover chemical structure of DNA

On this day in 1953, Cambridge University scientists James D. Watson and Frances H.C. Crick announce that they have determined the double-helix structure of DNA, the molecule containing human genes.
Though DNA–short for deoxyribonucleic acid–was discovered in 1869, its crucial role in determining genetic inheritance wasn’t demonstrated until 1943. In the early 1950s, Watson and Crick were only two of many scientists working on figuring out the structure of DNA. California chemist Linus Pauling suggested an incorrect model at the beginning of 1953, prompting Watson and Crick to try and beat Pauling at his own game. On the morning of February 28, they determined that the structure of DNA was a double-helix polymer, or a spiral of two DNA strands, each containing a long chain of monomer nucleotides, wound around each other. According to their findings, DNA replicated itself by separating into individual strands, each of which became the template for a new double helix. In his best-selling book, The Double Helix (1968), Watson later claimed that Crick announced the discovery by walking into the nearby Eagle Pub and blurting out that “we had found the secret of life.” The truth wasn’t that far off, as Watson and Crick had solved a fundamental mystery of science–how it was possible for genetic instructions to be held inside organisms and passed from generation to generation.
Watson and Crick’s solution was formally announced on April 25, 1953, following its publication in that month’s issue of Nature magazine. The article revolutionized the study of biology and medicine. Among the developments that followed directly from it were pre-natal screening for disease genes; genetically engineered foods; the ability to identify human remains; the rational design of treatments for diseases such as AIDS; and the accurate testing of physical evidence in order to convict or exonerate criminals.
Crick and Watson later had a falling-out over Watson’s book, which Crick felt misrepresented their collaboration and betrayed their friendship. A larger controversy arose over the use Watson and Crick made of research done by another DNA researcher, Rosalind Franklin, whose colleague Maurice Wilkins showed her X-ray photographic work to Watson just before he and Crick made their famous discovery. When Crick and Watson won the Nobel Prize in 1962, they shared it with Wilkins. Franklin, who died in 1958 of ovarian cancer and was thus ineligible for the award, never learned of the role her photos played in the historic scientific breakthrough.

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Discovery of Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. Thanks to Rosalind Franklin for her contribution. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”
Discovery of Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. Thanks to Scientist Rosalind Franklin and the photographs she provided. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”
The Discovery of the Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. The role of DNA in Protein Synthesis.
Discovery of Chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. DNA provides the range of information used in Protein Synthesis by living organisms. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”
Discovery of chemical Structure of DNA on February 28, 1953. DNA is source of biological or genetic information used in directing Protein Synthesis. “Life is Knowledge in Action.”

Chakrata Karma. My Life Journey From Freedom in Chakrata to Slavery in the United States

Chakrata Karma. My Life Journey From Freedom in Chakrata to Slavery in the United States. Tenzin Gyatso(b. 1935), the 14th Dalai Lama’s Enthronement Ceremony on 22 February, 1940. Dalai Lama is the Supreme Ruler of Tibet.

I use the phrase “CHAKRATA KARMA” to account for my Life Journey from Freedom in Chakrata to Slavery in the United States. I am a Refugee. But, who is my Refuge?

Chakrata Karma. My Life Journey From Freedom in Chakrata to Slavery in the United States. The 14th Dalai Lama sitting on the throne in this photo image of 1956-57 while Tibet came under Communist China’s military occupation during 1950. With military assistance from the United States and India, Tibetans had revolted against the Communists and the Dalai Lama fled into exile when the massive Tibetan Uprising failed during March 1959.

The Dalai Lama lives in India. We clearly know that India was unwilling to grant asylum to the Dalai Lama during his first visit to India in May 1956. In March 1959, the Dalai Lama could escape from Tibet to live in Exile in India as the United States gave the firm assurance to India to act without any fear of China’s military power to retaliate against India’s decision to grant the political asylum.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Tibetans Mark 80th Anniversary of Dalai Lama Enthronement

By VOA NewsFebruary 21, 2020 08:09 PM

FILE PHOTO: Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama gestures as he arrives at a hotel in Darmstadt, Germany, September 18, 2018…
Chakrata Karma. My Life Journey From Freedom in Chakrata to Slavery in the United States.

Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama is celebrating the 80th anniversary of his enthronement Saturday.

The 14th Dalai Lama, who was born Lhamo Thondup, was just a toddler when he was identified as the reincarnation of his predecessor. Tibetan Buddhists believe that senior Buddhist monks can after death choose to be reborn in the body of a child.

The Dalai Lama was enthroned as Tibet’s most important spiritual leader on Feb. 22, 1940, at the age of 4.

Since then, he has been a spiritual leader to Tibetans, strongly advocating nonviolence and winning a Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 for his efforts to bring about an autonomous Tibet.

Born in Tibet in 1935, the 85-year-old spiritual leader has spent most of his life in neighboring India. The Dalai Lama fled Tibet following a failed uprising against Chinese rule in 1959 and now lives in the northern Indian hill town of Dharamsala, where his supporters run a government-in-exile.

The Dalai Lama said he is seeking greater autonomy for his remote mountain homeland and not independence, while China accuses him of being a dangerous separatist. China has used its influence on the world stage to urge international leaders not to meet with the spiritual leader.

In April 2019, the Dalai Lama was admitted to the hospital in the Indian capital of New Delhi with a chest infection and has since reduced his public audiences. However, aides said he is doing well.

The question of the next Dalai Lama’s reincarnation has political implications. China has said its leaders have the right to approve the Dalai Lama’s successor, as a legacy inherited from China’s emperors.

However, the Dalai Lama’s own website said that a person who reincarnates has “sole legitimate authority” over where the rebirth takes place and how the reincarnation is recognized.

The Dalai Lama himself has made several statements about his next rebirth, saying he might choose not to be reincarnated at all, and also saying that if he does choose to take rebirth, it will be in a free country.

CHAKRATA KARMA. MY LIFE JOURNEY FROM FREEDOM IN CHAKRATA TO SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. THE SPIRITS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE ARE SHARING THIS PHOTO ILLEGALLY OBTAINED BY A CHINESE SPY. THE PHOTO WAS TAKEN AT CHAKRATA ON 03 JUNE, 1972 WHILE HIS HOLINESS THE 14th DALAI LAMA WAS PRESENTED A GUARD OF HONOR BY MAJOR GENERAL SUJAN SINGH UBAN, AVSM, INSPECTOR GENERAL, SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE. MY INDIAN ARMY CAREER BEGAN AT THIS LOCATION AND I WILL CONTINUE TO FIGHT FOR FREEDOM AND DEMOCRACY IN THE OCCUPIED LAND OF TIBET.

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibets Freedom is won not through the barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by a Foreign Prophecy

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibet’s Freedom is won not through the barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by a Foreign Prophecy. The Apocalypse of Apostle John. The Book of REVELATION is the only Hope for Tibet’s Future.

In my analysis, the 14th Dalai Lama has not shared his insight or prophecy about the future of Tibet. Tibetan Buddhism as a religion could be obsessed with Prophecy but the prophetic prediction about the future of Tibet remains unknown.

The Dalai Lama is a foreign title. For that reason, I examine the foreign prophetic traditions to predict the resolution of ‘The Great Tibet Problem’. I ask my readers to reflect upon the prophecy shared by Apostle John in Chapter 18 of the Book of REVELATION.

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibet’s Freedom is not won through the Barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by Foreign Prophecy. The prophetic prediction of Prophet Isaiah.

Tibet’s Freedom is not won through the Barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by the Prophecy shared by Prophet Isaiah (ISAIAH 47:10 &11).

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

The Dalai Lama is a foreign title. A Foreign Prophecy and not the Power of a Foreign Service Rifle wins Tibet’s Freedom or the Deliverance from Occupation.

Who Is the Dalai Lama?

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibet’s Freedom is not won through the Barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle. Alexander Norman first met the Dalai Lama 30 years ago. The two have collaborated on several books.Credit…E.A. Norman

By Donald S. Lopez

THE DALAI LAMA
An Extraordinary Life
By Alexander Norman

“Dalai Lama” is a foreign title. Tibetans refer to him with names like “Precious Protector,” “Wish-Fulfilling Jewel” and “the Presence.” The divide between the Tibetan Buddhist world — which often has included China and Mongolia — and the world beyond has rarely been of particular consequence to the Dalai Lamas, until this one, the 14th, who is the first to spend most of his life in exile; he fled to India in 1959 and has not returned. His biographer, facing the usual problems of recounting the life of a figure still living (the Dalai Lama will be 85 this year), is also faced with the dilemma of describing his life on the world stage (which has been fairly well documented) and his life inside the world of Tibetan Buddhism (which has not). This is the challenge that Alexander Norman, a longtime associate of the Dalai Lama, takes up in his new biography.

Who is the Dalai Lama? Tibet is unique in the Buddhist world for its system of “incarnate lamas,” the idea being that advanced spiritual masters are able to choose the place for their next rebirth, returning to the world in lifetime after lifetime to teach the dharma. There were many such lineages of lamas in Tibet, and the Dalai Lama was just one of them until 1642. It was then that the fifth Dalai Lama was placed on the throne of Tibet by a Mongol khan, his successors becoming at least the titular head of state. The current incarnation took over the government in 1950 at age 15 when the People’s Liberation Army crossed into eastern Tibet.

Like the authors of other biographies of the current Dalai Lama, Norman does not read or speak Tibetan. However, he has the advantage of being able to use histories published over the past two decades that draw on Tibetan and Chinese sources, none more important than the four volumes by Melvyn C. Goldstein, which provide 2,700 pages on the period from 1913 to 1959. Norman puts these to good use, as well as recently published books about the Dalai Lama’s two tutors, making this biography the most detailed and accurate to date.

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibet’s Freedom is won not through the Barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by a Foreign Prophecy.

“The Dalai Lama: An Extraordinary Life” is strongest on the early period, starting, wisely, not with the 14th Dalai Lama, but the 13th (1876-1933), who faced so many of the challenges that his successor would inherit and who left a chillingly prescient prophecy of what lay ahead for his country. Norman makes clear that “old Tibet” was no Shangri-La, describing the corruption and intrigue of the Tibetan court and the sclerosis that the 13th and the young 14th tried, and failed, to cure.

The book contains a number of errors, most of the minor variety, especially concerning the admittedly arcane world of Tibetan Buddhism; the Dalai Lama did not debate about colors — a topic for novice monks — during his examination for the highest monastic degree. Throughout, however, the biography is judicious on topics that often inspire hyperbole and mystification. For example, the Dalai Lama has navigated the modern world while consulting on all matters of import with oracles possessed by wrathful deities. Norman’s description of a crisis over which deity to propitiate, a crisis that began with the thirteenth and continues to the present day, is impressive in its clarity.

He also reveals the Dalai Lama to be a sophisticated thinker and consummate scholar, one whose feet remain firmly on the ground, a trait often obscured by his broken English. In keeping with a religion so obsessed with prophecy, the book, written in an engaging prose, ends with an insightful prediction of the legacy of the fourteenth Dalai Lama, and a cleareyed assessment of the challenges that the fifteenth will face.

Donald S. Lopez is a scholar of Tibetan Buddhism. His forthcoming book is “Buddha Takes the Mound: Enlightenment in 9 Innings.”

THE DALAI LAMA
An Extraordinary Life
By Alexander Norman
410 pp. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. $30.

The Dalai Lama is a Foreign Title. Tibet’s Freedom is not won through the Barrel of a Foreign Service Rifle but by a Foreign Prophecy. The US President Richard Nixon Visits China during the last week of February 1972.. The Week My Life Doomed.

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA IN 1956.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.

In my analysis of the Dalai Lama’s first visit to India in 1956, I want to inform my readers about the beginning of the Tibetan Resistance Movement in 1949 with the assistance and assurances given by the United States. India pursued a course of action after consulting both Tibet and the United States. The massive Tibetan Uprising in March 1959 failed as it did not involve the direct participation of the US or the Indian armed forces. The military capabilities of China were grossly underestimated and China could easily overwhelm the Tibetan Resistance. Both the United States and India had to concede their mistake and both worked together to grant political asylum to the Dalai Lama in 1959.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA IN 1956. THE HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS : LIFE IN EXILE .

Untold stories from the Dalai Lama’s first India visit

CHAKRATA KARMA. 1956 THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. Being received by the Chögyal of Sikkim while the Panchen Lama, seen here to the left of the Dalai Lama, looks on. Gangtok, 1956. Photo courtesy: Office of his holiness The Dalai Lama

Alexander Norman

This excerpt from the new authoritative biography of the Tibetan leader reveals little-known facets of his life—including a vivid account of his first visit to India on Jawaharlal Nehru’s invitation

Following Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s intervention in 1956, Chairman of the Communist Party of China Mao Zedong had executed a U-turn on the proposed trip to India, and the Dalai Lama was informed that he would be permitted to go after all. Although Mao took the precaution of scheduling two consecutive visits to India by the Chinese premier Zhou Enlai during the time the Dalai Lama was to be in the country, the Chinese made the further decision not to send a large delegation to accompany the Precious Protector. As Deng Xiaoping—later to emerge as Mao’s successor—wrote, this was to be “a test” for the Dalai Lama. Mao meanwhile spoke candidly of the risks this entailed at a meeting of the Communist Party Central Committee: “It must be anticipated that the Dalai Lama may not come back, and that in addition, he may abuse us every day, making allegations such as ‘the Communists have invaded Tibet,’ and that he may go so far as to declare the ‘independence of Tibet.’ ” Yet the prospect held no terror for Mao: “Shall I feel aggrieved at the desertion of one Dalai? Not at all…What harm will his departure do to us? None whatsoever. He can’t do more than curse us.”

Traveling overland by car via Shigatse, where he joined up with the Panchen Lama, the Precious Protector spent a short time at Dromo, the Tibetan border town he had last seen in 1951, before continuing the journey on horseback, up the steep track that led to the Nathu Pass, before it plunged down into Sikkim on the other side. The carcasses of mules that had “probably perished from exhaustion” and “clusters of sinister-looking vultures” hopping among them that were a perennial feature of the Tibetan trade routes might have served as a prophetic warning of the fate that was to befall Tibet.

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. The Dalai Lama (centre) with the two tutors, Ling Rinpoché (left) and Trijang Rinpoché. India, 1956. Photo courtesy: The Office of H E Kyabje Ling Rinpoché

India was a revelation, however. “People,” the Dalai Lama immediately saw, “expressed their real feelings and did not just say what they thought they ought to say.” The arrangements were, from his perspective, rather chaotic compared with the regimentation in China, but the enthusiasm of the people won him over. Everywhere he went, he was greeted by huge crowds of well-wishers, many of whom had traveled long distances just to get a glimpse of him.

From the Indian point of view, the Tibetan delegation was something of a revelation too. The task of hosting them “was not made easier by the fact that the Lamas’ followers were explosively sensitive to the smallest niceties of protocol and were ready to draw daggers at the merest suspicion of a slight,” according to one Indian official. Another challenge was the Indians’ awareness that any “accident” that might befall the Dalai Lama would be hugely advantageous to the Chinese—a mishap that would be relatively easy to arrange and then to lay at the door of the Indian government. His security was thus a constant source of anxiety, exacerbated by the tumultuous enthusiasm shown for the Tibetan leader whenever he appeared in public. A glimpse of this can be seen in the newsreels shot during his visit and in the recollections of some of those delegated to look after him.

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. One of the earliest known images of the 14th Dalai Lama, Kumbum Monastery, 1939. Photo courtesy: Center for Asian Studies, Arizona State University

Describing an occasion when he escorted the Panchen Lama to his quarters in Gangtok, Nari Rustomji (a government official) wrote: “We had hardly passed the Palace gates before a crowd that seemed like the entire population of Sikkim lunged madly forward, man, woman and child, with arms vainly outstretched, for a touch of the vehicle we were travelling in. I seriously feared our station wagon would be overturned, but there was no remedy as the police, themselves devout Buddhists, were too overawed by the Presence [a common epithet used by Tibetans both for the Dalai and the Panchen Lamas] to dream of controlling the crowds. Coins, currency notes, ceremonial scarves, amulets came whirring through the windows…until at last we were compelled to close them in self-defence. Our security arrangements might have served well enough for common or garden mortals, but certainly not for the Living God, whose only protection now was his own divinity.”

With respect to the two lamas’ personalities, Rustomji, himself a Parsi, recalled his impressions in his autobiography: “I have often been asked whether I was ever aware of supernatural forces emanating from the Lamas’ presence. I have to confess that, for all the eager and excited anticipation of their divine immanence, they remained, for me, two very charming and sensible young men, of gentle and considerate manner, inquiring and vigorous mind and irresistibly attractive personality.”

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. The Dalai Lama An Extraordinary Life.

This attractiveness was, he also noted, not lost on some of their young female devotees, perhaps inspired by folk memories of the dissolute Sixth Dalai Lama. “It was,” he wrote, “evident from the homely talk” of some of his Sikkimese friends that “there were many in Lhasa who were as carried away by the youthful charm of the Lamas as by their divinity, and they told us tales of some of their more passionate young friends whose secret purpose in seeking the Dalai Lama’s blessing was that they might be nearer the object of desire…Could it really be, wondered the belles of Lhasa, that the Dalai Lama could be utterly immune to feminine allure? It was a challenge to Venus which provoked them to higher endeavours. The Panchen, too, was not without his admirers. And wicked gossip whispered that the chinks in his armour were already showing through.”

But while the Panchen Lama’s susceptibility to female charms struck Rustomji, he noted that, though the Dalai Lama “had a delightful sense of fun…there was something not of this world, ethereal and ageless, in [his] expression that moved me all the more deeply.”

From the moment he set foot in the country until the day he left, eleven weeks later, the question at the forefront of the Dalai Lama’s mind was whether to return to Tibet, or was now the moment to seek asylum abroad? There were strong feelings in both directions among those closest to him. In favor of staying in India were his older brothers Gyalo Thondup and Jigme Norbu—the first already based in India, the second having flown in specially from America. Sitting up with them until midnight, the Dalai Lama recalled, “Their views really shook me.” Phala, too, the Lord Chamberlain, together with one of the former tsit tsab (chief ministers), took a similar line. On the other side were the four members of the Kashag and, less vociferously, the two tutors, while the representatives of the Three Seats were firmly in favor of returning to Tibet. Also of importance was the opinion of the people of Tibet, who could be assumed to favor his return. For them to be without the Dalai Lama was to be bereaved.

From Sikkim, the Precious Protector flew to Delhi, where his first engagement was to lay flowers and a kathag (a white silk scarf) at Rajghat, in honor of Mahatma Gandhi, whose memorial stands there. The experience affected him profoundly. “It was a calm and beautiful spot,” he later wrote, “and I felt very grateful to be there, the guest of a people like mine who had endured foreign domination.”

The next few days in Delhi were occupied with official receptions at which he was greeted by almost every dignitary in the capital. Not only was the Dalai Lama still nominally a head of state, but also the Tibetan leader was something more than a mere political figure. For many Indians he was an avatar, a holy man without compare. Though they did not share his religion, they nonetheless eagerly sought darshan of him: a blessing and a glimpse of the divine.

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. The Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, 2018. He has lived in India for over 60 years now. Photo courtesy: Office of his Holiness The Dalai Lama

While he was in Delhi, the Dalai Lama met with Zhou Enlai, the Chinese premier, who was en route to a number of other Asian countries. As the Dalai Lama wrote in his autobiography, he found Zhou “as full of charm, smiles and deceit as ever.” Besides telling the Tibetan leader of Mao’s recent decision to delay reforms indefinitely in the Tibet Autonomous Region, Zhou assured him that if the Dalai Lama would care to accompany him back to Beijing, Chairman Mao would be glad to see the Precious Protector again and to allay in person any fears he might have. As for Gyalo Thondup and Jigme Norbu (both of whom Zhou clearly suspected of agitating for the Dalai Lama to seek asylum abroad), should they happen to be short of funds, the Chinese embassy would be happy to supply the Dalai Lama with money to give them—though it would be better if he did not disclose its source. This last was a strange remark. For all his guile, it is clear that Zhou was a less astute judge of character than his adversary.

Notwithstanding Zhou’s assurance that there would be no reforms in the Tibet Autonomous Region, it left untouched the question of what was to happen in Kham and Amdo. The violent struggle now firmly under way there was certain to continue.

From Delhi, the Precious Protector traveled to Bodh Gaya, where, to his delight, he was able to spend several days conducting ceremonies at this, the most sacred of all Buddhist pilgrimage sites. A speech he made at this time is remarkable for its prescience. Noting that in one of the sutras, or scriptures, there is a prophecy made by the Buddha that 2,500 years after his parinirvana—or passing beyond suffering—the dharma would flourish in the land of the red-faced people, he explained that some held this to refer to its spread in Tibet, “but one scholar has interpreted otherwise. According to him the prediction refers to Europe.” What the Dalai Lama could not have imagined at the time was that it would be he, more than anyone else, who would bring this about. Instead, his attention was focused when, on the last day of his stay at Bodh Gaya, unexpected news came that Zhou would be returning to Delhi the following day and sought an urgent meeting with the Tibetan leader.

CHAKRATA KARMA. THE DALAI LAMA’S FIRST VISIT TO INDIA. The Dalai Lama in a photograph from April 1959, the year he received asylum in India. Photo: Getty Images

At once the Dalai Lama sent a message to one of the young Tibetan government officials who had remained behind in Delhi. He was to leave immediately for the northeastern hill town of Kalimpong, where he was to discharge the medium of the Nechung oracle from his Scottish mission hospital bed, where he was being treated for arthritis, and bring him to Delhi the very next day. This was a tall order, given the distances involved and the as yet underdeveloped state of regional air links. Nonetheless, in spite of delays necessitating some frantic negotiation with airline officials and a frosty reception from the other passengers when they finally took their seats two hours after the scheduled departure, the Nechung medium and his two attendants successfully made it back to Delhi on time. It subsequently emerged that his advice was that the Precious Protector should now seek asylum.

Meanwhile, the Dalai Lama himself had fared less well. Arriving in Delhi by train earlier that evening, he had been hijacked by the Chinese ambassador. Without informing his Indian counterparts, the ambassador met the Dalai Lama at the train station and escorted him to his own car, which drove directly to the Chinese embassy. Meanwhile the rest of the Tibetan entourage took their seats in cars provided by the Indian government. The Tibetans arrived back at Hyderabad House, where they were quartered, aghast to find that they had mislaid their precious cargo. Only after frantic telephoning was the Dalai Lama finally located and retrieved from the Chinese embassy, where he had already had the first of what was to be several meetings with Zhou Enlai. It was a stunning diplomatic coup on the part of the Chinese.

These encounters with Zhou surrounded a critical meeting with Nehru at which the Precious Protector sought to determine the prime minister’s attitude toward a formal request for asylum. The Indian leader made clear his determination not to make any commitments that would harm India’s relationship with China. Indeed, so fully was his mind made up that he barely attended to what the Precious Protector had to say: “At first he listened and nodded politely. But…after a while he appeared to lose concentration as if he were about to [fall asleep].” The Dalai Lama explained that he had done all in his power to make the relationship with China work, but that he was now beginning to think it might be better to remain in India rather than return to Tibet. This evidently brought Nehru to his senses. He understood what the Tibetan was saying, he assured him, “but you must realise…that India cannot support you.” His advice was rather that the Dalai Lama should hold the Chinese to the terms of the Seventeen Point Agreement and speak out forcefully when they failed to do so.

At his subsequent meetings with Zhou, the Dalai Lama gave no indication that he was considering applying for political asylum. Indeed, the (Chinese) transcripts of the meetings have him dutifully speaking in the first-person plural when referring to Chinese government policy in Tibet. Yet it is clear also that the Chinese premier was well aware that the Tibetan leader had been making inquiries. He cautioned the Dalai Lama that, if he stayed in India, he would be in political exile. “At first when you say something bad against us as strongly as possible, you will get some money. The second and third time, when you do not have much to say against us, you will get small sums of money, and in the end they will not have money to give you.”

The opposing voices of the Nechung oracle and the Chinese premier were deeply unsettling, and when he left Delhi a few days later in the company of the Panchen Lama for a month-long tour of the country, the Dalai Lama was still in a quandary.

His schedule over the next few weeks consisted of visits to various important Buddhist pilgrimage sites, interspersed with sightseeing trips to several cities including Bombay, Calcutta, Bangalore, and Mysore. These visits to places connected with the founder of Buddhism had a profound impact on the Dalai Lama—none more so than at Vulture Peak in northeastern India, where the Buddha is believed to have preached the Mahayana, or Great Vehicle, for the first time. Here—possibly in prophetic anticipation of the thousands of monks he was himself to ordain over subsequent decades—the Dalai Lama enjoyed a vision during a meditation of monks reciting the Wisdom Mantra: “Om Ga-te Ga-te, Paraga-te, Bodhi Svaha.”

The visits to India’s industrial centers were of less interest. In news footage shot during this part of the visit, we see the Dalai Lama being shown around an industrial engineering project. He adjusts repeatedly an obviously uncomfortable workman’s safety helmet, and it is clear he is not enjoying the experience….

Doubtless the Indians’ intentions were to show the Tibetans that China had nothing on them in terms of material progress, but what impressed the Dalai Lama most was the enthusiasm of the people for their young democracy. The viewer of the contemporary footage is struck by the self-confidence of the crowds that attended the Precious Protector’s every public appearance. (Pilgrims could travel at half price on the railways.) On each arrival, the Dalai Lama is garlanded and presented with bouquets of flowers as the press fight for photographs and crowds cheer. In contrast, faithful Tibetans stand meekly patient in hope of catching a glimpse of the Precious One. Yet it is also instructive to look at the demeanor of the Dalai Lama himself. The pressure he felt himself under is palpable. At the Dehra Dun Military Academy he sits, evidently somewhat reluctantly, next to a copiously beribboned general, doubtless comparing the military might on display with what he had seen in China. As the presidential steam train lent to him for his journey draws slowly away from the station, he can be seen smiling and waving somewhat awkwardly in unfamiliar Western style. Following a visit to the Taj Mahal, he takes his place uncertainly behind Nehru on an elephant’s back. At the Air Force Academy he follows a more obviously eager Panchen Lama in taking a turn sitting in a training aircraft. In Calcutta he is taken to watch—without very much enthusiasm—the horseracing at the anachronistically named Royal Calcutta Turf Club. It is a relief to see him riding a miniature train with a delight exceeded only by that of the Panchen Lama, who altogether forgets the dignity of his office, veritably whooping with joy. One has a sense that here is a young man embattled, overburdened even, yet also someone determined to do his best whatever the circumstances.

The India trip ended, as it had begun, in Kalimpong. The Dalai Lama took up residence in the very same house as that occupied by the Great Thirteenth in 1911, following his own flight to exile in India when the Chinese sent an army into Lhasa. As it had long been, the town was a nest of spies (to use Nehru’s own words). To add to its febrile atmosphere was the presence of hundreds of refugees, mainly from Kham, desperate for the Dalai Lama to call them to arms. Prominent among these refugees was Gyalo Thondup, who had by now come to terms with John Hoskins, the twenty-nine-year-old head of the CIA’s Far East Division. America was by now very interested in Tibet as a way to cause trouble for the Chinese Communists. Hoskins, who was based at America’s Calcutta consulate, did not have a very favorable first impression of GT. “There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism,” he noted. Yet in spite of this poor initial impression, Washington decided the CIA should support the training, equipping, and insertion of an initial eight (later reduced to six) Tibetan agents. Hoskins gave Gyalo Thondup the task of recruiting the men, and he in turn involved his elder brother, Jigme Norbu. The six recruits were all Khampas, of whom four were ex-monks, one of these former ecclesiastics an especially fiery character by the name of Wangdu, who in his youth had shot a man dead for that age-old crime of “disrespect.” The agency’s estimation of GT changed over time. When eventually the CIA program came to an end, its then operations director requested that Gyalo Thondup “please arrange for your next incarnation to be Prime Minister of a country where we can do more to help you!,” noting that he had been extraordinarily successful in obtaining both material and political support from the United States.

It is certain that by now the Dalai Lama knew something of the CIA’s interest in supporting a resistance movement in Tibet. But Washington had not been unequivocal in championing the Tibetan cause, having failed in recent communications to make clear that it would back a resolution at the United Nations calling for Tibetan independence. Nor was it certain that the United States would recognize a Tibetan government in exile. Had Washington’s assurances been more explicit, it seems possible the Dalai Lama would have ignored the majority of his advisers, who favored returning, risked Nehru’s ire, and formally requested asylum. But in the absence of such assurances, the Tibetan leader remained uncertain.

The India trip ended, as it had begun, in Kalimpong. The Dalai Lama took up residence in the very same house as that occupied by the Great Thirteenth in 1911, following his own flight to exile in India when the Chinese sent an army into Lhasa. As it had long been, the town was a nest of spies (to use Nehru’s own words). To add to its febrile atmosphere was the presence of hundreds of refugees, mainly from Kham, desperate for the Dalai Lama to call them to arms. Prominent among these refugees was Gyalo Thondup, who had by now come to terms with John Hoskins, the twenty-nine-year-old head of the CIA’s Far East Division. America was by now very interested in Tibet as a way to cause trouble for the Chinese Communists. Hoskins, who was based at America’s Calcutta consulate, did not have a very favorable first impression of GT. “There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism,” he noted. Yet in spite of this poor initial impression, Washington decided the CIA should support the training, equipping, and insertion of an initial eight (later reduced to six) Tibetan agents. Hoskins gave Gyalo Thondup the task of recruiting the men, and he in turn involved his elder brother, Jigme Norbu. The six recruits were all Khampas, of whom four were ex-monks, one of these former ecclesiastics an especially fiery character by the name of Wangdu, who in his youth had shot a man dead for that age-old crime of “disrespect.” The agency’s estimation of GT changed over time. When eventually the CIA program came to an end, its then operations director requested that Gyalo Thondup “please arrange for your next incarnation to be Prime Minister of a country where we can do more to help you!,” noting that he had been extraordinarily successful in obtaining both material and political support from the United States.

It is certain that by now the Dalai Lama knew something of the CIA’s interest in supporting a resistance movement in Tibet. But Washington had not been unequivocal in championing the Tibetan cause, having failed in recent communications to make clear that it would back a resolution at the United Nations calling for Tibetan independence. Nor was it certain that the United States would recognize a Tibetan government in exile. Had Washington’s assurances been more explicit, it seems possible the Dalai Lama would have ignored the majority of his advisers, who favored returning, risked Nehru’s ire, and formally requested asylum. But in the absence of such assurances, the Tibetan leader remained uncertain.

The India trip ended, as it had begun, in Kalimpong. The Dalai Lama took up residence in the very same house as that occupied by the Great Thirteenth in 1911, following his own flight to exile in India when the Chinese sent an army into Lhasa. As it had long been, the town was a nest of spies (to use Nehru’s own words). To add to its febrile atmosphere was the presence of hundreds of refugees, mainly from Kham, desperate for the Dalai Lama to call them to arms. Prominent among these refugees was Gyalo Thondup, who had by now come to terms with John Hoskins, the twenty-nine-year-old head of the CIA’s Far East Division. America was by now very interested in Tibet as a way to cause trouble for the Chinese Communists. Hoskins, who was based at America’s Calcutta consulate, did not have a very favorable first impression of GT. “There was a lot of submissiveness rather than dynamism,” he noted. Yet in spite of this poor initial impression, Washington decided the CIA should support the training, equipping, and insertion of an initial eight (later reduced to six) Tibetan agents. Hoskins gave Gyalo Thondup the task of recruiting the men, and he in turn involved his elder brother, Jigme Norbu. The six recruits were all Khampas, of whom four were ex-monks, one of these former ecclesiastics an especially fiery character by the name of Wangdu, who in his youth had shot a man dead for that age-old crime of “disrespect.” The agency’s estimation of GT changed over time. When eventually the CIA program came to an end, its then operations director requested that Gyalo Thondup “please arrange for your next incarnation to be Prime Minister of a country where we can do more to help you!,” noting that he had been extraordinarily successful in obtaining both material and political support from the United States.

It is certain that by now the Dalai Lama knew something of the CIA’s interest in supporting a resistance movement in Tibet. But Washington had not been unequivocal in championing the Tibetan cause, having failed in recent communications to make clear that it would back a resolution at the United Nations calling for Tibetan independence. Nor was it certain that the United States would recognize a Tibetan government in exile. Had Washington’s assurances been more explicit, it seems possible the Dalai Lama would have ignored the majority of his advisers, who favored returning, risked Nehru’s ire, and formally requested asylum. But in the absence of such assurances, the Tibetan leader remained uncertain.

Edited excerpts from The Dalai Lama—An Extraordinary Life, forthcoming from HarperCollins India. The writer Alexander Norman has collaborated with the Dalai Lama on several best-selling books, including the autobiography, Freedom In Exile.

Chakrata Karma. The Dalai Lama’s first visit to India in 1956. The Tibetan Resistance Movement since 1949.

The Battle Against Coronavirus (COVID-19). The Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science.

THE BATTLE AGAINST NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (COVID-19). MOLECULAR BASIS OF SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – IMMUNOLOGY PROVIDES UNDERSTANDING OF SELF AND NON-SELF. PROTEIN MOLECULES CALLED ANTIGENS ELICIT IMMUNE RESPONSE.

To account for human existence, to face challenges to human survival, man has to identify molecules that operate various living functions. Man defends his life deploying protein molecules that recognize and respond to invasion of human body by pathogens consisting of foreign protein molecules. While learned experience provides cortical awareness of human immunological responses to attacks by pathogens, human mind is blissfully unaware of presence of pathogens. Recognition of non-self proteins and molecules called antigens is not a mental function. If Spirit or Soul functions as guiding mechanism, Spirit or Soul will have awareness of invasion of body by foreign antigens and body’s immunological response to such invasion. If Reticular Formation of Brain Stem, the site at which contents of Consciousness are composed, is viewed as seat of human Spirit or Soul, it has awareness of body’s invasion and response to attacks by pathogens. Immunological responses to infections trigger a stress response mediated by Hypothalamus – Pituitary – Adrenal Cortex Pathway.

The discovery of antibiotic-resistant Superbugs and the discovery of protein structures of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) may eventually lead to better understanding of Spirit or Soul in shaping human survival while warding off invasion by pathogens.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

First 3D map of coronavirus protein paves way for vaccine design

The Battle Against Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). The Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science.

This article, First 3D map of coronavirus protein paves way for vaccine design, originally appeared on CNET.com.

The first 3D map of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus responsible for over 2,000 deaths since December 2019, has been produced by a collaboration of coronavirus researchers at the University of Texas at Austin and the National Institutes of Health. Heralded as a breakthrough, the map provides a stepping stone to the development of antivirals or vaccines to stymie the virus.

In under two months, infections of the novel coronavirus have soared past 75,000 and caused significant economic turmoil in China and abroad. The World Health Organization has declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern and when it announced the name of the viral disease on Feb. 11, it added that a vaccine was likely 18 months away.

But scientists are mobilizing their resources quickly, sharing information about the virus with unprecedented pace, and turning experiments into peer-reviewed research in a matter of weeks.

That’s the case for Jason McLellan, a structural biochemist, and his team at UT Austin who have been studying similar coronaviruses for years. Their latest study, published in the journal Science on Wednesday, took advantage of state-of-the-art technology at the university to map the molecular structure of SARS-CoV-2, with a particular focus on the virus’ “spike protein.” The protein is critical to the viruses survival because it enables it to get inside human cells and begin making copies of itself. But what makes it dangerous also makes it a target.

The chief function of a vaccine is to prime the immune system. They work by presenting small parts of harmful pathogens like viruses and bacteria to our army of immune cells. It’s like a molecular “WANTED!” poster — the immune system gets a good look at any nasty bugs and starts to keep watch. If the real virus or bacteria sneak into the body, the immune system is ready and sends out an army of cells and antibodies to stop the invader.

After Chinese researchers shared the genetic sequence of the virus in January, the team were able to design and produce samples of the spike protein in the lab. Using a specialized form of microscopy, they then mapped its structure.

The research team showed there are similarities in the way the spike proteins work between the coronavirus responsible for the 2002-2003 SARS outbreak and the novel virus, SARS-CoV-2. However, the latter appears to bind to human cells much more strongly than the SARS virus did and antibodies against the first SARS virus don’t seem to react to the new virus in the same way.

Nevertheless, creating the 3D atomic scale map of the spike protein in SARS-CoV-2, the team were able to show it can elicit an immune response, making it a viable molecule to speed up vaccine design and development.

The coronavirus uses this protein to invade human cells.

Previous research revealed that coronaviruses invade cells through so-called “spike” proteins, but those proteins take on different shapes in different coronaviruses. Figuring out the shape of the spike protein in SARS-Cov-2 is the key to figuring out how to target the virus, said Jason McLellan, senior author of the study and an associate professor of molecular biosciences at the University of Texas at Austin.

Though the coronavirus uses many different proteins to replicate and invade cells, the spike protein is the major surface protein that it uses to bind to a receptor — another protein that acts like a doorway into a human cell. After the spike protein binds to the human cell receptor, the viral membrane fuses with the human cell membrane, allowing the genome of the virus to enter human cells and begin infection. So “if you can prevent attachment and fusion, you will prevent entry,” McLellan told Live Science. But to target this protein, you need to know what it looks like. 

This is the 3D atomic scale map or molecular structure of the SARS-2-CoV protein “spike” which the virus uses to invade human cells.
(Image: © Jason McLellan/Univ. of Texas at Austin)

Earlier this month, researchers published the genome of SARS-Cov-2. Using that genome, McLellan and his team, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH), identified the specific genes that code for the spike protein. They then sent that gene information to a company that created the genes and sent them back. The group then injected those genes into mammalian cells in a lab dish and those cells produced the spike proteins.

Next, using a very detailed microscopy technique called cryogenic electron microscopy, the group created a 3D “map,” or “blueprint,” of the spike proteins. The blueprint revealed the structure of the molecule, mapping the location of each of its atoms in space. 

“It’s impressive that these researchers were able to get the structure so quickly,” said Aubree Gordon, an associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan who was not a part of the study. “It’s a very important step forward and may help in the development of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2.”

Stephen Morse, a professor at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health who was also not a part of the study agrees. The spike protein “would be the likely choice for rapid development of vaccine antigens” and treatments, he told Live Science in an email. Knowing the structure would be “very helpful in developing vaccines and antibodies with good activity,” as would producing higher quantities of these proteins, he added.

The team is sending these atomic “coordinates” to dozens of research groups around the world who are working to develop vaccines and drugs to target SARS-CoV-2. Meanwhile, McLellan and his team hope to use the map of the spike protein as the basis for a vaccine.

When foreign invaders, such as bacteria or viruses, invade the body, immune cells fight back by producing proteins called antibodies. These antibodies bind to specific structures on the foreign invader, called the antigen. But producing antibodies can take time. Vaccines are dead or weakened antigens that train the immune system to create these antibodies before the body is exposed to the virus.

In theory, the spike protein itself “could be either the vaccine or variants of a vaccine,” McLellan said. When you inject this spike-protein-based vaccine, “humans would make antibodies against the spike, and then if they were ever exposed to the live virus,” the body would be prepared, he added. Based on previous research they did on other coronaviruses, the researchers introduced mutations, or changes to create a more stable molecule.

Indeed, “the molecule looks really good; it’s really well behaved; the structure kind of demonstrates that the molecule is stable in the correct confirmation that we were hoping for,” McLellan said. “So now we and others will use the molecule that we created as a basis for vaccine antigen.” Their colleagues at the NIH will now inject these spike proteins into animals to see how well the proteins trigger antibody production.

Still, McLellan thinks a vaccine is likely about 18 to 24 months away. That’s “still quite fast compared to normal vaccine development, which might take like 10 years,” he said. 

The findings were published today (Feb. 19) in the journal Science

Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Immunology provides the understanding of Self and Non-Self and the distinction demands recognition of Protein Molecules. Superbugs are antibiotic-resistant and pose challenge to human existence.

These are the top superbug threats in the U.S.

Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Human body defends itself from attacks by pathogens deploying unique Protein Molecules called Antibodies. Superbugs synthesize Protein Molecules that can overcome body’s immune response. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes infection called Gonorrhoea.

THE WHITE HOUSE HAS MADE THE GERMS ARE SERIOUS PRIORITY

Urgent threat. According to the White House plan to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriacea, CRE, is one of the country’s most urgent threats. Forty-four states have had at least one type of confirmed CREcase, which are resistant to nearly all antibiotics including last-resort drugs. CDC

Meanwhile, another surveillance system that includes the CDC, the USDA and the Food and Drug Administration has also been searching for the gene in bacteria collected from food animals, meat sources and people. Scientists have scoured more than 44,000 samples of salmonella bacteria and 9,000 samples of E. coli and Shigella bacteria.

That search is how the USDA scientists recently found the gene in a sample from a pig intestine. It also was in a strain of E. coli, and also on a plasmid. The USDA is working to determine the sample’s origin.

The strains and plasmids appear to be different, McGann said. That suggests that the gene is circulating through at least two — and possibly more — routes within the United States.

McGann said he learned about the mcr-1 gene in the pig sample only when his team notified government officials about its own finding. U.S. officials haven’t provided details about when the animal sample was found or why information about it wasn’t disclosed earlier.

Public health officials are most worried about the colistin-resistant gene spreading to a family of superbugs known as CRE, for carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, which the CDC has called one of the country’s most urgent public health threats. In some instances, CRE kills up to 50 percent of patients who become infected. Colistin is increasingly the last-resort drug to treat patients with such infections.

Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Cells of the Immune System recognize foreign protein molecules called Antigens and respond to their presence.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Reticular Formation of Brain Stem and Consciousness.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Stress and Immune System. Body recognizes threat posed by foreign protein molecules or antigens that elicit immune response.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Recognition of foreign protein molecules or antigens is not a mental function. However, Reticular Formation is involved in shaping Immune Response to Stress imposed by pathogens attacking human body.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria pose danger because of their ability to synthesize Protein Molecules.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Superbugs such as Staphylococcus. aureus (MRSA) pose danger because of their ability to synthesize Protein Molecules.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Recognition of Protein Molecules plays a central role in defending body from attacks by Pathogens.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Body’s Defense against invasion by pathogens requires recognition of protein molecules involved in virulence and drug resistance. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Defense against Superbugs demands knowing Molecular Basis of Life. Escherichia coli.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Infection and Immune Response involve understanding Protein Molecules that operate living functions.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Immunology provides understanding of Life at Molecular Level. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Dangers posed by Superbugs will lead to better understanding of Molecules that defend Life and Molecules causing Disease.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Superbugs pose danger and burden on account of drug resistance which involves deployment of Protein Molecules.
Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science. Defending Life against dangers posed by Superbugs involves recognition of their Protein Molecules.
The Battle Against Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19). The Molecular Basis of Spirituality Science.

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is fully Justified

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is Fully Justified.

In my analysis, China is fully justified in its action to expel three reporters of The Wall Street Journal who approved the publication of a guest editorial authored by a Harvard professor who has not studied either Preventive Medicine or Public Health Policy.

I studied Social and Preventive Medicine in Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, India and practiced the implementation of a variety of public health programs for nearly 15 years in India and Oman while serving in the Medical Services of their Armed Forces.

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is Fully Justified.

Under the circumstances associated with the outbreak of this novel Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in Wuhan City, Hubei Province of China, the measures taken to safeguard public health are adequate and in fact exceptionally commendable.

For example, I invite my readers to review the US Government response to Hurricane Katrina. On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Louisiana. To state it very briefly, the response to Katrina proved to be its own kind of unmitigated disaster.

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is Fully Justified. The US response to Hurricane Katrina is an unmitigated disaster characterized by Corruption, Contempt, and Incompetence.

No other nation of this world has the capabilities of China to fight the battle against the Coronavirus epidemic.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is Fully Justified.

China expels three Wall Street Journal reporters over opinion article written by academic

By Anna Fifield Feb. 19, 2020 at 10:45 a.m. EST

BEIJING — China ordered the expulsion of three Wall Street Journal correspondents Wednesday in retaliation for a column headline that Beijing deemed racist, a dramatic escalation in the Communist Party’s efforts to silence criticism abroad as well as at home.

While the Foreign Ministry linked the expulsions to a Feb. 3 opinion piece by Walter Russell Mead that referred to China as the “sick man of Asia,” the move followed a decision by the United States a day earlier to designate five major Chinese media outlets as government entities.

American officials had warned correspondents in China working for U.S. media outlets that they could be affected by the designation.

China’s Foreign Ministry “reserves the right” to take further actions both against the Wall Street Journal and in response to the United States’ designation, spokesman Geng Shuang told reporters in announcing the expulsions.

The announcement represented a clear signal from China, whose government has tightened censorship and repression in recent years. In previous cases in which Beijing has evicted foreign journalists, it has usually allowed their existing press credentials to expire and then declined to renew them, a practice tantamount to expulsion but without the provocation.

The authorities also appeared to be attempting to stoke nationalist outrage in China at a time of extreme duress for the ruling Communist Party. The party has faced widespread criticism over its response to the novel coronavirus outbreak, which began in the city of Wuhan in December but did not elicit formal acknowledgment or emergency-response measures from the ruling party until the third week of January.

The Journal said the three correspondents affected by Wednesday’s action were Deputy Bureau Chief Josh Chin and reporter Chao Deng, both U.S. citizens, and reporter Philip Wen, an Australian national. They have been ordered to leave China within five days, it said.

A statement from William Lewis, the chief executive of Dow Jones and publisher of the Journal, said “we are deeply disappointed” by China’s decision and urged the foreign ministry to reinstate the visas for the three journalists.

“This opinion piece was published independently from the WSJ newsroom and none of the journalists being expelled had any involvement with it,” the statement noted. “In line with best practice, we enforce a complete separation between our News and Opinion departments.”

A similar policy of separate news and opinion departments is enshrined at most U.S. newspapers, including The Washington Post.

Lewis’s statement added: “Our opinion pages regularly publish articles with opinions that people disagree — or agree with — and it was not our intention to cause offense with the headline on the piece. However, this has clearly caused upset and concern amongst the Chinese people, which we regret.”

Mead, a professor of foreign affairs at Bard College who is a regular contributor to the paper, alluded to this on Twitter earlier this month, as the Foreign Ministry made increasingly heated remarks about the headline.

Among the reporters ordered to leave, Deng at the time of the announcement was in Wuhan, the locked-down city in Hubei province at the epicenter of the coronavirus epidemic. She has been filing reports on how ordinary people are coping and how Communist Party officials are trying to contain the virus.

Wen was one of the two authors of a report published last year that detailed allegations that a cousin of Chinese leader Xi Jinping was involved in high-stakes gambling and potential money laundering in Australia. The other reporter on that story, Chun Han Wong, a Singaporean national who had covered Chinese politics out of the paper’s Beijing bureau since 2014, was effectively expelled when his press credentials expired and were not renewed in August.  

The title of the February column at issue is a reference to a period around the middle of the 19th century until the early 20th century when a weak China, crippled by infighting, was carved up by colonial powers including Japan, Germany, France and Britain. China calls this period the “century of humiliation” and has vowed during the trade war with the United States that it will not be humiliated again.

The phrase echoed the moniker given at the time to the Ottoman Empire, which was called “the sick man of Europe.” More recently, the label has been applied to Britain, first during the economic malaise of the 1970s and more recently as the country was wrangling with its exit from the European Union.

But in Beijing, the Foreign Ministry latched onto the Journal’s headline with unbridled fury, repeatedly accusing the paper of using racially discriminatory language and offending the Chinese people. The Journal website is blocked by China’s Great Firewall, meaning that readers within the country cannot access its website without software to make it appear that they are outside China.

“China demands the WSJ recognize the severity of its mistake, make an official apology and hold the persons involved accountable,” Geng told reporters Wednesday in a briefing conducted over the WeChat messaging app because public gatherings are banned during the coronavirus outbreak.

“However, regrettably, what the WSJ has done so far is nothing but parrying and dodging its responsibility. It has neither issued an official apology nor informed us of what it plans to do with the persons involved,” Geng said.

The Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China condemned the decision, describing it in a statement as “an extreme and obvious attempt by the Chinese authorities to intimidate foreign news organizations.”

The club, whose members include two Washington Post correspondents, called the simultaneous expulsions “an unprecedented form of retaliation against foreign journalists in China.”

This was the first outright expulsion of a foreign correspondent since 1998, according to the FCCC’s tally. Since 2013, the year after Xi became China’s leader, at least nine journalists have been effectively expelled by not having their press credentials renewed, meaning they had to leave the country.

“Many of those evicted from China are fair and talented journalists who worked hard to bring unbiased, informative reports to their audiences and to understand China,” the FCCC said.

Some analysts speculated that the decision was immediate retaliation for the State Department’s decision Tuesday to designate five of China’s foremost media outlets as official government entities under the Foreign Missions Act, meaning they will be treated as though they are diplomatic outposts of the Chinese government and subject to the same constraints.

American officials have become increasingly concerned that Chinese authorities are using journalists to do government work in the United States and have sought to monitor them more closely.

A day earlier, two State Department officials, speaking on the condition of anonymity under department rules for briefing reporters, had declined to discuss internal considerations on whether Beijing would retaliate against foreign reporters working in China.

“We’re painfully aware of the very tough operating environment that U.S. and other foreign journalists operate under in China,” one U.S. official said in announcing the designation Tuesday. “It’s already the case that freedom of the press is under severe siege in the People’s Republic of China.”

The expulsion of three Wall Street Journal Reporters by China is Fully Justified.

Prayers to give the Strength, the Courage, the Patience, and the Hope to the people of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in their battle against the Novel Coronavirus

Prayers to give the Strength, the Courage, the Patience, and the Hope to the people of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in their battle against the Novel Coronavirus.

The term Biotic Interactions describe the nature of interactions between members of the same or different living species sharing a common living environment. The ‘Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) is not capable of independent existence. The Virus always needs a Living Host Cell to perform its living functions. The Virus lives as a Parasite providing no benefit to its Host and in fact may totally overwhelm the Host to the extent of causing death of the Host. I use the term “Spiritual” to describe the nature of Biotic Interactions that are characterized by 1. Mutual Assistance, 2. Mutual Tolerance, and 3. Mutual Subservience where the Members of the interacting Living Species experience Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in their Living Condition.

Prayers to give the Strength, the Courage, the Patience, and the Hope to people of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in their battle against the Novel Coronavirus.

Molecular Biology. The Understanding of Biotic Interactions. Parasitic vs Spiritual Interactions

Tobacco mosaic virus
Tobacco mosaic virus (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The molecules and processes responsible for energy acquisition, energy manipulation, growth and reproduction are basically similar in all life-forms. To understand life, consideration must be given to describe the molecules that determine its structure and to the ways in which molecules are organized. The Molecular Basis of Spirituality describes organization of molecules that is responsible for coordination of living functions and living activities of life-forms. Spirituality involves the capacity or capability to organize molecules to establish the reality of biological existence by any life-form. To explain the Molecular Basis of Spirituality, I would begin with the simplest life-forms that we know.

THE FOUNDERS OF VIROLOGY – THE STUDY OF VIRUSES:

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – Dmitri Ivanovsky( Dmitri Iosifovich Iwanowski ), Russian Botanist in 1892, discovered the filterable nature of a very tiny agent that causes Tobacco Mosaic Disease.
Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science -Martinus Beijerinck, the Dutch Microbiologist in 1898 named the mysterious infectious agent that causes Tobacco Mosaic Disease as ‘VIRUS’.

I am glad to pay my respectful tribute to Dmitri Ivanovsky, Russian Botanist, and to Martinus Beijerinck, the Dutch Microbiologist, the founders of Virology, the Study of Viruses. Ivanovsky studied the Tobacco Mosaic Disease during 1892. By conducting experiments he had demonstrated that the disease is caused by a filterable agent smaller than bacteria. In 1898, Beijerinck independently replicated Ivanovsky’s experiments and found that the infectious agent could only reproduce by infecting leaves of the Tobacco plant. He named the mysterious infectious agent as Tobacco Mosaic Virus – the first Virus recognized.

THE STUDY OF VIRUSES, VIRIONS, VIROIDS, AND VIRUSOIDS:

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – Virus is a complex, molecular life-form that blurs the boundaries of living and non-living material.

Viruses are small masses of material( 100 – 2,000 angstrom ), complex molecular life-forms that blur the boundaries of living and non-living material. Most Viruses are smaller than the wavelength of visible light. They are extremely small and can only be seen with an electron microscope. As compared to light microscope, electron microscope can increase magnification from 1,000 – 2,000 diameters to around 300, 000 diameters. Viruses are 1,000 times more plentiful in water than originally suspected and hence Viruses could be the most numerous life-forms on Earth. Many hundreds of different types of Viruses exist and all of them need living cells to serve them as hosts. Viruses can only complete their life cycles as parasites as they reproduce only within the cells of their hosts, upon which they depend for many of their fundamental life processes. While many Viruses are harmless to their hosts, certain Viruses are responsible for important diseases of humans, animals, and plants. Many Viruses are known to man by the specific disease entities that they cause: Smallpox, Chickenpox, Measles, Mumps, Yellow fever, Polio myelitis, Rabies, Influenza, and the Common Cold. All of us without any exception would get chance of experiencing the bouts of one or the other Viral infections.

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – The DNA of Herpes Virus particle is enclosed by an icosahedral(20-sided) shell of 162 protein units, or capsomers, and by an outer spiked lipoprotein envelope. It causes infectious diseases in man like Chickenpox and Shingles.

A complete virus particle or Virion consists of one molecule of Nucleic Acid, single or double-stranded, either DNA or RNA depending on the specific Virus. It has a protein coat called Capsid which consists of a specific number of protein molecules or Capsomers in a definitive arrangement. In some Viruses, the outer coat has lipid(fat) and carbohydrate. The protein coat helps the survival of the Virus while it exists outside a living cell. The protein coat is also concerned with the mechanisms by which the Virus enters and infects the host cell.

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – To understand the concept of Spiritualism as a functional relationship that generates Peace, Harmony and Tranquility, we must know the nature of biotic interaction called Parasitism that causes Disease. Millions of human lives have perished due to the scourge of Viral Diseases that afflict humankind. This Retrovirus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) is responsible for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.

During the stage of its life cycle, when the Virus is free and infectious, the virus particle or Virion is inert, and does not carry out the usual functions of a living entity, such as reproduction or growth in numbers. Propagation of a Virus requires the internal environment of a complete cell, including its biochemical machinery. The Virus loses the protein coat upon entry into a cell, after which the genetic material of the Virus reproduces using materials made by the host cell. The Virus leaves the host cell surrounded by the protein coat, the characteristics of these protein molecules are determined by the genes in the Virus, but the protein molecules are synthesized by the host cell. Viruses are often described as “naked genes” which have discarded all other attributes of complete cells. The Virion or virus particle contains the knowledge or biological information that is needed for its replication. However, to perform that reproductive function, a Virus needs the host cell’s chemical energy, and protein-and nucleic-acid synthesizing ability.

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – Viroids and Virusoids are the smallest and simplest form of all recognized Viruses and Self-replicating Molecules.They lack the protective shell of protein coat that most other Viruses have.

Viroids and Virusoids are the smallest and simplest form of all recognized Viruses and Self-replicating Molecules. Viroids are composed of nothing more than a single circular strand of genetic material and cause major disease in plants. Since Viroids lack the protective shell of protein, they do not even spread easily from one cell or plant to another. The genetic material of Viroid is RNA which has a length of only a few hundred ribonucletids(200-400). Viroids are described as molecules of “naked RNA” that are significantly smaller than the genome of the smallest Virus. They are also called ‘subviral particles’. Viroids/Virusoids “infect” other Viruses, and use the replication process of the host Virus to replicate themselves instead. Viroids are responsible for a number of serious diseases of economically important plants like the Coconut Palm and Chrysanthemums. Episomes are pieces of self-replicating genetic molecules found in some bacterial cells. These are similar to Viruses except for the fact that they only reproduce themselves when their host cells do, whereas Viruses reproduce themselves hundreds of times and often generate the signs and symptoms of the infectious disease they cause in the host.

RNA MOLECULE AS GENETIC MATERIAL:

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – The only human disease caused by a Viroid is HEPATITIS- D. The Viroid is enclosed in Hepatitis B Virus Capsid. Viroids use different strategies for encouraging host Viruses/cells to replicate its RNA molecule.

The RNA-containing Viruses are unique among living systems. They use RNA as their primary genetic material. Retroviruses produce the enzyme called RNA-directed DNA Polymerase or Reverse Transcriptase, which can make a DNA molecule from the Viral RNA molecule. This DNA molecule formed from RNA then serves as the principal genetic molecule within the infected, host cell. Retrovirus uses a life process that is termed ‘reverse transcription’. Two Retroviruses are associated with human leukemia which are Cancer of T-cells. The Retrovirus known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is responsible for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS.

THE NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULE – THE ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE OF LIFE:

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – The Influenza Virus has ability to cause pandemic(world-wide)infection of humans. The pandemic of 1918 is estimated to have killed 21-22 million people worldwide. The Virus got its name from the word “INFLUENCE” from an observation made more than 400 years ago that epidemics of respiratory illness occurred under the “influence” of planets and other astrological events. The term ‘spirituality’ does not describe the ‘essence’ or character of this Viral Nucleic Acid Molecule.

Nucleic Acids are organic substances that are characteristic of all living things. These organic molecules are not found in nature except as components or products of organisms. They are called macromolecules; molecules of molecular weight greater than 10,000 daltons or 10,000 times the weight of a Hydrogen atom. These molecules are long chains or polymers that consist of chains of smaller units called monomers. Each Nucleic Acid chain is composed of subunits called nucleotides, each of which is composed of a specific sugar molecule( Deoxyribose or Ribose ), a molecule of Phosphoric Acid, and a molecule of one of four organic bases: Adenine(A), Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), and Thymine(T). The two chief types of Nucleic Acid are DNA( Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid ), and RNA( Ribo Nucleic Acid ). DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose and RNA contains the sugar ribose, and the base Uracil(U) instead of Thymine(T). The specific sequences of nucleotides constitute the genetic information of the life-form. Each three-nucleotide sequence specifies one particular amino acid. The long sequences of nucleotides thus correspond to the sequences of amino acids in the proteins that are synthesized. In order to be expressed as protein, the genetic information is carried to the protein-synthesizing machinery called Ribosomes found in the cytoplasm of the cell. Forms of RNA mediate this process and are important in expression of the genetic code contained in the DNA for the synthesis of proteins. Although the triplet nucleotide code seems to be universal, the actual sequences of the nucleotides vary according to the species and individual organism. The Nucleic Acid Molecules, DNA/RNA is substance of heredity; it carries the ‘essence’ or character of an organism from one generation to next generation. But, in the study of Viruses we have found that this ‘essence’ is not displayed until its ‘existence’ is supported and is established in a complete living cell. The Nucleic Acid Molecules do not have capacity or capability of acquiring energy from their external environment. The Virion or virus particle is inert until it finds a host cell to establish its life as a living thing. The Nucleic Acid Molecules are important to establish the ‘essence’ of an organism and I find the characteristics called ‘Spirituality’ in the functional organization of those Molecules that establish the ‘existence’ of a living entity.

THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF SPIRITUALITY:

Molecular Biology – The Basis of Spirituality Science – Smallpox or Variola was one of the worst scourges ever to afflict human beings. The Smallpox Vaccine developed by Dr. Edward Jenner, British Surgeon in 1796 was the first successful Immunization against any Infectious Disease or Agent. In October 1979, the World Health Organization(WHO) declared that the world is Smallpox Free. Spirituality seeks to establish Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in all functional Biotic Interactions within the Individual and within the Biotic or Biological Community.

The purpose and goal of Spirituality is that of generating Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in all functional relationships within the Individual and between members of the Biotic or Biological Community. The disease, the disability, the morbidity, and death caused by Viral infections demonstrate the consequences of Biotic Interactions called Parasitism. The functional organization of a variety of Molecules that provide the functional ability called ‘Existence’ that establishes a living entity is the chief attribute of the ground substance found inside the Living, Complete Cell and the viral particles have no such functional organizational capacity or capability. The Spirit or Soul represents the ‘Knower’ of the Function and is the Architect of Molecular Organization that causes ‘Existence’. The role of various other Molecules, the Molecules concerned with Life, found in living cells are given further consideration in my other blog posts to demonstrate the ‘spiritual’ nature of the Protoplasm, the ground substance, the living material, or living matter that constitutes Life.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

Prayers to give the Strength, the Courage, the Patience, and the Hope to the people of Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in their battle against the Novel Coronavirus.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

Presidents’ Day is a federal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in February; Presidents’ Day 2020 occurs on Monday, February 17.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

Originally established in 1885 in recognition of President George Washington, the holiday became popularly known as Presidents’ Day after it was moved as part of 1971’s Uniform Monday Holiday Act, an attempt to create more three-day weekends for the nation’s workers. While several states still have individual holidays honoring the birthdays of Washington, Abraham Lincoln and other figures, Presidents’ Day is now popularly viewed as a day to celebrate all U.S. presidents, past and present.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

The story of Presidents’ Day date begins in 1800. Following the death of George Washington in 1799, his February 22 birthday became a perennial day of remembrance.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

The Uniform Monday Holiday Act also included a provision to combine the celebration of Washington’s birthday with that of Abraham Lincoln, which fell on February 12. Lincoln’s Birthday had long been a state holiday in places like Illinois, and many supported joining the two days as a way of giving equal recognition to two of America’s most famous statesmen.

Washington and Lincoln still remain the two most recognized leaders, but Presidents’ Day is now popularly seen as a day to recognize the lives and achievements of all of America’s chief executives. Some lawmakers have objected to this view, arguing that grouping George Washington and Abraham Lincoln together with less successful presidents minimizes their legacies.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

In its modern form, Presidents’ Day is used by many patriotic and historical groups as a date for staging celebrations, reenactments and other events. A number of states also require that their public schools spend the days leading up to Presidents’ Day teaching students about the accomplishments of the presidents, often with a focus on the lives of Washington and Lincoln.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse. Presidential Term: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001

On Monday, February 17, 2020, while celebrating the Presidents’ Day, I remind the Nation about the legacy of William Jefferson Clinton, the 42nd US President. Bill Clinton’s Presidential Term: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

1995-1999

  • Outstanding debt in 1995: $4.97 trillion
    • Debt adjusted for inflation: $8.39 trillion
  • Outstanding debt in 1999: $5.66 trillion
    • Debt adjusted for inflation: $8.72 trillion

Change in debt between 1995-1999: 13.72%
Change in debt adjusted for inflation: $337.54 billion

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must awaken to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

2000-2004

  • Outstanding debt in 2000: $5.67 trillion
    • Debt adjusted for inflation: $8.47 trillion
  • Outstanding debt in 2004: $7.38 trillion
    • Debt adjusted for inflation: $10.04 trillion

Change in debt between 2000-2004: 30.05%
Change in debt adjusted for inflation: $1.57 trillion

Bill Clinton rejected the Promises of Prosperity and embraced the Curses of Indebtedness the LORD imposed for acts of Disobedience.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse.

The United States must reflect upon the actions of the 42nd President that violate the LORD’ s Commandments. The Welfare Reform Act of 1996 enacted by President Bill Clinton reintroduced Slavery into the United States nullifying President Abraham Lincoln’s Proclamation that abolished Slavery.

Presidents’ Day 2020. The Nation must wake up to the reality of the Clinton Curse. A Balanced Budget vs Foreign Debt.