Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.

On Friday, May 01, 2020, the Senior Alien celebrates International Labor Day, International Workers’ Day, or May Day by sending ‘MAYDAY’ Distress Signal for he has no legal right to his wages or earnings contributed to Public Trust Fund that pays the Monthly Retirement Benefit to workers who attained Full Retirement Age.

May Day is a public holiday celebrated on May 1 in many different cultures around the world. It is a day of unity, togetherness, and rebirth; a day for everyone to come together and celebrate life as we know it!


WholeDude-WholeSlave: Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln during September 1862. United States has officially abolished the practice of slavery and has now institutionalized the practice of Servitude and the Union has transformed from a 'Free State' into a 'Slave State.'
May Day Celebration 2020. Emancipation Proclamation by President Abraham Lincoln during September 1862. The United States has officially abolished the practice of slavery and has now institutionalized the practice of Bondage and Servitude and the Union has transformed from a ‘Free State’ into a ‘Slave State.’

President Abraham Lincoln issued the ‘Emancipation Proclamation’ in September 1862 that went into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing the slaves in all territory still at War with the Union. The term ‘Free State’ refers to any State of the U.S. in which slavery was forbidden before the Civil War. The term ‘Slave State’ refers to any of the States in which slavery was legal before the Civil War. After abolishing slavery, the United States Department of Labor was established in 1913 to administer and enforce statutes that promote the welfare, improve the working conditions of all laborers or workforce. In modern economic life, the term laborer describes all manual workers whose work is characterized largely by physical exertion, and especially it refers to workers who labor to earn wages on an hourly basis without the benefit of a contractual agreement with their employers. The term Labor Law refers to legislation that affects workers, and the conditions of their employment. Labor Law is the body of law applied to such matters as employment, remuneration, and conditions of work. In its most comprehensive sense, the Labor Law includes Old Age and Disability Insurance. The characteristic of all labor is that it consumes some part of the short days and years of human life. The essence of all labor is that of the time and life it consumes to deliver a wage or earning to support the life it consumes.


WholeDude-WholeSlave: The characteristic of all types of labor is that it consumes time and life. The hours, the days, the weeks, the months, and the years that alien workers spend performing labor on the US soil must give the basic protection of the meagre wages they earn on a hourly basis. SSA has institutionalized the practice of Bondage and Servitude by seizing the contributions made by alien workers for their retirement income in Old Age.
May Day 2020 Celebration. The characteristic of all types of labor is that it consumes time and life. The hours, the days, the weeks, the months, and the years that alien workers spend performing labor on the US soil must give the basic protection of the meager wages they earn on an hourly basis. SSA has institutionalized the practice of Bondage and Servitude by seizing the contributions made by alien workers for their retirement income in Old Age.

The U.S. Social Security Act(1935) established a retirement insurance plan called Social Security which is a public program providing for economic security and welfare of persons who make contributions to fund the program. The Health Insurance Plan called Medicare was added in 1965. It is administered by the Social Security Administration(SSA) of the Department of Health and Human Services. Medicare provides basic hospital insurance for persons aged 65 and over after they make contributions to fund the program. The Federal Insurance Contributions Act(FICA) ensures that the wages are reported by the employers and SSA and Medicare deductions are made from the paychecks of the employees before they receive their paychecks or wages, or earnings. The worker pays 6.2 percent of the earnings as SSA contribution and the employer pays 6.2 percent of the wage earned as SSA contribution to provide retirement income to that worker. Similarly, 2.9 percent is paid into the Medicare Program, half by the worker and half by the employer.


WholeDude-WholeSlave: The United States Department of Health and Human Services has institutionalized the practice of slavery and servitude by denying access to the benefit called health insurance plan Medicare to alien workers aged 65 and over who have paid into the system by payroll deductions authorized by Federal Insurance Contributions Act(FICA).
May Day 2020 Celebration. The United States Department of Health and Human Services has institutionalized the practice of slavery and servitude by denying access to the benefit of health insurance plan called Medicare to alien workers aged 65 and over who have paid into the system by payroll deductions authorized by Federal Insurance Contributions Act(FICA).

The United States employs a large number of alien workers and millions of these workers are issued paychecks from which billions of dollars are deducted and flow directly to the Social Security Administration(SSA) every year. For example, for the year 2007, about $11.2 billion went into the Social Security Trust Fund, and $2.6 billion went into Medicare. These funds are utilized to pay the legal residents of the United States who receive their Social Security income and Medicare health insurance benefits. At the same time, the alien workers who do not become legal residents of the United States will not receive any income from the wages they earned while they labored on the soil of the United States. These alien workers cannot participate in the Health Insurance Exchange, a new program introduced by President Obama through a Law known as the Affordable Health Care Act went into effect on October 01, 2013. Several of these alien workers have already fully subscribed to the public health insurance program called Medicare and their contributions are taken by payroll deductions. These alien workers aged 65 and over are denied access to health care insurance even while they still continue to labor on the U.S. soil and still are paying into the System that gives them no benefit. These alien workers aged 66 and over have attained their full retirement age working in the United States under the provisions of the U.S. Labor Law which established the principles of equal opportunity and protection from discrimination based upon age, sex, race, or country of origin. It is apparent that the United States has institutionalized the practice of slavery by denying the retirement income and health insurance benefit to those alien workers who made their lifetime contributions according to the laws enforced by the country.


The term servant is used to describe a person employed to perform services to earn a wage, or income by providing labor. The term ‘Slavery’ refers to the condition of a slave, serf, or the like which is stated as ‘Servitude’. The term ‘Servitude’ is specifically used to refer to labor in which the person who performs the labor has no right to his earnings from labor. The term ‘Bondage’ implies any condition of subjugation or depriving a person the right to his property or earning. Serf is any person who is oppressed or has no freedom. Both Servitude and Bondage involve subjection of a person to some force, compulsion, or influence that takes away freedom, and dignity of the human being who by his birth is thought to be born free, and equal. In the United States, the Nation, or the State has institutionalized the practice of Slavery by enacting Laws that would empower the State to withhold the property or wage paid by the employer to his employee without any formal approval or consent of the affected worker who performs labor. At the full age of retirement of 66-years, the alien worker who spent the hours, the days, the weeks, the months, and the years of his life performing labor in the United States, gets denied all the earnings he earned for his retirement to lead a life in his Old Age with basic human dignity. I have no term other than that of “SLAVE STATE” to describe the country that is holding people in a condition called Bondage and Servitude.

The Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers

I am sharing the views endorsed by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops in promoting ‘The Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers. I want to clarify that I am neither a Communist nor a Socialist. I am affiliated to a military organization sponsored by the United States during the Cold War Era to contain the spread of Communism in Asia.

“The economy must serve people, not the other way around. Work is more than a way to  make a living; it is a form of continuing participation in God’s creation. If  the dignity of work is to be protected, then the basic rights of workers must  be respected–the right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, to the  organization and joining of unions, to private property, and to economic  initiative.”


Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.

Genesis 2:1-3

God rests on the seventh day.

Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’Day. Sirach 34:26-27.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2016. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.
Friday, May 01, 2020. The Celebration of International Workers’ Day.

  • Genesis 2:15  
             God settles man in the garden of Eden to  cultivate and care for it.
  • Deuteronomy  5:13-15 
             The Sabbath is for everyone—all are allowed to  rest from their work.
  • Deuteronomy  14:28-29 
             The Lord blesses our work  so that we may share its fruits with others.
  • Deuteronomy 24:14-15  
            Do not withhold wages from  your workers, for their livelihood depends on them.
  • Sirach 34:26-27
             To deprive an employee of wages is to commit murder.
  • Isaiah 58:3-7  
             To observe religious practices, but oppress  your workers is false worship. 
  • Jeremiah 22:13 
             Woe to him who treats his workers unjustly.
  • Matthew 20:1-16  
             All workers should be paid a just and living  wage.
  • Mark 2:27  
             The Sabbath was made for people, not people  for the Sabbath.
  • James 5:1-6  
             Those who become rich by abusing their workers  have sinned against God.


I would like to remind everyone,  especially governments engaged in boosting the world’s economic and social  assets, that the primary capital to be safeguarded and valued is man, the  human person in his or her integrity: “Man is the source, the focus and the  aim of all economic and social life.” (Pope Benedict XVI, Charity  in Truth [Caritas in Veritate. . . ], no. 25, quoting Second Vatican Council, The Church in the Modern World [Gaudium et Spes. . . ], no. 63)

As the Church solemnly reaffirmed in the  recent Council, “the beginning, the subject and the goal of all social  institutions is and must be the human person.”   All people have the  right to work, to a chance to develop their qualities and their personalities in  the exercise of their professions, to equitable remuneration which will enable  them and their families “to lead a worthy life on the material, social,  cultural and spiritual level” and to assistance in case of need arising from sickness or age. (Blessed Paul VI, A Call to Action [Octogesima Adveniens. . . ], no. 14)

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA

On this Friday, May 01, 2020 I am sending ‘MAYDAY’ Distress Signal to all of my readers who may care to pay attention.


Wednesday, April 29, 2020. Prayers for the downfall of Evil Empire Code-named Babylon

Wednesday, April 29, 2020. Prayers for the downfall of Evil Empire code-named Babylon. REVELATION. Chapter 18.

On Wednesday, April 29, 2020, I offer my prayers for the downfall of Evil Empire code-named ‘Babylon’. Historically, life on planet Earth is impacted by collision events as celestial objects can unleash vast amounts of destructive power within a short duration of time. The LORD God Creator is aware of the man’s evil actions and they will never go unnoticed.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

This Day in My Life – July 26 – My CIA Connection. In Man’s Plan, I exist as a mere Pawn used in the War on Communism, Legacy of Cold War Era Geopolitics. What is God’s Plan?

Mile-wide asteroid to zip past Earth on Wednesday

Mile-wide asteroid to zip past Earth on Wednesday, April 29, 2020.

Brian Lada, AccuWeatherApril 28, 2020

A giant asteroid from the depths of our solar system will fly by Earth at midweek. This is the largest space rock to zoom past the planet since the start of the year.

Estimated to be a little over a mile wide, asteroid (52768) 1998 OR2 will make its closest approach to Earth on Wednesday, April 29; this is the closest it has come to the planet in over 100 years.

There is no chance that it will collide with the planet on Wednesday as it will safely glide by at a distance of around 4 million miles. To put this into perspective, this is about 16 times farther away than the moon is from the Earth.

Space rocks fly past the planet on a daily basis but according to Earthsky, this one in particular is the largest to zip by the Earth so far in 2020.

This animation was created using a series of delay-Doppler images taken on April 18, 2020. (Arecibo Observatory / NASA / NSF)
Wednesday, April 29, 2020. Prayers for the downfall of Evil Empire code-named Babylon. REVELATION, Chapter 18.

Although it poses no threat to hitting the Earth this time by, asteroid (52768) 1998 OR2 has been classified as a “Potentially Hazardous Asteroid.”

“Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) are currently defined based on parameters that measure the asteroid’s potential to make threatening close approaches to the Earth,” NASA said.

By definition, any asteroid that is larger than 500 feet across and is projected to come within 4.6 million miles of Earth is called a PHA.

At over 5,000 feet wide, 1998 OR2 would cause some serious damage if it were on a crash course with the planet.

On June 30, 1908, an asteroid estimated to be around 262 feet across exploded over an uninhabited area of Siberia while entering the Earth’s atmosphere. The explosion had a force equivalent to that of the 1980 Mount St. Helens eruption, flattening 500,000 acres of forest. This is known as the Tunguska event.

However, it pales in comparison to the asteroid that is believed to have caused the dinosaurs to go extinct, which is estimated to have been around 6 miles across.

Wednesday, April 29, 2020. Prayers for the downfall of evil empire code-named Babylon. REVELATION, Chapter 18.
English: Asteroid 1998 OR2 as imaged by the Arecibo Radar on 18 April 2020. Some observers have noted that the asteroid appears to be wearing a face mask of its own in images. (Arecibo Observatory / NASA / NSF)

At 4 million miles away, the one-mile-wide rock may seem like it is too far away to see, but observers with a decent telescope may be able to spot it from their backyards, as long as Mother Nature cooperates.

Onlookers will need a telescope with a primary mirror of at least 6 or 8 inches that is pointed to the southern sky near the constellation Hydra, EarthSky said. At first, it may just look like another star, but over time, it will slowly drift in a different way than the stars around it.

After Wednesday, asteroid (52768) 1998 OR2 will not swipe past the Earth again until May 18, 2031.

Similar to this week, this next flyby will post no risk of collision as it will be more than 45 times farther away than the moon, according to NASA.

Wednesday, April 29, 2020. Prayers for the downfall of Evil Empire code-named Babylon. REVELATION, Chapter 18.

The Clinton Curse of 1996 Compromised the Ability of Americans to Fight Coronavirus with Compassion

Modern-Day Involuntary Servitude and Slavery signed into Public Law by President Bill Clinton. The Clinton Curse of 1996 Compromised the Ability of Americans to Fight Coronavirus With Compassion.

In my analysis, ‘The Clinton Curse’ of 1996 compromised the ability of Americans to fight Coronavirus with Compassion. President Bill Clinton’s “A New Beginning” reintroduced Slavery in America by taking away the Rights sanctioned by the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America.

The Clinton Curse of 1996 Compromised the Ability of Americans to Fight Coronavirus with Compassion.

The CARES ACT of 2020 may reflect upon the economic might of the United States to fight the Coronavirus. However, the manner in which the economic relief is dispersed clearly demonstrates the American inability to respond with Compassion.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

‘Prayer Is Not Enough.’ The Dalai Lama on Why We Need to Fight Coronavirus With Compassion

The Clinton Curse of 1996 Compromised the Ability of Americans to Fight Coronavirus With Compassion. Photo image credit. Ruven Afanador for TIME


Sometimes friends ask me to help with some problem in the world, using some “magical powers.” I always tell them that the Dalai Lama has no magical powers. If I did, I would not feel pain in my legs or a sore throat. We are all the same as human beings, and we experience the same fears, the same hopes, the same uncertainties.

From the Buddhist perspective, every sentient being is acquainted with suffering and the truths of sickness, old age and death. But as human beings, we have the capacity to use our minds to conquer anger and panic and greed. In recent years I have been stressing “emotional disarmament”: to try to see things realistically and clearly, without the confusion of fear or rage. If a problem has a solution, we must work to find it; if it does not, we need not waste time thinking about it.

We Buddhists believe that the entire world is interdependent. That is why I often speak about universal responsibility. The outbreak of this terrible coronavirus has shown that what happens to one person can soon affect every other being. But it also reminds us that a compassionate or constructive act—whether working in hospitals or just observing social distancing—has the potential to help many.

Ever since news emerged about the coronavirus in Wuhan, I have been praying for my brothers and sisters in China and everywhere else. Now we can see that nobody is immune to this virus. We are all worried about loved ones and the future, of both the global economy and our own individual homes. But prayer is not enough.

This crisis shows that we must all take responsibility where we can. We must combine the courage doctors and nurses are showing with empirical science to begin to turn this situation around and protect our future from more such threats.

In this time of great fear, it is important that we think of the long-term challenges—and possibilities—of the entire globe. Photographs of our world from space clearly show that there are no real boundaries on our blue planet. Therefore, all of us must take care of it and work to prevent climate change and other destructive forces. This pandemic serves as a warning that only by coming together with a coordinated, global response will we meet the unprecedented magnitude of the challenges we face.

We must also remember that nobody is free of suffering, and extend our hands to others who lack homes, resources or family to protect them. This crisis shows us that we are not separate from one another—even when we are living apart. Therefore, we all have a responsibility to exercise compassion and help.

As a Buddhist, I believe in the principle of impermanence. Eventually, this virus will pass, as I have seen wars and other terrible threats pass in my lifetime, and we will have the opportunity to rebuild our global community as we have done many times before. I sincerely hope that everyone can stay safe and stay calm. At this time of uncertainty, it is important that we do not lose hope and confidence in the constructive efforts so many are making.

The Dalai Lama is the Supreme Leader of Tibetans and a Nobel laureate

This article is part of a special series on how the coronavirus is changing our lives, with insights and advice from the TIME 100 community.

The Economic Fallout of The Clinton Curse. The United States needs the Blessings of the LORD God Creator. The Clinton Curse of 1996 Compromised the Ability of Americans to Fight Coronavirus With Compassion.

The Coronavirus Disease. Old solutions cannot resolve the new crisis.

The Coronavirus Disease. Old solutions cannot resolve the new crisis.

The health care crisis caused by the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is getting much attention for its fallout includes an economic disaster, the extent of which is still unknown. The US invested nearly $2.5 trillion dollars to provide economic relief to both individuals and business entities.
In my analysis, the health care interventions and the economic interventions may not provide adequate relief. Firstly, the term health has to be correctly defined. Health is about the well-being of man. To define the term health, the Medical Science has to define the term man. What is Man? The singularity commonly viewed as man is indeed a spectrum of seven colors or dimensions. The physical, the mental, and the social dimensions of the man are well understood. However, the Science refuses to include the moral, the spiritual, and the rational dimensions of the man. The interventions do not work unless they recognize the man as a spiritual, moral, and rational being. I am using the term ‘spiritual’ not in the context of a religious faith or doctrine. The term ‘spiritual’ refers to the experience of peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living human condition. The man experiences the condition called ‘happiness’ if his living condition is consistent with the operation of peace, harmony, and tranquility.
The plan to spend enormous amounts of money will only aggravate the problem of the debt burden as the US government relies upon deficit spending to operate its routine activities. Without the moral, spiritual, and rational constraints, the response to the pandemic remains inadequate and insufficient.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

The Coronavirus Disease. Old solutions cannot resolve the new crisis. There is no Hearing without Healing.

The Real Economic Fallout of COVID-19

Apr 8, 2020


The Coronavirus Disease. Old solutions cannot resolve the new crisis.

Dennis J. Snower, President of the Global Solutions Initiative, is a professor at the Hertie School of Governance in Berlin, Senior Research Fellow at the Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University, a non-resident fellow at the Brookings Institution, and President Emeritus of the Kiel Institute for the World Economy.  

Regardless of how long the current pandemic lasts, the existing organization of economic activities needs to change fundamentally. In particular, governments must support the shift in employment from physically interactive to physically disjointed activities.

BERLIN – Governments around the world are pursuing extremely expansive monetary and fiscal policies to combat the economic fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic. But such largesse is appropriate for an old-style depression, not for this public-health crisis.

We currently face a tradeoff between social triage and economic collapse. That is because much economic activity involves physical interactions among people, including in the retail trade, restaurants, tourism, live entertainment, and most forms of office work. With social distancing being enforced, such activity comes to a halt.

Worse, COVID-19 is the first pandemic to have struck a thoroughly integrated global economy. Most goods today are products of global supply chains, where physical interactions in one location are connected to physical interactions elsewhere. Stop the physical interactions in one place, and the economic fallout is felt in many others.

Higher government spending, lower taxes, and rock-bottom interest rates may keep people afloat in the short term, but do not stimulate productive activity when people cannot work. Nor will supplementing the incomes of the newly unemployed necessarily shore up consumption when most shops are closed and delivery services are unable to meet the exploding demand.

The problem is not a generalized drop in aggregate demand, as was the case during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Rather, it is a dramatic fall in the production and consumption of goods and services that rely on physical interactions, combined with an equally dramatic rise in the production and consumption of goods and services that don’t involve such interactions.

That is why business is currently booming for Amazon and Netflix, but slumping for hotels and restaurants. Infact, the pandemic has caused a Great Economic Mismatch: Many sectors that depend on existing production and distribution processes are shedding workers, while others are unable to hire enough.

Many governments have announced fiscal measures to mitigate the pandemic’s economic impact, such as paying much of the wages of furloughed workers (as in the United Kingdom) or sending taxpayers a stimulus check (as in the United States). Canada, Denmark, France, and others are paying large parts of company payrolls so that firms remain intact.

But such initiatives aim to preserve the income from jobs that have disappeared, rather than generating income from jobs that have yet to be filled. While policies like these are appropriate for combating an economic depression or covering a temporary shortfall in aggregate demand, they will not help to address the Great Economic Mismatch.

Indeed, it would be irresponsible for governments to formulate policy on the assumption that the current pandemic is a temporary, one-time occurrence. Policymakers should not think that it is enough to give employers and employees some money to tide them over before the prompt return of economic normality.

No one knows how long the pandemic will last. If it turns out to be lengthy, then the Great Economic Mismatch should induce governments everywhere to plan for a persistent structural change. Supporting incomes from non-existent jobs will cease to be an option, so helping people to find new jobs must become paramount.

If the pandemic is reasonably short, then governments must ensure that they are never again caught as unprepared as they are now. That will mean strengthening the economy’s resilience to pandemic shocks, by ensuring that people have the skills to perform new jobs.

So, regardless of how long the pandemic lasts, the organization of economic activities needs to change fundamentally. But thus far, governments have not risen to this challenge.

In order to understand the underlying problem and identify the policy solution, we need to devise new categories of economic activity. In particular, we need to divide production and consumption into physically interactive (PI) and physically disjointed (PD) activities.

The pandemic is dramatically restructuring global supply chains and consumption behavior to the detriment of PI activities and in favor of PD activities. Consequently, the primary job of governments is not to make up for a shortfall in aggregate demand, but rather to finance the adjustments needed to overcome the Great Economic Mismatch.

It is not enough to provide income support to people without jobs; governments must also give them access to essential goods and services such as food and medical care, as well as to PD support for mental and physical health. Nowadays, this access is far from assured in many countries, leading to widespread anxiety and despair.

Employment services can play a vital role by identifying the rapidly proliferating PD jobs and conveying this information to people engaged in PI activities. Finance and labor ministries, meanwhile, should subsidize relocation and training expenses.

To promote the movement of workers from vanishing PI jobs into readily available PD positions, governments should provide hiring subsidies. These are far superior to payroll-tax reductions, which aim to preserve old jobs rather than overcoming the mismatch.

Furthermore, a pandemic is a public bad, and individuals do not have to pay the full cost of the damage they cause to others by transmitting the virus. Because the free-market system cannot deal efficiently with this problem, testing and treatment must be financed by the government. This is accepted as a matter of course in some countries (such as Germany and South Korea), but woefully ignored by others (such as the US).

True, subsidizing the adjustment costs generated by the Great Economic Mismatch will be expensive. But the amounts involved would be small compared to the sums that many governments are currently planning to spend in response to the economic fallout of the pandemic.

The fallout is not slumping demand, but rather the abrupt and rapid shift in our production and consumption activities. Instead of desperately applying old solutions to a new problem, governments everywhere must help economies adjust to this change.

For this people’s heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them. Three things they were failing to do—see, hear, and understand with the heart. Two blessings for all believers: Conversion, a change of direction, a new walk with God. Physical healing, a change of health, a new health in God. Even in this small group we have seen people come and visit, tell us how much they enjoyed it, but never return for more.


Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.


Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.


The First Earth Day Celebration was held on April 22, 1970. It has now become a global tradition to celebrate Planet Earth as man’s only home in this vast universe of unknown dimensions. In Indian tradition, I pay my tribute to Mother Earth, Goddess Earth often adoringly described as BHU DEVI or PRITHVI MATA.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.

Man’s existence on surface of planet Earth demands experience of Flat Earth with Arched Dome on which Man observes the apparent motions of Sun, Moon, other planets, and stars. Man, experiences alternating periods of Day and Night, and experiences changing Seasons in consistent manner without experiencing the true or real motions of Earth.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA


Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.


Author: Staff Website Name: URL: Publisher: A+E Networks

Earth Day, an event to increase public awareness of the worlds environmental problems, is celebrated in the United States for the first time. Millions of Americans, including students from thousands of colleges and universities, participated in rallies, marches, and educational programs.

Earth Day was the brainchild of Senator Gaylord Nelson of Wisconsin, a staunch environmentalist who hoped to provide unity to the grassroots environmental movement and increase ecological awareness. The objective was to get a nationwide demonstration of concern for the environment so large that it would shake the political establishment out of its lethargy, Senator Nelson said, and, finally, force this issue permanently onto the national political agenda. Earth Day indeed increased environmental awareness in America, and in July of that year the Environmental Protection Agency was established by special executive order to regulate and enforce national pollution legislation.

On April 22, 1990, the 20th anniversary of Earth Day, more than 200 million people in 141 countries participated in Earth Day celebrations.
Earth Day has been celebrated on different days by different groups internationally. The United Nations officially celebrates it on the vernal equinox, which usually occurs about March 21.

Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years of Celebration of Mother Earth.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020. The 50 Years of Celebration of Mother Earth.
Wednesday, April 22, 1970. The 50 Years Celebration of Mother Earth.

In God We Trust. The Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020.

In God We Trust. The Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020.

The fiscal policy of the United States must reflect the official Motto of the Nation. In my analysis, the Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020 truly speaks of the Clinton Curse of 1996 that scorched the compassionate heart of the United States.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

In God We Trust. The Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020.

Millions of Taxpaying Immigrants Won’t Get Stimulus Checks

In God We Trust. The Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020. In 1996, US President Bill Clinton scorched the compassionate heart of the nation.

Roughly 4.3 million mostly unauthorized immigrants who do not have a Social Security number file taxes using what’s known as a taxpayer identification number (ITIN)

In this April 3, 2020, photo, house painter Jose Martinez stands on his front porch in Greenfield, Mass. Martinez said a pandemic stimulus check could have helped cover at least a month’s worth of expenses, if he had qualified. The 34-year-old Mexican crossed the border illegally about 15 years ago and lives near the Vermont state line with his 4-year-old American-born daughter. (AP Photo/David Goldman)

The $2.2 trillion package that Congress approved to offer financial help during the coronavirus pandemic has one major exclusion: millions of immigrants who do not have legal status in the U.S. but work here and pay taxes.

That includes Carmen Contreras Lopez, a 48-year-old housekeeper who, though she earns low wages, files a tax return each year. Since the virus took hold, she has lost most of her clients and is getting by with help from her oldest son. But she won’t see a penny of the money promised to most Americans in response to the pandemic.

“It’s hard because to the government, we don’t exist,” said Contreras Lopez, who has lived in the U.S. for 30 years and has four grown children who are U.S. citizens.

The government expects to begin making payments to millions of Americans in mid-April. Anyone earning up to $75,000 in adjusted gross income and who has a Social Security number will receive $1,200. The payment steadily declines for those who make more. Legal permanent residents, or green card holders, are expected to benefit.

Roughly 4.3 million mostly unauthorized immigrants who do not have a Social Security number file taxes using what’s known as a taxpayer identification number, according to the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy.

Many say they pay federal taxes because they hope it will one day help them achieve legal residency and because they feel it’s the right thing to do.

“We made that decision because we’re living in a country that’s welcomed us with a lot of love,” said Ingrid Vaca, a house cleaner in the Washington, D.C., area.

Vaca said immigrants take care of communities, children, the elderly and homes, but they will not receive any help themselves. Also left out are the workers’ 3.5 million children, many of whom are American citizens.

“This is a nightmare to me and many of my colleagues,” Vaca said, lamenting the lack of income for rent and basic necessities. “We need for us to be respected.”

Asked how immigrants without legal status will survive the pandemic’s economic toll without any aid, President Donald Trump acknowledged the difficulty but said many citizens without work need help first.

“It’s a really sad situation, and we are working on it. I will tell you I’m not going to give you a hard and fast answer because I just want to tell you it’s something I think about,” Trump said.

Democratic lawmakers introduced legislation last week in the House and Senate that would allow immigrants to access relief funds.

“COVID-19 does not care about your immigration status, so neither should our response,” U.S. Rep. Raúl M. Grijalva, an Arizona Democrat, said in a statement.

Maria Zamorano, a day laborer in the Los Angeles area, has also been left without work. Until recently, she worked seven days a week cleaning houses, earning roughly $700 weekly. But all of her employers canceled services. After she did an interview with The New York Times about her situation, two of those employers decided to keep paying her, she said, but she doesn’t know for how long. She’s still short on cash for food, rent and bills.

“Like thousands of others who don’t have legal status, we are left empty-handed in this crisis,” Zamorano said. “I pay taxes, but the government doesn’t consider that we should get help.”

In rural Massachusetts, Jose Martinez said a pandemic stimulus check could have helped cover at least a month’s worth of expenses, if he had qualified. The 34-year-old Mexican crossed the border illegally about 15 years ago and lives near the Vermont state line with his 4-year-old American-born daughter.

Martinez, a house painter, says work has dropped off during the pandemic. His boss still owes him more than $500 for recent jobs, and the restaurant where he washes dishes part-time has also been temporarily shuttered.

“The check would have given me the opportunity to stay at home, avoid sickness and keep my family safe,” Martinez said, referring to the stimulus money. “But I have to keep looking for work and exposing us to risk. I don’t know what else to do.”

Luis Jiménez, a 35-year-old Mexican who takes cares of calves in New York, near Canada, said he feels forgotten by the government even though his work is vital to feed Americans.

“We are essential to the economy and to feed this country, but we don’t get any help or support,” said the father of three, who has lived in the United States without legal status for 16 years.

Jiménez, who lives with his kids and spouse, said he makes about $38,000 a year and pays about $6,000 in taxes annually. He has been paying them since 2005, he said.

“Every day we go to work and we are exposed to everything. In the farm, there are hardly any protection measures” against coronavirus, he said.


Marcelo reported from Boston. Torrens reported from New York. Associated Press writers Nomaan Merchant in Houston, Regina Garcia Cano in Washington and Anita Snow in Phoenix also contributed to this report.Copyright AP – Associated Press

In God We Trust. The Uncaring Action of The CARES Act of 2020.


The Clinton Curse. The COVID-19 Stimulus Checks Won’t Reach Many Victims.

The Clinton Curse of 1996. The COVID-19 Stimulus Checks won’t reach many victims. I am not alone in sharing that kind of view about the Stimulus Payments. For example, please review the CNN Business Perspectives.
Opinion: These taxpayers won’t get stimulus checks. That’s unjust

These taxpayers won’t get stimulus checks. That’s unjust

By Tim Breene for CNN Business Perspectives
In the midst of this economic crisis caused by the coronavirus, there is broad bipartisan support in Congress to provide payments to American taxpayers to offset the economic impact of the coronavirus. Among other components of the nearly-$2 trillion relief package negotiated in the US Senate, the agreement announced Wednesday morning reportedly will include checks of $1,200 to most American adults. These funds are supposed to help those who are out of work to pay for food and lodging and to stimulate the contracting US economy, encouraging people to spend even while they are stuck at home.Unfortunately, the Senate proposal does not include all taxpayers. Those who file their taxes using an Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) instead of a Social Security number have been left out, according to the Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy. Omitting these taxpayers will exclude many of the American taxpayers who are most vulnerable in the current crisis: undocumented immigrants.Failing to aid these workers will be disastrous to them and their families and will have a significant negative impact on the economy.If the Senate bill is passed without amendment by the House and signed by the president, it will not be the first time that taxpayers who file their taxes with an ITIN will not receive stimulus checks. In 2008, when our country issued similar checks, not only were taxpayers who filed with ITINs excluded — so were those with a valid Social Security Number who jointly filed a return with a spouse with an ITIN (with a limited exception for military families).
In hindsight, it’s clear immigrants suffered disproportionately as a result of the Great Recession. For example, in 2008 alone, Hispanic immigrants’ unemployment rate jumped from 5.1% to 8%, a significantly greater increase than among other American workers.Since 1996, ITINs have been issued by the IRS to individuals ineligible for a Social Security Number — mostly (though not exclusively) because they are immigrants who are undocumented.In an effort to encourage these undocumented immigrants to file and pay their taxes, the IRS has long highlighted that it maintains a wall of separation from the Department of Homeland Security, which is responsible for immigration enforcement. “We want your money whether you are here legally or not and whether you earned it legally or not,” IRS Commissioner Mark Everson said in 2007. Even in an era of increased rhetoric about immigration enforcement, federal tax law continues to prevent these taxpayers’ information from being shared for immigration enforcement purposes.Many undocumented immigrants have taken the IRS at its word: By 2015, more than 4 million people annually were using ITINs to pay more than $13.7 billion in net taxes.These unauthorized immigrants are concentrated in the industries likely to be most immediately impacted by the coronavirus pandemic. Though only about 5% of the US labor force overall is undocumented, they make up 10% or more of those working in the accommodation and food preparation and service sectors. The women and men who clean hotel rooms are either being laid off or are having their hours dramatically reduced. In addition, servers, cooks and dishwashers are all among those likely to be let go due to this crisis. They need economic relief urgently.From an economic perspective, I know that lower-income people — including most who would pay their taxes with an ITIN — are the most likely to quickly spend a stimulus check, precisely because they do not have the financial margin to save. If $2,200 was sent to a single parent with two children who was previously earning $12 per hour, they would likely use the funds to buy groceries, pay a cell phone bill or cover a car, rent or mortgage payment. This is the money which continues to circulate in the US economy.Unlike those with significantly higher earnings, hourly workers generally are not in a position to simply save those funds for a rainy day — that rainy day has come and the water is up to their necks.Undocumented immigrants — who are contributing taxes yet are generally ineligible for social safety net programs, such as food stamps, subsidized housing or Medicaid — are among those most at risk of hunger or eviction from their homes in the current crisis. Given that many lack medical insurance, they are also least likely to seek and receive health care if they contract COVID-19. Roughly 5 million US-born children of undocumented immigrants will also bear the weight of these impacts.I’m not dismissing the reality that these immigrants have violated US immigration law, either by entering the country unlawfully or overstaying a temporary visa. Like other evangelical leaders at World Relief, I have opposed calls for amnesty, arguing instead for a restitution-based immigration reform, that establishes a process by which undocumented immigrants could get right with the law if they pay a penalty for their violation of law.Were Congress to take up such reforms, our experience at World Relief providing legal services to tens of thousands of undocumented immigrants suggests most would be eager to pay such a fine and make amends. But in the midst of this crisis, congressional action on immigration reform is not likely to happen quickly.What can happen is that Congress can acknowledge that these undocumented immigrants have complied with IRS requirements to file and pay their taxes utilizing an ITIN. We should be fair to these American taxpayers, among the most vulnerable at all times but more so now. Congress should move quickly to send stimulus checks — and send them, in particular, to these uniquely vulnerable taxpayers.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA


The Clinton Curse of 1996. The COVID-19 Stimulus Checks Won’t Reach Many Victims.


Natural Law vs Man-Made Law. The Economic Fallout of the COVID-19.

Natural Law vs Man-made Law: The United States is governed by its supreme law called the Constitution of the United States of America which is founded on the principles of Natural Law.

December 19, 1998. President Clinton was impeached for the wrong reasons. His presidency can be described as ‘The Clinton Curse’.

In 1996, the US President Bill Clinton signed into Law the Welfare Reform Act popularly known as PRWORA. This man-made law divides the US workforce into two categories. 1. The native workers, and 2. the alien workers. The alien workers may use a Personal Identification Number (PIN) or Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) to pay all taxes just like the native workers. However, they are not entitled to receive any of the public fund benefits. According to the IRS, in 2015, 4.35 million people paid over 13.7 billion in net taxes using an ITIN. ITIN holders are not eligible for all of the tax benefits and public benefits that U.S. citizens and other taxpayers can receive.

Natural Law vs Man-Made Law. The Economic Fallout of the COVID-19.

We cannot speak about the impact of COVID-19 in the US using universal terms. The impact is modified by man-made law. This unjust and unfair treatment of alien workers is a sinful action. The US may spend $2 trillion and more to blunt the attack by COVID-19. Because of the unfairness driving the country’s response, the nation may fail to reap the blessings of the LORD God Creator who made the man in His own image.

“We are far more connected with one another than we previously thought—not just because our jobs are connected with one another, not just because the value chains are spread throughout our countries, but because our lives are built in connection with one another. COVID-19 is dangerous because it exploits how close we have all become.

COVID-19 is dangerous because it does not recognize the Man-Made Law. I demand Equal Justice Under Law.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Natural Law vs Man-Made Law. The Economic Fallout of the COVID-19.


As the epicenter of the coronavirus outbreak shifts from Italy to the U.S., SAIS Europe’s Filippo Taddei discusses the economic fallout Americans should brace for

ByHub staff report / Published 2 days ago

More than 2.1 million people around the world have become infected with COVID-19, and more than 140,000 people have died from the disease. The United States, now approaching 650,000 infections, is the new epicenter of the outbreak.

But as U.S. officials rush to contain the spread of disease, the federal government is also grappling with the dramatic—and unprecedented—toll the epidemic has had on the economy. In four weeks, 22 million Americans have filed for unemployment benefits. Technical glitches have prevented millions of Americans from receiving their stimulus checks from the U.S. Department of the Treasury. And the Small Business Administration, which supports U.S. entrepreneurs with loans and funding, has run out of money for its Paycheck Protection Program.

In fact, there is no country in the world that can be held up as a model for both its economic and public health response to the coronavirus pandemic.

For insights on how U.S. and European governments—and particularly Italy, the previous epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak—have worked to contain the economic fallout from the global health crisis, the Hub turned to Filippo Taddei, a Johns Hopkins associate professor of international economics and a faculty member at SAIS Europe. The conversation has been edited for length and clarity.

Over the past several weeks we’ve seen central banks around the world, particularly the European Central Bank and the Federal Reserve, move with extraordinary speed to shore up financial markets, but these efforts have not calmed volatility. Is there anything else for central bankers to do, or is this an economic crisis that can only be solved through public health measures?

It is true that the size of the intervention is impressive. The size of the Federal Reserve’s intervention still remains higher than the ECB, and its promptness to act in the market has been much greater compared to the ECB. Perhaps this is not surprising since the ECB is a combination of the different central banks from EU member countries.

The real difference between the Federal Reserve and the ECB is how timely they have been in their responses. The U.S. started very strongly with a “preemptive strike”-style intervention, announcing a rate cut outside of the usual standard monthly meeting. Conversely, the president of the ECB held the usual press conference following the monthly meeting of the bank board, but her language wasn’t clear on how much the ECB would act in order to combat the global shock from the pandemic.

For central bankers, words often matter more than the actual money, so the wording of statements is crucial, especially at times like these. If we look at the uncertain start by the ECB and quick action by the Federal Reserve, in both cases the real difference is not about the money that central banks can put down, but rather how credible they can be to serve as an anchor against uncertainty.

This is a concern for everyone right now—we have a great degree of uncertainty in how long this pandemic will last, and that’s fundamental, unfortunately. What we don’t want is to add an additional layer of uncertainty about policy. The additional uncertainty is whether our institutions, like the ECB and other central banks, are willing to support the financial sector to make sure that credit keeps on flowing to the real economy, no matter what. This is not as obvious as it might sound: banks hold a large amount of government debt in their balance sheet and, whenever government bonds come under pressure, the increase in their yields threatens the stability of the banking system. When the ECB president asserted that the central bank’s job is not to ensure that Euro Area countries’ debt trades at low rates, she said something true but self-defeating. During such an unprecedented situation, the last thing a central banker should suggest is that an essential part of private banks’ assets could suffer, hindering their ability to operate and extend credit. Facing an unconventional shock, poor messaging and language is a huge drawback—the central banks need to be clearer so that their language matches the extraordinary moment that we’re facing.

The current economic crisis calls to mind the Great Recession of 2008 in terms of widespread damage, and some draw comparisons to the Great Depression of the 1930s. Do you feel these are accurate comparisons? Are there other precedents for what we’re experiencing, or is it a singular “black swan” event?

I don’t think these are the right comparisons because both crises—the Great Recession and the Great Depression—were essentially demand shocks. What you do with a demand shock is standard macroeconomic policy, and even allowing certain mistakes, we saw in the response to the Great Recession how fiscal and monetary policies worked to alleviate a demand shock.

This is something else. This is supply shock. Here, everything was functioning as normal, but as COVID-19 intensified, bringing thousands and then tens of thousands into the health system, we have decided to shut down the economy. This was because governments discouraged and then prohibited people going to work. If you think about it, supply is the measure of what we collectively produce, but the virus caused a sudden contraction of the labor supply. This has then caused a loss of confidence that resulted in a demand shock, too, but it’s a spillover, an indirect effect due to a fundamental contraction in our ability to produce goods and services.

When you face a supply shock, policies like those used during the Great Recession work, but only in containing the secondary shock to people’s confidence, the demand shock. It’s important to respond on the fiscal and monetary fronts. What’s really key is that we don’t add additional shocks on top of the initial crisis that is having such a severe effect on our ability to work and produce.

If you want to compare the current crisis to something that happened in the past, a better comparison is the oil shock and energy crisis during the 1970s and early 1980s. The sharp increase in the price of oil made the production and transportation of goods a lot more expensive, hindering productive capacity as is going on right now.

In the United States, relief efforts were initially stymied by a lack of consensus on how to allocate resources between working people and industry. How have EU countries navigated this tension, and are there lessons for U.S. lawmakers on crafting an effective stimulus response?

When you compare the policy situations in the EU and U.S., keep in mind that the EU is much more gradual in its adjustment. The U.S. is a country of choice and action, where things that seem unmovable before a crisis are suddenly thrown into flux—like the agreement on a $2 trillion stimulus bill. The EU is much more gradual in its approach. While the economic shock is common to all nations, it is not undertaken uniformly. So, what we’ve seen in Europe is an increasingly stricter response on the health front and an increasingly stronger economic support across the continent, but always undertaken in a gradual fashion.

Europe, and Italy in particular, can serve as a point of observation: if you are too gradual in your response, you run the risk of COVID’s course being worse than it might have otherwise have been. Really, Italy’s response made sense in the face of an unknown scenario, but perhaps we could have learned a little bit better from the events and responses in Asia. The clear message from our experience is that you need to intervene as swiftly and uniformly as possible. In light of the experience worldwide, one major concern for the U.S. is that different states are acting in different ways in trying to contain the virus.

What are the primary risks for Italy, other EU countries, and the U.S. as the economic crisis precipitated by COVID-19 continues?

Global productive capacity has shrunk severely and abruptly as a consequence of lockdown and some needed equipment, like ventilators, is in short supply. In normal times, the economy would quickly adjust by reallocating its workforce through new investments. This is simply impossible when people can’t effectively work due to the outbreak.

As overall production of goods and services is reduced, government action ensuring capacity to contain the epidemic as quickly as possible is justified if we want to bring people back to work. This type of policy action makes sense, and the crucial matter is to identify what is the most effective level of authority needed to aggressively address the outbreak. In any case, whether in the U.S. or in Europe, trying to convert production into what is immediately needed to end the outbreak is appropriate.

Italy has been encouraging this industrial conversion extensively as well, and so have other countries in Europe. There are different cases of companies that have started producing respirators, masks and protective garments, and other helpful medical supplies.

If we want to think of the long-term consequence of the COVID crisis, we should focus on public debt. The Great Recession left us with a legacy in the U.S. and EU of greatly expanded government debt. We think of the Great Recession as a temporary shock that we recovered from but now, as we look at the current crisis, we will be increasing government debt greatly compared to GDP. This is a legacy that will remain for a long time and will pose very pressing policy questions.

As we think about the future of advanced economies, in the U.S. and Europe, we have to ask ourselves how we will be dealing with a level of government debt that will exceed, as a share of GDP, the amount we had at the end of WWII. Our management of this new massive debt through the policy response in the aftermath of the crisis will shape our society determining the economic balance between generations, the actual opportunities for future generations, and the technological disruption and transformation that was already in place before this outbreak.

COVID-19 has had an unprecedented impact on labor, with the U.S. Treasury Secretary estimating that unemployment could reach 20% in the U.S. What are the long-term impacts, both in Europe and in the United States, of such severe unemployment?

We have to be careful not to pay too much attention to the unemployment rate alone as the crisis is also generating substantial underemployment: a large share of the workforce is not able to work as much as they could or wish. In Italy, to give you a sense of the labor situation, only somewhere between 40-50% of the labor force is able to work as efficiently as before. That means that between 50-60% of our workers are either working remotely or not working at all. It’s an unprecedented change in peace time, affecting everyone, not just the Italian economy.

There’s a large body of literature on the long-term consequences of unemployment, even when due to a short-term shock. When people lose their jobs, the long-lasting effects are not just on their income. Unemployment has a negative effect on workers’ skills and education, even on their health—people who are unemployed become sicker. Your human capital, the skills of your country’s workforce, decay over time because of the loss of jobs. To mitigate this, the Italian government is doing all it can to keep people as attached to their jobs as possible by preventing companies from enacting layoffs. In order to achieve this objective, short time compensation schemes—usually available only for large industrial firms—have been expanded to almost every sector and firm size. Through these schemes, the government pays reduced salaries, which allows employers to keep their employees without going bankrupt.

In the U.S. these schemes exist in more than 20 states but the country is less equipped in this dimension. U.S. workers experience a quicker turnover: they are laid off more often but then re-hired more quickly compared to the EU. The current scenario is different, though, from the usual business cycle because the current shock could discontinue many of these businesses altogether. What governments need to do at the moment is try to prevent the destruction of capital and desertification of existing businesses. Preventing employers from laying off people is likely to be in their and the economy’s best interest, even if they work very little, since this can help to better protect essential human capital. At the moment, the size of resources behind the relief package put in place by the U.S. government has surpassed the combined set of responses taken across Europe.

In the United States, public health officials have looked to Italy to anticipate future scenarios. Do you think this is an apt comparison? What lessons can leaders in the United States and other nations learn from the strategies taken by the Italian government?

Yes, it is a possibility, but there are a couple of lessons that Italy’s experience can provide in order to prevent or mitigate the outbreak we experienced.

The first is relatively easy: you have to test widely without limiting your attention only to the people showing symptoms. When you test people, keep them separated applying as much social distancing as possible. The U.S., where health care triage is much quicker, plays at an advantage here. These protocols might be more effective right now in containing the spread of the virus. A concern that we have seen in Europe is that if you don’t implement a response nationwide, containing the virus will be much harder. The response might not need to be exactly the same everywhere in the country, but you must require coordination and quick scalability. The U.S. must avoid the same mistake we had in Italy and the rest of Europe: if you don’t provide a coordinated response to containment, including possible restrictions to the movement and actions of people, the outbreak will only get worse. Make no mistake: this is costly economically, because production contracts sharply across the board, but if you can contain the outbreak in a shorter period of time, you will most likely end up congesting hospital capacity, increase the death toll and, eventually, extend the length of the economic shock.

We are far more connected with one another than we previously thought—not just because our jobs are connected with one another, not just because the value chains are spread throughout our countries, but because our lives are built in connection with one another. COVID-19 is dangerous because it exploits how close we have all become.

Natural Law vs Man-Made Law. The Economic Fallout of the COVID-19.


The economic fallout of ‘The Clinton Curse’. The United States needs the Blessings of the LORD God Creator.

I reviewed the opinions of nine global thinkers on the issue of the economic fallout of the Coronavirus pandemic. None of the nine global thinkers mentioned about the need for the Blessings of the LORD God Creator. In my analysis, no man, and no nation can ever hope to be self-reliant. Both the individual entity, and the national entity will only exist if and only if if the existence is granted by the LORD God Creator’s Mercy, Grace, and Compassion.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

The economic fallout of ‘The Clinton Curse’. The United States needs the Blessings of the LORD God Creator.

How the Economy Will Look After the Coronavirus Pandemic


The pandemic will change the economic and financial order forever. We asked nine leading global thinkers for their predictions.


BRIAN STAUFFER ILLUSTRATION FOR FOREIGN POLICY. The Clinton Curse. The United States needs the Blessings of the LORD God Creator.

After many weeks of lockdowns, tragic loss of life, and the shuttering of much of the global economy, radical uncertainty is still the best way to describe this historical moment. Will businesses reopen and jobs come back? Will we travel again? Will the flood of money from central banks and governments be enough to prevent a deep and lasting recession, or worse?

This much is certain: The pandemic will lead to permanent shifts in political and economic power in ways that will become apparent only later.

To help us make sense of the ground shifting beneath our feet, Foreign Policy asked nine leading thinkers, including two Nobel-Prize-winning economists, to weigh in with their predictions for the economic and financial order after the pandemic.

We Need a Better Balance Between Globalization and Self-Reliance

by Joseph E. Stiglitz

Economists used to scoff at calls for countries to pursue food or energy security policies. In a globalized world where borders don’t matter, they argued, we could always turn to other countries if something happened in our own. Now, borders suddenly do matter, as countries hold on tightly to face masks and medical equipment, and struggle to source supplies. The coronavirus crisis has been a powerful reminder that the basic political and economic unit is still the nation-state.

The coronavirus crisis has been a powerful reminder that the basic political and economic unit is still the nation-state.

To build our seemingly efficient supply chains, we searched the world over for the lowest-cost producer of every link in the chain. But we were short-sighted, constructing a system that is plainly not resilient, insufficiently diversified, and vulnerable to interruptions. Just-in-time production and distribution, with low or no inventories, may be capable enough of absorbing small problems, but we have now seen the system crushed by an unexpected disturbance.

We should have learned the lesson of resilience from the 2008 financial crisis. We had created an interconnected financial system that seemed efficient and was perhaps good at absorbing small shocks, but it was systemically fragile. If not for massive government bailouts, the system would have collapsed as the real estate bubble popped. Evidently, that lesson went right over our heads.

The economic system we construct after this pandemic will have to be less shortsighted, more resilient, and more sensitive to the fact that economic globalization has far outpaced political globalization. So long as this is the case, countries will have to strive for a better balance between taking advantage of globalization and a necessary degree of self-reliance.

This Wartime Atmosphere Has Opened a Window for Change

by Robert J. Shiller

There are fundamental changes that happen from time to time—often during times of war. Though the enemy is now a virus and not a foreign power, the COVID-19 pandemic has created a wartime atmosphere in which such changes suddenly seem possible.Though the enemy is a virus and not a foreign power, the pandemic has created a wartime atmosphere in which fundamental changes suddenly seem possible.

This atmosphere, with narratives of both suffering and heroism, is spreading with the disease. Wartime brings people together not only within a country, but also between countries, as they share a common enemy like the virus. Those who live in advanced countries can feel more sympathy with those suffering in poor countries because they are sharing a similar experience. The epidemic is also bringing us together in countless Zoom get-togethers. Suddenly the world seems smaller and more intimate.

There is also reason to hope that the pandemic has opened a window to creating new ways and institutions to deal with the suffering, including more effective measures to stop the trend toward greater inequality. Perhaps the emergency payments to individuals that many governments have made are a path to a universal basic income. In the United States, better and more universal health insurance might just have been given new impetus. Since we are all on the same side in this war, we may now find the motivation to build new international institutions allowing better risk-sharing among countries. The wartime atmosphere will fade again, but these new institutions would persist.

The Real Risk Is Politicians Exploiting Our Fears

by Gita Gopinath

Over only a few weeks, a dramatic chain of events—tragic loss of life, paralyzed global supply chains, interrupted shipments of medical supplies between allies, and the deepest global economic contraction since the 1930s—has laid bare the vulnerabilities of open borders.People may self-assess their individual risks and decide to curtail travel indefinitely, reversing 50 years of rising international mobility.

If support for an integrated global economy was already declining before COVID-19 struck, the pandemic will likely hasten the reassessment of globalization’s costs and benefits. Firms that are part of global supply chains have witnessed firsthand the risks inherent in their interdependencies and the large losses caused by disruption. In future, these firms are likely to take greater account of tail risks, resulting in supply chains that are more local and robust—but less global. In emerging markets, whose embrace of globalization included a steady opening to capital flows, we risk seeing capital controls being reimposed as these countries scramble to shield themselves from the destabilizing forces of the sudden economic stop. And even as containment measures gradually come off worldwide, people may self-assess their individual risks and decide to curtail travel indefinitely, reversing half a century of rising international mobility.

The real risk, however, is that this organic and self-interested shift away from globalization by people and firms will be compounded by some policymakers who exploit fears over open borders. They could impose protectionist restrictions on trade under the guise of self-sufficiency and restrict the movement of people under the pretext of public health. It is now in the hands of global leaders to avert this outcome and to retain the spirit of international unity that has collectively sustained us for more than 50 years.

Another Nail in the Coffin of Globalization

by Carmen M. Reinhart

World War I and the global economic depression in the early 1930s ushered in the demise of a previous era of globalization. Apart from a resurgence of trade barriers and capital controls, an important explanation for this demise is the fact that more than 40 percent of all countries at the time entered default, cutting many of them off from the global capital markets until the 1950s or much later. By the time World War II ended, the new Bretton Woods system combined domestic financial repression with extensive controls of capital flows, with little resemblance to the preceding era of global trade and finance.Pandemic-induced recessions may be deep and long—and as in the 1930s, sovereign defaults will likely spike.

The modern globalization cycle has faced a series of blows since the financial crisis of 2008-2009: a European debt crisis, Brexit, and the U.S.-China trade war. The rise of populism in many countries further tilts the balance toward home bias.

The coronavirus pandemic is the first crisis since the 1930s to engulf both advanced and developing economies. Their recessions may be deep and long. As in the 1930s, sovereign defaults will likely spike. Calls to restrict trade and capital flows find fertile soil in bad times.

Doubts about pre-coronavirus global supply chains, the safety of international travel, and, at the national level, concerns about self-sufficiency in necessities and resilience are all likely to persist—even after the pandemic is brought under control (which may itself prove a lengthy process). The post-coronavirus financial architecture may not take us all the way back to the pre globalization era of Bretton Woods, but the damage to international trade and finance is likely to be extensive and lasting.

The Economy’s Preexisting Conditions Are Made Worse by the Pandemic

by Adam Posen

The pandemic will worsen four preexisting conditions of the world economy. They will remain reversible through major surgery but turn chronic and damaging absent such interventions. The first of these conditions is secular stagnation—the combination of low productivity growth, a lack of private investment returns, and near-deflation. This will deepen as people stay risk-averse and save more following the pandemic, which will persistently weaken demand and innovation.

Second, the gap between rich countries (along with a few emerging markets) and the rest of the world in their resilience to crises will widen further.Economic nationalism will increasingly lead governments to shut off their own economies from the rest of the world.

Third, partly as a result of flight to safety and the apparent riskiness of developing economies, the world will continue to be over-reliant on the U.S. dollar for financing and trade. Even while the United States becomes less attractive for investment, its attraction will increase relative to most other parts of the world. This will lead to ongoing dissatisfaction.

Finally, economic nationalism will increasingly lead governments to shut off their own economies from the rest of the world. This will never produce complete autarky, or anything close to it, but it will reinforce the first two trends and increase resentment of the third.

More Than Ever, the World Looks to Central Bankers for Deliverance

by Eswar Prasad

The economic and financial carnage wrought by the pandemic could leave deep scars on the world economy. Central banks have stepped up to the challenge by tearing up their own rulebooks. The U.S. Federal Reserve has bolstered financial markets with asset purchases and provided dollar liquidity to other central banks. The European Central Bank has declared “no limits” to its support of the euro and announced massive purchases of government and corporate bonds, and other assets. The Bank of England is financing government spending directly. Even some emerging-market central banks, such as the Reserve Bank of India, are considering extraordinary measures—all risks be damned.Central bankers, once considered cautious and conservative, have shown they can act with agility, boldness, and creativity.

Fiscal stimulus by governments, on the other hand, has proved to be politically complicated, cumbersome to implement, and often difficult to target where the need is greatest.

Central bankers, once considered cautious and conservative, have shown they can act with agility, boldness, and creativity in desperate times. Even when political leaders are unwilling to coordinate policies across borders, central bankers can act in concert.

Now and for a long time to come, central banks have become entrenched as the first and main line of defense against economic and financial crises. They may come to rue this immense new role and the unrealistic burdens and expectations it will impose on them.

The Normal Economy Is Never Coming Back

by Adam Tooze

As the lockdowns began, the first impulse was to search for historical analogies—1914, 1929, 1941? Since then, what has come ever more to the fore is the historical novelty of the shock we are living through. There is something new under the sun. And it is horrifying.

The economic fallout defies calculation. Many countries face a far deeper and more savage economic shock than they have ever previously experienced. In sectors like retail, already under fierce pressure from online competition, the temporary lockdown may prove to be terminal. Many stores will not reopen, their jobs permanently lost. Millions of workers, small-business owners, and their families are facing catastrophe. The longer we sustain the lockdown, the deeper the economic scars, and the slower the recovery.

The longer we sustain the lockdown, the deeper the economic scars, and the slower the recovery.

What we thought we knew about the economy and finance has been radically disturbed. Since the shock of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been a lot of talk about the need to reckon with radical uncertainty. We now know what truly radical uncertainty looks like.

We are witnessing the largest combined fiscal effort since World War II, but it is already clear that the first round may not be enough. There are few illusions about the unprecedented acrobatics that central banks are performing. To deal with the accumulated liabilities, history suggests some radical alternatives, including a burst of inflation or an organized public default (which would not be as drastic as it sounds if it affects government debts held by central banks).

If the response by businesses and households is risk-aversion and a flight to safety, it will compound the forces of stagnation. If the public response to the debts accumulated by the crisis is austerity, that will make matters worse. It makes sense to call instead for a more active, more visionary government to lead the way out of the crisis. But the question, of course, is what form that will take and which political forces will control it.

Many Lost Jobs Will Never Return

by Laura D’Andrea Tyson

The pandemic and subsequent recovery will accelerate the ongoing digitalization and automation of work—trends that have eroded middle-skill jobs while increasing high-skill jobs during the last two decades and contributed to the stagnation of median wages and rising income inequality.Many low-wage, low-skill, in-person service jobs, especially those provided by small firms, will not return with the recovery.

Changes in demand, many of them accelerated by the economic dislocation wrought by the pandemic, will change the future composition of GDP. The share of services in the economy will continue to rise. But the share of in-person services will decline in retail, hospitality, travel, education, health care, and government as digitalization drives changes in the way these services are organized and delivered.

Many low-wage, low-skill, in-person service jobs, especially those provided by small firms, will not return with the eventual recovery. However, workers providing essential services such as policing, firefighting, health care, logistics, public transportation, and food will be in greater demand, creating new job opportunities and increasing the pressure to raise wages and improve benefits in these traditionally low-wage sectors. The downturn will accelerate the growth of nonstandard, precarious employment—part-time workers, gig workers, and workers with multiple employers—leading to new portable benefits systems that move with workers and broaden the definition of employer. New low-cost training programs, digitally delivered, will be required to provide the skills required in new jobs. The sudden dependence of so many on the ability to work remotely reminds us that a significant and inclusive expansion of Wi-Fi, broadband, and other infrastructure will be necessary to enable the accelerating digitalization of economic activity.

A More China-Centric Globalization

by Kishore Mahbubani

The COVID-19 pandemic will accelerate a change that had already begun: a move away from U.S.-centric globalization to a more China-centric globalization.

The COVID-19 pandemic will accelerate a change that had already begun: a move away from U.S.-centric globalization to a more China-centric globalization.

Why will this trend continue? The American population has lost faith in globalization and international trade. Free trade agreements are toxic, with or without U.S. President Donald Trump. By contrast, China has not lost faith. Why not? There are deeper historical reasons. Chinese leaders now know well that China’s century of humiliation from 1842 to 1949 was a result of its own complacency and a futile effort by its leaders to cut it off from the world. By contrast, the past few decades of economic resurgence were a result of global engagement. The Chinese people have also experienced an explosion of cultural confidence. They believe they can compete anywhere.

Consequently, as I document in my new book, Has China Won?, the United States has two choices. If its primary goal is to maintain global primacy, it will have to engage in a zero-sum geopolitical contest, politically and economically, with China. However, if the goal of the United States is to improve the well-being of the American people—whose social condition has deteriorated—it should cooperate with China. Wiser counsel would suggest that cooperation would be the better choice. However, given the toxic U.S. political environment toward China, wiser counsel may not prevail.

The Economic Fallout of The Clinton Curse. The United States needs the Blessings of the LORD God Creator.

The assassination of Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on August 15, 1975. Why India failed to defend his life?

Indira Gandhi’s paramount concern at that moment of time was figuring out how to get Bangladesh leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman back to his country alive and well.
She was prepared to pay any price to save his life. This much the prime minister confided to at least one member of her so called ‘kitchen Cabinet’. That person was Ram Nath Kao.the RAW chief.

Bangabandhu, Father of the Nation, Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman had twice ignored India’s alert against the bloody putsch, saying the plotters were his “own children” who will not harm him.

Over seven months before the ‘Bangabandhu’ was assassinated along with most of his family members in the August 15, 1975 carnage, a former top Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) official had met him here to warn him against the conspirators.

“These are my own children and they will not harm me,” the Bangladesh leader had told Rameshwar Nath Kao, founder of the India’s external intelligence agency, who meet him in December, 1974 with the approval of the then Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

Referring to the book “Inside R&AW” by Asoka Raina, the report said Rahman had dismissed the concern with a wave of his hand. Kao did not argue but said the Indian information was reliable and he would send him more details of the plot.

He subsequently sent a senior RAW officer to Dhaka in March, 1975 who gave Rahman exact details of the units and ranks of the serving and dismissed officers who were hatching the plot to overthrow his post-independence government.

“But again, he (Bangabandhu) was not convinced,” it said.

.Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman welcoming Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi on March 17, 1972 at Dhaka Airport.
Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi interacting with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman on 07 Feb 1972 at Raj Bhavan, Calcutta (Kolkata)
Bangabandhu Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi in Kolkata, Calcutta, February 1972.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (March 1972)
Bangabandhu Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman with Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi (March 1972).
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family with the visiting Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi (March 18, 1972).
Bangabandhu Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman bidding farewell to visiting Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi. (March 1972)
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman sign an Indo Bangladesh pact. (May 16, 1974)
A smiling Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman during the signing of Mujib-Indira treaty (May 16, 1974).
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman during the signing of Mujib-Indira Treaty (May 16, 1974).

I returned to Chakrata, India during the last week of January 1972 after the successful conclusion of Operation Eagle that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. During February 1972, I had the opportunity to take part in the training of a National Security Force (Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini) whose mission was very clear from the beginning. There was an utter sense of urgency and earnestness to defend the personal life of Bangabandhu Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as our intelligence information discovered a plot getting brewed by a few Bangladesh Army Officers who were not satisfied with Bangabandhu’s vision for a modern, democratic nation of Bangladesh.

In my analysis, India had prior information of the assassination plot. India diligently shared the intelligence information with Bangladesh Prime Minister. The choice to act upon the intelligence information was entirely left in the hands of Bangladesh Prime Minister. Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi took utmost care to get his release from the military prison in West Pakistan and played a critical role to avoid the death sentence imposed on him. At the same time, India treated the new independent nation with grace and respect giving Bangladesh to discover its own destiny without external influence.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini (JRB) – from law enforcers to Sheikh Mujib’s private army

Sheikh Mujib’s hatred for all things military

Sheikh Mujib had an understandable hatred for all things military. He had suffered grievously at the hands of Pakistan’s two military dictators, Field Marshall Ayub Khan and General Yahya Khan. Ayub had arrested Sheikh Mujib on 7 October 1958, the day he seized power. During the next 10-and-half-years of Ayub’s dictatorship Sheikh Mujib had been jailed for long periods in solitary confinement. Then in 1968, while once more in detention for political activity, he was made the principle accused in the notorious Agartala Conspiracy trial in Dhaka. The charge conspiring with India for the secession of East Pakistan. It was a capital offence and Mujib only escaped the gallows because a countryside upsurge against Ayub in 1968 forced him to drop the charges and bring Mujib to the conference table.

While a prisoner of General Yahya Khan in 1971 during the Bangladesh independence struggle, Sheikh Mujib had had an even closer brush with death. According to Sheikh Mujib, he had been tried by a military court and found guilty of treason and sedition. He was to be executed on 15 December 1971, a day before Pakistan surrendered to Bangladesh in Dhaka. Fortunately for him the ceasefire was ordered that night and he was smuggled away to safety by the prison jailor.

Sheikh Mujib carried his hatred of the army with him to the grave. This attitude was shared by his ministers and other senior Awami Leaguers who had also escaped death at the hands of the Pakistan army in 1971.To their [senior Awami Leaguers] basic hostility of things military was added, after independence, the fear that the Bangladesh army might try to supplant them. This anxiety was grounded in the fact that the Bengali military men had been in the thick of the fighting during the independence movement while the Awami Leaguers stayed safely in Calcutta out of the line of fire. As such it would have been understandable if the army men with the other freedom fighters had insisted on positions of influence in the new state. The army as an institution at least did not make this demand. It was content to let Mujib rule and in the first two years of independence gave him loyalty and support.

Anthony Mascarenhas, journalist who wrote the groundbreaking ‘Genocide’ article in 1971 & author of “Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood” (1986)

Mujib and his ministers, however, from the very start deliberately emasculated [made efforts to weaken] the role of the Defence Forces. Before he was one month in office Mujib took the first step in this direction by signing a 25 year Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Assistance with India. The Indian army had helped to create Bangladesh and it was to India that Mujib now looked to protect it from external aggression. The treaty thus obviated the need for an effective fighting force and the country’s defence establishment was reduced to a police-keeping and largely ceremonial role.I don’t want to create another monster like the one we had in Pakistan.

Sheikh Mujib told Anthony Mascarenhas in February 1974 that he was against a powerful military force

Nevertheless, in independent Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujib took initiatives to establish military academies for building skilled and ideal armed forces in the country. He inaugurated the Military Academy in Comilla Cantonment in 1974. However, with the administration of the country at its infancy and his personal dislike for all things military, Sheikh Mujib remained reluctant to dispense too much power to the army and maintained a cautious approach throughout his reign.When you play with gentlemen, you play like a gentleman. But when you play with bastards, make sure you play like a bigger bastard. Otherwise you will lose. Don’t forget I have had good teachers.

Sheikh Mujib allegedly remarked to Anthony Mascarenhas during a poker game on a night train from the Grand Canyon to Los Angeles

Creation of JRB

In early 1972, the government announced the formation of an elite paramilitary force named the Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini (National Defence Force), or JRB for short. The Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini Order, 1972 (President’s Order no. 21 of 1972) was promulgated on 7 March 1972 – on the first anniversary of Sheikh Mujib’s famous Ebarer Sangram speech – with a retroactive effect from 1 February 1972.

The idea for the JRB is believed to have resulted from a discussion between the top leaders of Mujib Bahini (also known as Bangladesh Liberation Force or BLF) and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. The leaders made Sheikh Mujib realise that the fruit of the labour during the independence war could be undone by anti-revolutionary forces within the young volatile nation. It was a view also shared by Tajuddin Ahmad. He advised Sheikh Mujib that the 100,000 trained and armed common people that had participated as muktijuddhas (freedom fighters) during the Swadhinata Juddho (Independence War) should come under national service and a paramilitary force should be formed for them.

Sheikh Mujib was also aware of the growing threat of coup from the military. To combat these, Sheikh Mujib formed the new elite force to provide security for the people after initially rejecting the idea. The task force was formed without any consultation in the cabinet.

So about 110,000 government certified freedom fighters, at the very outset of the independence, felt ignored and excluded from the reconstruction of the new country. Though Sheikh Mujib offered the freedom fighters to join the armed forces, only 8,000 turned up – mostly young Mujib Bahini members and other loyal cadres – and they were absorbed in the Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini.

Indian link

Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini was actively deployed just after the Indian Army left Bangladesh on 17 March 1972. The force was trained and brought up by Indian Major General Sujan Singh Uban from Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) as per the request of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. General Uban, had also trained the Mujib Bahini in India during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War and accompanied Sheikh Moni to Bangladesh.

The basic training of the force was not provided by the Bangladesh Army but instead given in India, by Indian Army. Any additional special training were also provided by India in the Indian Military Academy of Dehradun. The JRB troops were armed with Indian assault rifles, heavy machine guns, steel helmet, and leather boots. Jeeps and trucks were imported from India and their olive green-coloured uniform was similar to that of the Border Security Force 66 of the Indian Army.

The JRB was led by Brigadier General A. N. M. Nuruzzaman who was appointed as the Director General while Major Anwarul Alam Shahid (Training), Lieutenant Colonel Abul Hasan Khan (Administration), Lieutenant Colonel Sarwar (Operations), Lieutenant Colonel Sabihuddin (Signals) and Lieutenant Colonel Azizul Islam (Zonal Head Quarter of Chittagong) were his five deputies.

Brigadier Nuruzzaman was a Sector 3 (Brahmanbaria and parts of Sylhet) Commander during 1971 Liberation War.The raising of a new paramilitary force, JRB having exclusive allegiance to Sheikh Mujib proved morally and politically disastrous. JRB became the target of anti-Mujib campaign.

At the height of its influence in 1975 JRB was 25,000 member strong and plans were put in place for it to grow to an astronomical 130,000 by the end of 1980 – that’s more than the number of muktijuddhas who fought in the Swadhinata Juddho. These troops would have been distributed to every district under the authority of the 60 District Governors. To finance this force, Sheikh Mujib used the major part of the 13% of public expenditures allocated to defence, and recruitment of new soldiers in the army was almost stopped. When the Rakkhi Bahini was raised to 25,000 men with basic military training and modern automatic weapons, the discontent amongst some army men turned into antagonism. All these discrimination created rift between the two forces.The Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini, which roughly translated means National Security Force, was an elite para-military force whose members had to take oaths of personal loyalty to Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Bangabandhu Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1972.
Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the architect of Bangladesh, was assassinated by a handful of army renegades as part of a larger national and international political conspiracy hatched by anti-liberation forces in the pre-dawn hours of August 15. They murdered in cold blood every member of his family except his daughters Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana, who by fortune alone were abroad at that time. Bangladesh observes August 15 as the National Mourning Day and remembers the noblest and the greatest Bengali who ever lived, through his spirit, ideology, courage and love for the people of his nation.