YOM KIPPUR 2019 – REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT

YOM KIPPUR 2019 – REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT

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YOM KIPPUR 2019. REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT.

Yom Kippur / יום כפור

Yom Kippur (Hebrew: יוֹם כִּפּוּר or יום הכיפורים), Also known as Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year for the Jews. Its central themes are atonement and repentance. Jews traditionally observe this holy day with a 25-hour period of fasting and intensive prayer, often spending most of the day in synagogue services. Yom Kippur completes the annual period known in Judaism as the High Holy Days (or sometimes “the Days of Awe”).

Yom Kippur 2019 will start on Tuesday, October 08, 2019. The event doesn’t actually start at the beginning of  October 08. Instead, it will start on the evening of the day when sunset is taking place. The holiday will then last into Wednesday, October 09.

Just like with its start, Yom Kippur 2019 won’t be over exactly when October 09 comes to an end. The event will instead come to a close during nightfall on  October 09. This is due to Yom Kippur being a holiday that lasts for 25 hours.

I would like to define my Indian Identity in the context of Repentance and Atonement that defines the identity of Hebrew people.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

https://bhavanajagat.com/2009/10/05/repentance-defining-indian-identity/

BHAVANAJAGAT

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Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

The idea of repentance is well expressed in different Cultures but the interpretation of its consequences is not the same. The Jews associate the idea of repentance with Divine Atonement and Absolution of sins.

Repentance and forgiveness of sins in the name of Jesus is the theme of the Books of The New Testament. Christian faith calls upon man to repent and be converted through the act of Baptism.

In Islam, true repentance means that man must reject all other forms of belief and avoid the worship of false gods. By repenting, a Muslim agrees to truly believe in one and only God(ALLAH) and live in strict obedience to His Five Commandments and other ordinances as revealed in the Holy Scripture of the Quran. Islam also demands that the true believer must ask the non-believer to repent. Islam encourages the idea of harshly punishing all individuals who fail to truly repent.

In India, the Land described as ‘Karma Bhumi’, or ‘Karma Kshetra’, repentance is viewed upon as a personal choice. Repentance could only be used to change one’s own conduct. Most importantly, in the Land of Bharat, the idea of repentance is not associated with the idea of converting the religious beliefs of a man. The idea of ‘repent or perish’ does not define Indian Identity.

JUDAISM AND THE DOCTRINE OF ATONEMENT:

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Repentance is a common theme of Old Testament Prophets. Prophet Jeremiah had more to say about repentance than any other Prophet. He called upon Jews to repent and condemned them for their false worship and social injustice.

To Jews, repentance means living in obedience to Yahweh’s Will for the individual and the nation of Israel. For a Jew, atonement is expiation for his own sin in order to attain God’s forgiveness. He may achieve this in various ways, including repentance, payment for a wrong action, good works, suffering, and prayer. Repentance and changed conduct are stressed as the most important aspects of Atonement.

YOM KIPPUR 2019. REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT.

God set up Laws for the Israelites mostly regarding holiness and worship. The Old Testament Book of Leviticus, Chapter 16, verse 34: “This is to be a lasting ordinance for you; Atonement is to be made once a year for all the sins of the Israelites.”

The Day of Atonement or YOM KIPPUR is the most important and solemn of the Jewish holidays. It is the tenth and final day of the Ten Days of Repentance which begins with Rosh Hashanah.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

God has issued a lasting ordinance and has called upon the Jews to obtain Atonement once a year. After the destruction of the Second Temple at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Jews discontinued the practice of ritualistic animal sacrifice to make the sin and burnt offerings to seek Atonement.

The observance of Yom Kippur includes a 25 hour period of fasting and intensive prayer. At the end of Yom Kippur, the man considers himself absolved from his sin and is reconciled to God.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Repentance is not a personal choice for the Jews.

THE MESSAGE OF JESUS – THE KINGDOM OF GOD IS NEAR AND THEREFORE REPENT:

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

“REPENT, FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS AT HAND!” – Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 3, verse 2.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

The Baptism of the sinless Man. From that time on Jesus began to preach, “REPENT, FOR THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN IS NEAR.” – Gospel of Matthew, Chapter 4, verse 17.

Jesus announced the approaching Kingdom of God and therefore called people to repentance. Jesus’ call to repentance is grounded in this message of the approaching Kingdom of God. In Jesus’ preaching, repentance does not mean a prerequisite or precondition or even a penitent contemplation of oneself but, rather a consequence of the proximity of the Kingdom of God.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

The Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 2, verse 38: Then Peter said to them, “Repent, and let every one of you is baptized in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins; and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.”

Christians believe that the redeeming of mankind and the reconciliation of God with man is brought about by Jesus’ suffering and Crucifixion. As per Christian belief, Jesus came to Earth and became the sacrifice for all mankind. It was the sins of all mankind that have put Jesus on the Cross. Christians seek forgiveness through Jesus Christ the Savior.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Risen Lord – Jesus the Redeemer. The Acts of the Apostles, Chapter 3, verse 19 :”Repent therefore and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, so that times of refreshing may come from the presence of the Lord.”

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

LENT SEASON: The period of forty weekdays from Ash Wednesday to Easter is observed variously in Christian Churches by fasting and penitence. Christians do not celebrate a ‘Day of Atonement’. Christians seek forgiveness of sins through the GRACE of their Risen Lord.

Christian traditions accept the announcement of God’s willingness to forgive all those who truly repent of their sins. Christians are sharply divided about the Doctrine of Conciliation and the power to “bind and loose”. Jesus after the Resurrection told the disciples:”If you forgive anyone his sins, they are forgiven; if you do not forgive them, they are not forgiven.”( Gospel of John, Chapter 20, verse 23 ) This statement is interpreted in different ways. Catholics believe in Sacramental Absolution of sins and they extend the power to “bind and loose” that was conferred by Jesus on the Apostles to all of their priests. Martin Luther, the leader of Protestant Reformation in Germany had asserted that daily repentance is the repeated actualization of Baptism. The Protestants have ruled out the Fourth Sacrament of Roman Catholicism.

ISLAM – “ALLAH IS HE WHO ACCEPTS REPENTANCE”:

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

“Know they not that Allah is He who accepts repentance from His bondsmen and taken the alms, and that Allah is He who is the Relenting and Merciful.” SURAH IX, At-TAUBAH, verse 104, Holy Quran.

The Revelations stated in the Holy Book of Quran state that it is always possible for a sinner to repent( Taubah or Tawbah) and redeem himself by a genuine conversion to the truth. Genuine repentance has the effect of removing all sins and restoring a person to the state of sinlessness with which he started his life.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

(Triumphant) are those who turn repentant( to ALLAH ), those who serve( Him ), those who praise ( Him ), those who fast, those who bow down, those who fall prostrate ( in worship ), those who enjoin the right and who forbid the wrong and those who keep the limits ( ordained ) of ALLAH – And give glad tidings to believers! – Holy Quran, At-Taubah, Surah IX, verse 112.

In Surah IX, At-Taubah ( Repentance ), Holy Quran issues stern Commandments against idolater, disbeliever, transgressor, the Jews and the Christians for they have taken as lords beside ALLAH their rabbis, and their monks, the Messiah, and that son of Mary.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Quran was sent down as a guidance for the people. ( Surah II, verse 185 )

The ninth month of the Muslim Year during which the Quran was sent down as a guidance for the people is observed as a period of daily fasting from sunrise to sunset. Ramadan is seen as an obedient response to a command from God and to a lesser extent it may represent a period of Atonement.

THE LAND OF BHARAT: SUBMISSION OF ALL ACTIONS TO GOD:

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Indian Prayer seeking the total surrender to God. Man desires no Free Will to perform actions on his own.

YOM KIPPUR 2019. REFLECTIONS ON REPENTANCE AND ATONEMENT. INDIAN IDENTITY IS DEFINED BY SURRENDERING ALL ACTIONS TO LORD GOD CREATOR.

While the Jews, the Christians, and the Muslims are constantly reminded to repent and to seek forgiveness of God for all of their sinful actions, in the Land of Bharat, the people are counseled to submit to God all of their actions; either good or bad. Whatever actions that a man accomplishes with his body, with his speech, with his mind, with his organs of motor function, or because of his attitude or temperament; all of those acts without any exception should be dedicated or submitted to the Supreme Lord known as Narayana. Without making any distinction between good or bad actions; the man should refrain and should not desire the fruits of his actions.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Sattva, rajas, tamas iti gunah prakriti- sambhavah, Nibadhnanti Maha-Baho, dehe dehinam avyayam.

THE THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE – ‘GUNA TRAYA VIBHAGA YOGA’:

The Lord’s Song known as Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XIV, verse 5 states that the material Nature consists of the three modes – goodness ( Sattva ), passion ( Rajas ), and ignorance ( Tamas ). And when the living entity comes in contact with Nature ( Prakriti ), he becomes conditioned by these modes which enslave the immutable consciousness of the self within the body. Man acts under the influence of any of the three different modes of material Nature.

Yom Kippur 2019. Reflections on Repentance and Atonement.

Gunam etan atitya trin dehi deha – samudbhavan, Janma – mrtyu jara-dukhair Vimukto ‘ mrtam asnute.

The Lord’s Song further states that when man is able to rise above ( transcend ) these three qualities are known as Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas, the embodied soul can become free from birth, death, old age, and their distresses, and can enjoy “Amrit” ( the Divine Nectar that bestows Immortality ) even in this life. The Supreme Lord is transcendental to the three modes of Nature. Man is released from his bondage to his own sinful actions by acquiring the true knowledge of the Supreme Lord. This liberation or emancipation ( Vimukti ) from the conditioning effects of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas defines Indian Identity in the context of Repentance and Atonement.

INDIAN VIEW – REPENTANCE DOES NOT REMIT SINS:

In the Sanskrit language, the word repentance is described as “PASHCHATH TAPA”. It is the feeling of sorrow or grief experienced by an offender for his own actions that inflicted pain or caused an injury or insult. The Indian thinkers have described repentance as mental catharsis. Repentance is an act of purification of the mind. A man cannot unburden his conscience by concealing his actions, or by suppressing the memory of his actions. The emotional stress and the burden imposed by a sense of guilt could be alleviated by bringing the memory of our actions to consciousness and by giving expression to sorrow or grief caused by these actions. The offender does not merely regret his actions. He mentally experiences the pain caused by his actions and gives expression to the emotion of sorrow or grief. In the Indian tradition, grief is manifested by actually shedding tears of sorrow with which the offender cleanses the feet of his victim. This process of mental catharsis brings about changed conduct. The man is enabled to change his mode of conditioned activities. The activities performed in the mode of ignorance( Tamas), and passion( Rajas) lead to distress. Man acquires real knowledge while acting under the influence of the mode of goodness or Sattva. Repentance helps the man to move up into the mode of Sattva ( goodness ) from that of Tamas( ignorance ), and Rajas ( passion ). Through repentance, man changes his thoughts, desires, his habits, and his actions.

Please also view the related blog post titled ‘East and West – The Idea of Forgiveness’

https://bhavanajagat.com/2009/09/14/east-and-west-the-idea-of-forgiveness/

TO GIVE ‘THANKS’ TO THE HIGHEST GOD AMERICAN PEOPLE MUST ABOLISH SLAVERY

TO GIVE ‘THANKS’ TO THE HIGHEST GOD AMERICAN PEOPLE MUST ABOLISH SLAVERY

To give ‘Thanks’ to the Highest God American people must abolish Slavery.

On Thursday, October 03, 2019 I ask American people to give ‘Thanks’ to the Highest God by abolishing Slavery. The United States was transformed into a ‘Slavedriver’ by President Bill Clinton on August 22, 1996, by signing into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PL 104 – 193) which denies the opportunity to the alien hourly wage earners to receive the monthly retirement income benefit after attaining the full retirement age of 67 years. In my analysis, an individual who has no right to his property, earnings, or income benefit is a “SLAVE.”

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force

President Lincoln proclaims official Thanksgiving holiday

To give ‘Thanks’ to the Most High God, the American People must abolish Slavery.

On October 3, 1863, expressing gratitude for a pivotal Union Army victory at Gettysburg, President Abraham Lincoln announces that the nation will celebrate an official Thanksgiving holiday on November 26, 1863.

The speech, which was actually written by Secretary of State William Seward, declared that the fourth Thursday of every November thereafter would be considered an official U.S. holiday of Thanksgiving. This announcement harkened back to when George Washington was in his first term as the first president in 1789 and the young American nation had only a few years earlier emerged from the American Revolution. At that time, George Washington called for an official celebratory “day of public thanksgiving and prayer.” While Congress overwhelmingly agreed to Washington’s suggestion, the holiday did not yet become an annual event.

Thomas Jefferson, the third president, felt that public demonstrations of piety to a higher power, like that celebrated at Thanksgiving, were inappropriate in a nation based in part on the separation of church and state. Subsequent presidents agreed with him. In fact, no official Thanksgiving proclamation was issued by any president between 1815 and the day Lincoln took the opportunity to thank the Union Army and God for a shift in the country’s fortunes on this day in 1863.

The fourth Thursday of November remained the annual day of Thanksgiving from 1863 until 1939. Then, at the tail-end of the Depression, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, hoping to boost the economy by providing shoppers and merchants a few extra days to conduct business between the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays, moved Thanksgiving to November’s third Thursday. In 1941, however, Roosevelt bowed to Congress’ insistence that the fourth Thursday of November is re-set permanently, without alteration, as the official Thanksgiving holiday.

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/lincoln-proclaims-official-thanksgiving-holiday

A&E Television Networks

To give ‘Thanks’ to the Most High God, American people must abolish Slavery.

SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE

SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE

Shardiya Navratri. God both Male and Female.
DEVI NAVRATRI - NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, MERCY, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO SECURE HEALTH, WEALTH, WISDOM, AND PERFECT WELL-BEING OF MANKIND.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, MERCY, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO SECURE HEALTH, WEALTH, WISDOM, AND PERFECT WELL-BEING OF MANKIND.

In Physics, Power/Energy/Force is not associated with gender. But, when living things exist as male and female, description of Power/Energy/Force may have gender association.  In Indian tradition, ‘Deva’ means God and ‘Devi’ means Goddess. Devi in Indian tradition is the personification of God’s Supreme Power/Force/ Energy or ‘SHAKTI’. To fully account for human existence, man needs two distinct or separate Principles that come together to produce the harmonious singular identity of the man. The issue is not about God’s gender. Father Principle is called Originating Principle. Mother Principle is called Source Principle, for Mother is Source of Matter, Energy, and Knowledge to establish Life. Father provides Identity to human form, Mother provides Substance, the structural and functional basis of the human form.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVARATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GOD IS THE SUPREME BEING AND DESCRIBED AS OMNIPOTENT. THIS POTENCY OR POWER IS CALLED 'SHAKTI' IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. DEVI IS PERSONIFICATION OF 'SHAKTI'. SHE DISPLAYED THIS GREAT POWER IN SLAYING OF A DEMON KING CALLED "MAHISHASURA."
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GOD IS THE SUPREME BEING AND DESCRIBED AS OMNIPOTENT. THIS POTENCY OR POWER IS CALLED ‘SHAKTI’ IN SANSKRIT LANGUAGE. DEVI IS PERSONIFICATION OF ‘SHAKTI’. SHE DISPLAYED THIS GREAT POWER IN SLAYING OF A DEMON KING CALLED “MAHISHASURA.”
Shardiya Navratri refers to the Navratri Celebration during the Sharad Ritu or Autumn Season.

During 2019, Indians celebrate ‘DEVI NAVRATRI’ or ‘SHARAD NAVRATRI’ from Sunday, September 29, to Monday, October 7. The term ‘Nav’ or ‘Nava’ means Nine. ‘Ratri’ means night. This celebration happens in the lunar month called ‘ASVAYUJA’ ( or ASHWAYUJA – September – October), the month in which Full Moon Day is associated with the first star (Tithi) called ‘ASVINI’ in Indian Astrology. The name “SHARDIYA” refers to the name of the Season or “RITU” called Sharad Ritu or Autumn.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR SHAKTI IS OFTEN CALLED 'DURGA' FOR SHE IS EMBODIMENT OF GREAT STRENGTH. SHE IS ALSO CALLED BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVAMANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR SHAKTI IS OFTEN CALLED ‘DURGA’ FOR SHE IS EMBODIMENT OF GREAT STRENGTH. SHE IS ALSO CALLED BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA.

Devi or Shakti is often called ‘DURGA’ for She is the embodiment of great strength. She is also called BHADRAKALI, JAGADAMBA, ANNAPURNA, SARVA MANGALA, BHAIRAVI, CHANDIKA, LALITA, BHAVANI, AND MOOKAMBIKA. During the 9-Night or Navratri festival, Indians worship nine different forms of Goddess Durga with 1,000 names. She is simply adored as Divine Mother and often addressed as ‘MOTHER'(“MATA” or “MAA”) whatever may be the name or form She assumed on different occasions.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - SHARAD NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MOTHER DURGA OR SHAKTI ARE REMEMBERED WITH DEVOTION AND ADORATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI – SHARAD NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF MOTHER DURGA OR SHAKTI ARE REMEMBERED WITH DEVOTION AND ADORATION.

Goddess Shakti has three Supreme Forms called DURGA, SARASVATI, and LAKSHMI. In India, traditions vary from region to region. First 3 – days of Navratri are dedicated to Goddess Durga, following 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Lakshmi and concluding 3-days are dedicated to Goddess Sarasvati or Goddess of Knowledge, Wisdom, and Speech. Friday, October 04, 2019, the Sixth Day or Shashthi ‘NAVARATRI’ is dedicated to Goddess called ‘KATYANI'(legendary daughter of a devotee by name ‘KATA’). On this day, Goddess Sarasvati is worshipped for this day is associated with a Nakshatra(Star) called ‘MOOLA’.

BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE - FIRST DAY OF NAVRATRI IS CALLED PRATIPADA. DEDICATED TO GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI, DAUGHTER OF RULER OF MOUNTAINS. SHE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PARVATI, HEMAVATI, SATI BHAVANI AND OTHERS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE – FIRST DAY OF NAVRATRI IS CALLED PRATIPADA. DEDICATED TO GODDESS SHAILAPUTRI, DAUGHTER OF RULER OF MOUNTAINS. SHE IS ALSO KNOWN AS PARVATI, HEMAVATI, SATI BHAVANI AND OTHERS.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. FIRST DAY OF NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. FIRST DAY OF NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION.
DEVI NAVRATRI - CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER. NAVRATRI, ON DAY-2, OR DWITIYA, DEDICATED TO GODDESS BRAHMACHARINI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – CELEBRATION OF DIVINE POWER. NAVRATRI, ON DAY-2, OR DWITIYA, DEDICATED TO GODDESS BRAHMACHARINI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVARATRI. GODDESS SARASVATI PUJA OR WORSHIP ON MONDAY, OCTOBER 19, 2015.
SHARDIYA NAVARATRI. GODDESS SARASVATI PUJA OR WORSHIP ON THE SEVENTH DAY MORNING, SAPTAMI, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 05, 2019.

SHARDIYA NAVRATRI CELEBRATION-SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2019 CALENDAR:

Shardiya Navratri 2019. The Navratri Colors. Each weekday is ruled by one of the Nine Planets of Vedic Astrology or “NAVAGRAHAS.” Accordingly, the Color is assigned to each day.

1. Day -1, Sunday, September 29. The first day of the Bright Half of Ashvin. Navratri Begins as Pratipada or Ghatsthapana, Chandra Darshana, Shailputri Puja. The Color of the Day is Orange.

2. Day – 2, Monday, September 30. Dwitiya, Brahmacharini Puja. The Color of the day is White.

3. Day – 3, Tuesday, October 01. Tritiya, Sindoor Tritiya, Chandraghanta Puja. The Color of the Day is Red.

4. Day – 4, Wednesday, October 02. Chaturthi, Kushmanda Puja, Varad Vinayak Chaturthi, Lalita Vrat. The Color of the Day is Royal Blue.

5. Day – 5, Thursday, October 03. Panchami, Skandamata Puja. The Color of the Day is Yellow.

6. Day – 6. Friday, October 04, Shashti, Katyani Puja, Sarasvati Awahan Begins on October 05, Sarasvati Puja. The Color of the Day is Green. The Color of the Day is Green.

7. Day – 7. Saturday, October 05.  Saptami, Kalaratri Puja, Sarasvati Balidan, Maha Lakshmi Puja. The Color of the Day is Grey.

8. Day – 8. Sunday, October 06. Maha Ashtami, Durga Ashtami, Annapurna Parikrama, Sarasvati Visarjan, Mahagauri Puja, Durga Puja. The Color of the Day is Purple.

9. Day – 9. Monday, October 07. Navami, Maharnavami, Ayudh Puja, Siddhidatri Puja, Navami Homa. The Color of the Day is Peacock Green.

10. Day – 10. Tuesday, October 08. Dasami or Dashami. Vijaya Dasami, Dussehra Celebration. The Color of the Day is Pink.

Bharat Darshan-Devi Nava Ratri-Kushmanda
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. THE FOURTH DAY IS CALLED CHATURTHI. GODDESS KUSHMANDA REPRESENTS CREATIVE POWER, AND SHE EXPRESSES A SENSE OF JOY FOR HER OWN CREATION.                                                                                                                      
Shardiya Navratri 2019 begins on Sunday, September 29, the day following the New Moon Day.
Shardiya Navratri 2019. The Lunar Month called Asvayuja or Ashwayuja, September-October, 2019.
DEVI NAVRATRI CELEBRATION OF OCTOBER 2016. HINDU CALENDAR OR PANCHANGA.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - PHASES OF MOON ASSOCIATED WITH FORMS OF GODDESS SHAKTI.
DEVI NAVRATRI – PHASES OF MOON ASSOCIATED WITH FORMS OF GODDESS SHAKTI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORSHIP CALLED TARA - TARINI SHAKTI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORSHIP CALLED TARA – TARINI SHAKTI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NAVA DURGA, NINE-FORMS OF ADORATION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NAVA DURGA, NINE-FORMS OF ADORATION.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE REASONS TO CELEBRATE GODDESS DURGA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE REASONS TO CELEBRATE GODDESS DURGA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. EACH FORM IS ASSOCIATED WITH A SPECIAL LEGEND AND HAS SOME VERY SPECIFIC FEATURES.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE . GODDESS OF FOURTH DAY OR CHATURTHI IS KNOWN AS KUSHMANDA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FOURTH DAY OR CHATURTHI IS KNOWN AS KUSHMANDA.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FIFTH DAY OR PANCHAMI IS KNOWN AS SKANDAMATA, MOTHER OF SKANDA OR KARTIKEYA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF FIFTH DAY OR PANCHAMI IS KNOWN AS SKANDAMATA, MOTHER OF SKANDA OR KARTIKEYA.
Bharat Darshan-Devi Navratri-Devi-Katyayani
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SIXTH DAY IS KNOWN AS KATYAYANI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SEVENTH DAY OR SAPTAMI IS KNOWN AS KALRATRI(BLACK OR DARK NIGHT), AND SUBHANKARI FOR SHE GIVES PROTECTION FROM TROUBLE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF SEVENTH-DAY OR SAPTAMI IS KNOWN AS KALRATRI (BLACK OR DARK NIGHT), AND SUBHANKARI FOR SHE GIVES PROTECTION FROM TROUBLE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF EIGHTH DAY OR ASHTAMI IS KNOWN AS MAHA GAURI.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF EIGHTH DAY OR ASHTAMI IS KNOWN AS MAHA GAURI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF NINTH DAY OR MAHARNAVAMI IS KNOWN AS SIDDHIDATRI FOR SHE BESTOWS ASHTA SIDDHIS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS OF NINTH DAY OR MAHARNAVAMI IS KNOWN AS SIDDHIDATRI FOR SHE BESTOWS ASHTA SIDDHIS.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. A HYMN IN PRAISE AND WORSHIP OF GODDESS DURGA DEVI.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS DURGA IS PERSONIFICATION OF GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. GODDESS DURGA IS PERSONIFICATION OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR GODDESS HAS THREE SUPREME FORMS CALLED SARASVATI, LAKSHMI, AND PARVATI. THESE NAMES DESCRIBE DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF GOD'S OMNIPOTENCE.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD BOTH MALE AND FEMALE. DEVI OR GODDESS HAS THREE SUPREME FORMS CALLED SARASVATI, LAKSHMI, AND PARVATI. THESE NAMES DESCRIBE DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTES OF GOD’S OMNIPOTENCE.
BHARAT DARSHAN - DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE WAYS TO WORSHIP GOD.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD AS MALE AND FEMALE. NINE WAYS TO WORSHIP GOD. EACH FORM IS VIEWED AS DIVINE MOTHER OR SUPREME MOTHER.
DEVI NAVRATRI, NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION, DAY - 9, MAHA NAVAMI, AYUDHA PUJA, WORSHIP OF ALL WEAPONS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT USED BY MAN TO ACCOMPLISH ACTION.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI, NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION, DAY – 9, MAHA NAVAMI, AYUDHA PUJA, WORSHIP OF ALL WEAPONS, TOOLS, EQUIPMENT USED BY MAN TO ACCOMPLISH ACTION.
DEVI NAVRATRI - NINE-NIGHT WORSHIP OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO ACCOMPLISH VICTORY OF GOOD OVER EVIL FORCES. 10th DAY, DASAMI IS KNOWN AS VIJAYA DASAMI OR DUSSEHRA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – NINE-NIGHT WORSHIP OF DIVINE POWER, LOVE, GRACE, AND COMPASSION TO ACCOMPLISH VICTORY OF GOOD OVER EVIL FORCES. 10th DAY, DASAMI IS KNOWN AS VIJAYA DASAMI OR DUSSEHRA.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI CELEBRATION FROM SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 29 TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 07, 2019.
DEVI NAVRATRI - GOD IS MALE AND FEMALE AT ONE AND SAME TIME. NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION FROM SATURDAY, OCTOBER 01, TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 10, 2016.
SHARDIYA NAVRATRI – GOD IS MALE AND FEMALE AT ONE AND SAME TIME. NINE-NIGHT CELEBRATION FROM SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 29, TO MONDAY, OCTOBER 07, 2019.

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 2019. AUTUMNAL EQUINOX DESCRIBES THE DESIGNING OF SEASONS

MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 2019. AUTUMNAL EQUINOX DESCRIBES THE DESIGNING OF SEASONS

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

The Autumnal Equinox officially arrives at 3:50 a.m. Eastern Standard Time. Fall will end Saturday, Dec. 21 at 11:19 a.m. EST, making way for winter and shorter days.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX:

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – PHOTOPERIODISM – SEPTEMBER EQUINOX. VERNAL EQUINOX AND AUTUMNAL EQUINOX ARE TWO POINTS ON THE CELESTIAL SPHERE WHERE THE PATH OF SUN’S APPARENT MOTION IN SKY OR ECLIPTIC AND THE CELESTIAL EQUATOR INTERSECT. BUT THE SEASONAL CHANGE IS NOT INFLUENCED BY SUN’S REAL MOTION AROUND MILKY WAY GALACTIC CENTER.

Photoperiodism is described as the behavioral or physiological reaction of an organism to changes of duration in daily, seasonal, or yearly periods of light and darkness. The changes in activities occur on daily basis as well as with a consistent pattern when the seasons change. For example, the Autumn or Fall season in the Northern Hemisphere includes the months of September, October, and November. Fall is the season of the year in which many trees change in their appearance; the color of their leaves changes and then trees lose their leaves. Autumn is the season that comes between Summer and Winter seasons. In the astronomical year, the Fall season is the period between the Autumnal Equinox and the Winter Solstice.

The characteristic of Fall is the beginning of a decline in activities of several living organisms to prepare for subsequent changes expected to come in future. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities occur. An important prerequisite to the response to light that occurs in Winter and Spring is exposure to short days or long nights in Autumn. This phase of the annual cycle is called the Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Under experimental conditions, it is shown that the failure to complete the Preparatory Phase will undermine the organism’s subsequent response to changes in the next phase. Hence, Autumn is a season of preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring seasons. This preparation has the characteristics of planning and designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the future.

This ability to connect the activities of past and present with activities that occur in the future requires the operation of an unchanging principle that is not influenced by changes of time. The colorful changes that we witness during the Autumn season would relate us to works of a Whole Designer, a Whole Architect, a Whole Planner, and a Whole Artist.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumn Season is a Preparatory Phase. This preparation is important for the subsequent response. Autumn is a Season of Preparation for the arrival of Winter and Spring Seasons. It displays all the characteristics of Planning and Designing the responses of organisms to forthcoming events in the near future.

SEPTEMBER EQUINOX – AUTUMNAL EQUINOX:

Equinox(aequus=Equal + nox=night) is the time when the Sun crosses the equator, making night and day of equal length in all parts of Earth.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Autumnal Equinox. In the Northern Hemisphere it occurs on September 22/23, the point at which the Sun appears to cross the celestial equator from north to south. This crossing marks the beginning of Autumn and on that date, night and day are of equal length.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Vernal Equinox and Autumnal Equinox are two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic( the path of Sun’s apparent motion in the sky) and the celestial equator intersect. Daily periods of light and darkness determine to a great extent when seasonal activities among living organisms occur. Man exists on the surface of planet Earth experiencing the daily alternating periods of light and darkness and marks his calendar as seasons bring changes with marked regularity.

Photoperiodism was first reported in 1920 when the flowering of certain plants was demonstrated to be controlled by the daily duration of light. The photoperiodic response of plants may actually depend on the duration of the darkness. Some of the conspicuous activities of animals closely correlated with certain seasons of the year or with changes in day length are bird migration, reproduction, and changes in coat and plumage. In most birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, breeding is seasonal. For species such as brook trout, deer, sheep, and goats breeding begins in Autumn. The light stimulates the release of special hormones from the brain which in turn stimulate the pituitary gland which secretes the hormones that function to control the growth of the reproductive organs. The length of the dark period and the ratio of light to darkness are important factors in determining the reproductive response. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in poultry management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Practical applications of knowledge of photoperiodism are common in Poultry Management, for the length of daylight affects laying, sperm production, and the bodyweight of the fowl.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

The most conspicuous seasonal change in coat and plumage occurs in those mammals and birds that are white in Autumn and Winter and brown in Spring and Summer.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. The seasonal change in the coat is conspicuous in this hare which is brown during Spring and Summer, and changes to white during Autumn, and Winter.

Monday, September 23 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

PHOTOPERIODISM – BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS AND BIOLOGICAL CLOCK:

Organisms have synchronized their living functions to their rhythmic environments and have become periodic in diverse aspects of their physiology and behavior. Periodic biological phenomena fall into two distinct, different categories: 1. Those correlated with periodic changes of the planet or geophysical correlates, and 2. Those correlated to an internal timing mechanism often called the ‘Biological Clock’. The living things to some extent behave like ‘Living Clocks’; 1. A timing capacity geared to the rhythmic variations of the natural environment, the alternating periods of light and darkness called day and night, and 2. A timing capacity that operates in response to the flow of time as the planet Earth spins and moves without providing sensory stimuli of its motions. Timing information continuously flows in from the environment and no organism can exist under constant conditions of life. All life exists on planet Earth which exists in a constant state of motion as a member of the Solar System which also exists in a constant state of motion. The biological rhythm results in part as a direct response to the environment and in part as an indirect response via the complex clock-timed organization.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. There are two kinds of biological responses or rhythms. 1. The activities like Sleep and Wakefulness are related to the fluctuations of the physical environment such as darkness, and light, or night and day variation, and 2. The rhythms such as heartbeat and respiratory rate occur without external geophysical correlates as a consequence of the movements of the Earth.

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Man’s biological functions are influenced by Earth’s Rotational Spin. A man has the sensory awareness of an environmental change called Day/Night. Otherwise, man is blissfully unaware of Earth’s Motion that happens all the time. Man is always influenced by the flow of time and his existence is measured as if there is a precise internal clock.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – EARTH’S ROTATIONAL SPIN – REALITY vs ILLUSION:

Monday, September 23, 2019. Reflections on Autumnal Equinox.

Spirituality Science – Photoperiodism – September Equinox. Earth’s Rotational Spin is a unique mechanism that is indissociable from Life itself. While the Sun shines with all its brightness 24-hours all the time, Earth’s Spin allows the man to experience alternating periods of light(Day), and darkness(Night) to plan his physiological functions and activities in the external environment. There is this equally important aspect of Earth’s Spin; man’s existence on the surface of planet Earth depends upon lack of direct sensory awareness of speed/velocity of Earth’s Spin.

Biological Clocks time the Solar Day, the period of Earth’s spin or rotation relative to the Sun. While Earth spins or rotates, man experiences the illusion of Sun’s apparent motion across the path called Ecliptic and exists on the surface of Earth in a state of blissful ignorance of Earth’s Angular Speed, or Linear Velocity. The daily rhythm of about 24 hours’ duration makes it appear as though the organism is keeping track of each day and behaves as if it is a Living Clock. Light appears to be the dominant Phase Setter or Synchronizer of activity pattern during the 24-hour cycles. The 24-hour rhythms are called Solar Day, Circadian, Diel, Daily, Diurnal(day-active), and Night-Active rhythms. Plants show their daily rhythm in sleep movements such as the daytime raising and nighttime lowering of their leaves, and the timing of flowering activity. In man, the daily alternation of sleep and wakefulness is accompanied by many chemical and physiological changes that include the activities of the nervous, endocrine systems, and the liver and kidneys. Daily variations occur in body temperature, in heart and respiratory rates, and in blood pressure and composition of blood. There are daily variations in chemical syntheses and in cell divisions. Living systems display a timing capacity and behave as if they contain a highly dependable clock. The specialized properties of this clock suggest that it involves some unique biological mechanism indissociable from life itself.

I suggest that all natural phenomena require the operation of an unchanging condition that gives the opportunity to experience the change that is manifested. The change called Day and Night, and the changes called Autumn, Winter, Spring, and Summer Seasons are manifested because of an unchanging condition; the fact of Sun shining with its full brightness 24-hours, and at all times. The rhythmically recurring phenomena called biological rhythms are manifested for living functions operate under the influence of an unchanging, vital, animating principle called Soul, or Spirit.

The ‘immutability’ of Soul or Spirit can be observed as its operations are not influenced by time or external geophysical correlates.

Rudranarasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

Monday, September 23, 2019. Autumnal Equinox brings longer nights starting from today.

SEPTEMBER 22–THIS DAY IN HISTORY–THE DREAM FOR FREEDOM TRANSFORMS INTO AN ORDEAL OF SLAVERY

SEPTEMBER 22–THIS DAY IN HISTORY–THE DREAM FOR FREEDOM TRANSFORMS INTO AN ORDEAL OF SLAVERY

September 22. This Day in History. My Dream for Freedom transforms into an ordeal of Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

On September 22, 1971, I was Taken on Strength (TOS) of Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force, a military organization created in response to ‘The Cold War in Asia.’

On September 22, 2019, I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan to welcome the first day of Fall Season. Today, I claim that my Dream for Freedom in Occupied Tibet transformed into an ordeal of Slavery in a nation which abolished Slavery with a presidential proclamation on September 22.

On September 22, 1971, I had the freedom to reject my posting to Establishment No. 22. I was given the choice to choose or decline rendering military service in support of Freedom in Occupied Tibet.

The choice to serve in Establishment No. 22 comes with risks for its military mission differs from the military mission of the Indian Army which I joined to defend India from attacks by foreign aggressors.

It may appear that I am making my own choices in accepting calculated risks to my life. On September 22, 2019, I am still struggling to reconcile with the choices I made in the past. Now, I must reconcile with the reality of my Slavery while living in a country which sponsored my quest for Freedom in Occupied Tibet.

On September 22, 2019, I have no hope that I may arrive at the final destination of my life. Chakrata in Uttarakhand, India represents the struggle ahead, a struggle waiting for me before I can arrive at the final destination of my life.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

SEPTEMBER 22, THIS DAY IN HISTORY – WHAT HAPPENED TODAY

Clipped from: http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history

On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, which sets a date for the freedom of more than 3 million black slaves in the United States and recasts the Civil War as a fight against slavery.

When the Civil War broke out in 1861, shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration as America’s 16th president, he maintained that the war was about restoring the Union and not about slavery. He avoided issuing an anti-slavery proclamation immediately, despite the urgings of abolitionists and radical Republicans, as well as his personal belief that slavery was morally repugnant. Instead, Lincoln chose to move cautiously until he could gain wide support from the public for such a measure.

In July 1862, Lincoln informed his cabinet that he would issue an emancipation proclamation but that it would exempt the so-called border states, which had slaveholders but remained loyal to the Union. His cabinet persuaded him not to make the announcement until after a Union victory. Lincoln’s opportunity came following the Union win at the Battle of Antietam in September 1862. On September 22, the president announced that slaves in areas still in rebellion within 100 days would be free.

On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued the final Emancipation Proclamation, which declared “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebel states “are, and henceforward shall be free.” The proclamation also called for the recruitment and establishment of black military units among the Union forces. An estimated 180,000 African-Americans went on to serve in the army, while another 18,000 served in the navy.

After the Emancipation Proclamation, backing the Confederacy was seen as favoring slavery. It became impossible for anti-slavery nations such as Great Britain and France, who had been friendly to the Confederacy, to get involved on behalf of the South. The proclamation also unified and strengthened Lincoln’s party, the Republicans, helping them stay in power for the next two decades.

The proclamation was a presidential order and not a law passed by Congress, so Lincoln then pushed for an antislavery amendment to the U.S. Constitution to ensure its permanence. With the passage of the 13th Amendment in 1865, slavery was eliminated throughout America (although blacks would face another century of struggle before they truly began to gain equal rights).

Lincoln’s handwritten draft of the final Emancipation Proclamation was destroyed in the Chicago Fire of 1871. Today, the original official version of the document is housed in the National Archives in Washington, D.C.

1862

Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation is announced

Motivated by his growing concern for the inhumanity of slavery as well as practical political concerns, President Abraham Lincoln changes the course of the war and American history by issuing the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. Announced a week after the nominal Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, near Sharpsburg, Maryland.

SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 22, 2019. MY PASSION FOR FREEDOM IN TIBET WHICH BEGAN AT CHAKRATA DOES NOT RECONCILE WITH MY SLAVERY OF TODAY. THE SCENIC BEAUTY OF CHAKRATA PLAYED NO ROLE IN THE CHOICE I MADE ON SEPTEMBER 22, 1971.

Chakrata is not the final destination of my life. It is just the beginning of a struggle that remains ahead, both in terms of time and location.

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

 

September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22, This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.
September 22. This Day in History. My Quest for Freedom Traps me in Slavery. My Journey to Chakrata and Beyond.

MY REFLECTIONS ON THE HINDU-SIKH CONNECTION. INDIVIDUAL vs GROUP IDENTITY

MY REFLECTIONS ON THE HINDU-SIKH CONNECTION. INDIVIDUAL vs GROUP IDENTITY:
 
My reflections on the Hindu-Sikh Connection: This is a photo image taken in 1972 while I served in the Special Frontier Force at Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam, India.
I ask my readers to give their attention to the problem of Individual Identity vs Group Identity. I identify the action called ‘Compassion’ with the Individual Identity and I associate the action called ‘Aggression’ with the Group Identity.
 
The Sikhs like all other human beings have to know the dimensions of Individual and Group Identities.
 
I concede that the Group Identity named ‘Tat Khalsa’ may give some political advantages to channelize acts of aggression towards other human groupings such as the Hindus. The Tat Khalsa Community gets energized by collectively expressing their hatred and animosity towards individuals that they perceive as their Enemy. I am not surprised to find Christians and Muslims supporting the aggressive stance of the Tat Khalsa for their own political gains. If the political factor is removed, the Sikh Doctrine cannot be energized by the Christain or Muslim Doctrine. The Tat Khalsa may win its battle against the Hindu but will succumb to the collective energy of either Christian or Muslim Group who desire to benefit by encouraging the Group Rivalry between the Sikhs and the Hindus.

 

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE-INDIVIDUAL vs GROUP IDENTITY: “SARVESHAM SWASTIR BHAVATU”

The Vitruvian Man c. 1492. The painting by Leonardo da Vinci displays the Spirit of Scientific Inquiry about Human Nature.

What is Man? The motivation for asking this question comes from a statement expressed in the Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu” which seeks the well-being of all humans of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our understanding the ‘real’, or ‘true’ nature of man. All human traditions including several philosophical and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, moods, action, and behavior. I try to know human nature from the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells, tissues, and organs that constitute the human organism. If a man is viewed as a multicellular organism, I need to discover the human nature of this subject who lives because of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs that provide the structural basis of the human organism.

THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE – EVOLUTION vs CREATION :

Charles Darwin’s great contributions to Biology: “The Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection: Or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle of Life”(1859), The Descent of Man(1871), The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals(1872).

Man’s evolution from ape-like ancestors is thought to be the key to our true human nature. Ethology or the scientific study of animal behavior is based on the Theory of Evolution. In order to explain the human condition, ethological theories of human nature appeal to the evolutionary past of man.

Konrad Zacharias Lorenz( November 1903 to February 1989 ), Austrian zoologist, founder of modern Ethology which involves the scientific study of animal behavior by means of comparative zoological methods. He won the Nobel Prize for Physiology along with two other animal behaviorist.

Lorenz sees man as an animal who has evolved from other animals. He thinks that human behavior is subject to the same causal laws of nature as all animal behavior. Many patterns of animal behavior show “hereditary coordination” or “instinctive movements” that are innate rather than learned. The ‘instinctual’ behavior is fixed and may not be eliminated or altered by the environment. Instinct is inherited and it is essentially unlearned behavior. Some of the most important aspects of animal behavior are innate. Lorenz studied the nature of instinctive behavioral acts. The instinctual behavior is caused by a ‘drive’ which causes the behavior to appear spontaneously. The “four big-drives” are feeding, reproduction, flight, and aggression. Very often, behavior is activated by two or more basic drives. To account for an instinctive behavior pattern in a species, reference is made to its survival value it has for the genes for that behavior. To explain the existence of any particular organ or behavior pattern, Lorenz looks for its survival value for the species. In his book, “On Aggression” ( 1963 ), he explains the natural history of man’s aggressive behavior. He considers that man has an innate drive to aggressive behavior towards his own species like many other animals. Fighting and warlike behavior in man have an inborn basis. He seeks an evolutionary explanation for human innate aggressiveness or ‘Intra-Specific’ aggression which is concerned with fighting and threats between members of the same species. The most destructive aspect of human aggression is its communal nature and the fighting is not between individuals but between groups. Humans fight as groups and human beings are the only animals to indulge in the mass slaughter of their own species. He explains that this innate aggressive behavior has evolved from the communal defense response of our pre-human ancestors. However, Lorenz made no scientific study of behavior displayed by apes. Among the members of Homo genus, man is the only surviving representative of the Homo sapiens species and hence it will not be easy to validate his conclusions about the evolutionary origin of innate human aggressive behavior. If aggression is viewed as a hereditary behavior which is based upon its survival value for the genes for that behavior, it must be noted that all human ancestors had perished and have gone extinct and the behavior of aggression could not be of value in defending their survival as a species.

COMPASSION WITHIN THE INDIVIDUAL AND BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS :

Compassion or sympathy( sym=together + pati=suffer ) describes the emotional feelings of sorrow for the sufferings or troubles of another person or others accompanied by an urge to help. Compassion describes an understanding arising from the sameness of emotional feeling. When man recognizes pain or sorrow in the lives of others, it spontaneously arouses the emotional feelings of compassion.

This understanding and the emotional response to the pain and suffering in the lives of others appears to be instinctive. Apart from the “four big-drives”, compassion is operated by an innate drive or it is a motivated behavior. Compassion and altruism( any behavior that appears to favor another individual’s chances of survival ) is a response generated by human nature.

Compassion acts like a physical force, power, or energy. It has the power to uplift the man from physical pain and mental, or emotional pain or sorrow. The instinct of compassion comes into play and acts as a force, power, or energy when a man experiences sorrow and reacts to the suffering or troubles of another man. I am also suggesting that the emotionally motivated behavior of compassion is found within individuals apart from between individuals.

If my experience of pain or suffering does not elicit the emotional response of compassion from others, fortunately, I can derive the benefit of the uplifting power of compassion by simply knowing the source of compassion that exists within myself.

When a person is enjoying a state of good health, we find that the cells, tissues, and organs of that human person are interacting with each other in a harmonious manner and these intraspecific biotic interactions display characteristics such as mutual assistance, mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and mutual functional subservience to provide a benefit to the human individual who lives because of the functions of these cells, tissues, and organs. The constituent parts of the human body interact with each other with a sense of devotion, sympathy, compassion, and understanding.

We often try to find compassion in the actions performed by others in response to the pain and suffering that we may experience. We describe compassion from the thoughts, emotional feelings, understanding, and sympathetic response that we witness in the behavior and action of others.

I recognize compassion in the nature of the interactions between the cells, tissues, and organs of my body and consider that such compassion always operates to keep me the human person in good and positive health. I understand the reality of human existence and suggest that the existence is made possible because compassion is innate to human nature guiding the normal living functions both in health and sickness. I observe the operation of compassion in the wound healing mechanism that is described as ‘Inflammation and Repair’. The emotional feelings of compassion are important for the survival of the man who exists to find emotional satisfaction from his living experience. The instinctive behavior of compassion supports the survival of man as it provides an emotional sense of satisfaction and contentment which contributes to the experience of joy and happiness in life.

COMPASSION IS THE KEY TO HUMAN NATURE:

The Key to Human Nature could be discovered by knowing the Cell Structure and Functions. If hereditary behavior is operated by the information present in genes, it must be noted that the genes have no independent existence of their own. The nucleus and the genes perform their cellular functions deriving energy from the cytoplasm or protoplasm of the cell. The biological properties, characteristics, and the biological nature of the living substance or protoplasm could account for the instinctive behavior pattern of compassion.

The biological properties, characteristics, and the biological nature of the living substance or protoplasm could account for an instinctive behavior pattern like compassion. Biological functions and characteristics such as nutrition, recognition, awareness, responsiveness, and communication with other living cells have not evolved because of their survival value for the species. At a fundamental level, certain living characteristics or nature is innate or implanted in the matter at the beginning of life. The nature called compassion is implanted or innate to the living substance or matter which is known as protoplasm.

I make the distinction between Individual Identity and Group Identity. The first operates to display behavior or actions called Compassion. The second operates to display behavior or actions called Aggression. Human Aggressive Behavior is of particular concern as humans when acting as a Group cause more harm and destruction as compared to their actions when acting strictly as Individuals.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA 48104

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

My Reflections on the Hindu-Sikh Connection. The Individual Identity vs The Group Identity.

THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN ON EARTH

THE CITIZENSHIP OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN ON EARTH

The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

On September 17, 2019, I celebrate Constitution Day and Citizenship Day reflecting upon the words shared by Apostle Paul in his Second Letter to the Ephesians.

The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.
The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.
The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

On Tuesday, September 17, 2019, as the nation celebrates Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, I have no reason to feel unloved, unimportant, or insecure for I remember to whom and to which Kingdom I belong.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

September 17, 2019

Constitution Day and Citizenship Day

The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

Constitution Day and Citizenship Day is a single celebration that commemorates the formation and signing of the US Constitution while also recognizing both naturalized citizens and those born in the US. It’s a day to learn about these subjects, as well as a day many people become naturalized citizens in group ceremonies. (On average, about 700,000 people become US citizens every year.) To celebrate, we’re looking at an unusual close-up of the Statue of Liberty, a welcoming sight to immigrants and a symbol of freedom since 1886. The statue’s tablet has the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776) inscribed in Roman numerals: JULY IV MDCCLXXVI.

So why is today both Constitution Day and Citizenship Day? The reason is rooted in the World War II era. In 1940, Congress created I Am an American Day, a demonstration of US patriotism. Twelve years later, President Harry Truman signed into law Citizenship Day, which replaced I Am an American Day and moved the observance to September 17, the day the Constitution was signed in 1787. Eventually, in 2004 the day was designated as the mash-up of observances we have today—the jointly celebrated Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

The Citizenship of the Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. The celebration of Constitution Day and Citizenship Day.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-WORLD SUICIDE PREVENTION DAY

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-WORLD SUICIDE PREVENTION DAY

Image result for september 10 suicide prevention day

 

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH: SEVEN DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN BEING. THESE ARE, 1.MAN IS A CREATED BEING, AND MAN IS CONSTITUTED AS 2. PHYSICAL, MORTAL BEING, 3. MENTAL BEING, 4. SOCIAL BEING, 5. MORAL BEING, 6. SPIRITUAL BEING AND 7. RATIONAL BEING.

September 10 is observed as World ‘Suicide Prevention Day’ and September is ‘Suicide Awareness Month’. To promote Suicide Awareness, I would like to promote awareness of the Seven Dimensions of Human Being. These dimensions are 1. Man is a Created Being, and man is constituted as 2. Physical, Mortal Being, 3. Mental Being, 4. Social Being, 5. Moral Being, 6. Spiritual Being, and 7. Rational Being.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH. SPIRITUALITY IS ABOUT FORMULATING INTERPERSONAL, AND INTRAPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BASED UPON SHARED FEELINGS OF TRUST, RESPECT, AND COMMITMENT. SPIRIT OR SOUL IS THE VITAL, ANIMATING PRINCIPLE THAT OPERATES ALL LIVING SYSTEMS.

Spirit or Soul is the vital, animating principle that operates all living systems. Spirituality is about formulating interpersonal, and intrapersonal relationships based upon shared feelings of trust, respect, and commitment.

MAN’S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE:

Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. The subjective reality of man’s physical existence is conditioned by his physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being.

If a man is viewed as a multicellular organism, we may have to ask ourselves the following question. Who or What is the Subject that lives because of the living functions of trillions of individual, independent cells? Man has to explore the biological basis for his existence in nature. The subjective and objective reality of man’s physical existence is conditioned by his physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being.

MENTAL HEALTH – THE MIND-BODY CONNECTION:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH. MENTAL HEALTH IS ABOUT FORMULATING HARMONIOUS SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS. SPIRIT OR SOUL IS THE OPERATING PRINCIPLE THAT DEVELOPS FUNCTIONAL HARMONY BETWEEN VARIOUS CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND ORGAN SYSTEMS OF HUMAN ORGANISM.

Mental health is an important component of total positive health when health is defined as not the mere absence of disease, but as a state of man’s physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being. Physical conditions and ailments affect mental well-being.

Mental health and well-being could have important consequences affecting the physical, and social well-being of the man and may even threaten his ability to maintain the biological integrity to survive as a human organism. Mental health is defined as the capacity in an individual to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes in the social environment.

A living organism has a tendency to maintain normal internal stability by coordinated responses that automatically compensate for environmental changes. Claude Bernard had explained this concept of ‘milieu Interieur’ as that of “all the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of life.” This concept of homeostasis, maintenance of stability and equilibrium is applicable to man’s existence within a social group. A living thing maintains its individuality while being a member of a social group.

Mental equilibrium and mental tranquility are needed to maintain internal stability and for developing harmonious relationships with others present in the social environment. The different constituent parts of one’s personality should work in harmony so that an individual faces life situations rationally, successfully, and happily. The aim of the positive mental health care is to strengthen and develop well-integrated personality by influencing the behavioral pattern of the individual so that psychological situations are controlled by the individual in a logical, and rational manner. The individual while facing challenging life situations must arrive at solutions without disrupting the physical, mental, or social well-being.

Mental health comprises the well-being of the intellectual and the emotional components of the mind. The intellectual breakdown of the individual deprives him of logical and rational thinking. The decisions taken will be faulty if the individual is not capable of logical and rational thinking. Such faulty decisions tend to affect an individual’s well-being. The intellectual breakdown is always accompanied by an emotional breakdown. Emotional imbalance affects an individual’s reactions. The individual may show an inability to cope with life situations. The inability to withstand the strain and stress of life situations could affect the physical well-being of the individual. The aim of this presentation is to understand the nature of man’s essence and existence in the physical world and to use that information to prevent the problem of suicide.

STRESS AND STRESS RESISTANCE:

Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. A person with a well-integrated personality acquires high resistance against stress and will be able to react healthily while confronting unwholesome life situations.

Resistance against mental and emotional breakdown is built up by the autonomic process of integration of personality. It is the normal process of the growth of personality within the group environs. An individual with a well-integrated personality acquires high resistance against difficult situations. The individual will be able to react healthily while confronting unwholesome life situations.

A healthy mind and ability to be molded in an integrated personality depends upon several factors including the physical, social, and psychological environment in which the individual is growing. It also depends upon the cultural patterns and attitudes handed down from one generation to the next. From a very young age, integration of the personality proceeds along with intellectual development and emotional molding. Children must be given a better chance to develop integrated personalities with resistance against stress.

Stress stimuli generate a chain of psycho-physical reactions strong enough to cause manifest effects. Personalities can be divided into 5 types according to their ability to resist strain and stress to master a given difficult life situation without a physical or mental breakdown. The same psychogenic stimulus may not cause a similar reaction in all individuals. Each person reacts in a different manner according to the level of preformed stress resistance.

GROUP I: Highly stress-resistant. These persons have a high level of preformed resistance. They also have the ability to develop resistance within a short time when exposed to stress stimuli. This group comprises of people with well-integrated personalities with dominant will power and power of endurance. They carry out the task even while under great stress without experiencing any negative consequences. They successfully master a stressful and difficult situation. These individuals live in good positive health and may not have a preexisting disease condition or a predisposition to such disease conditions that may undermine the physical and mental aspects of their health and well-being.

GROUP II: These persons have an average amount of preformed stress resistance. They overcome the stressful situation partially. In the attempt to master the stressful situation and to achieve success the person may suffer from precipitation of internal conditions such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and so on when other predisposing factors are also existing. However, the individual completes the task while facing a stressful stimulus. These persons perform better if they maintain good positive health.

GROUP III: These are persons with very low preformed stress resistance. They still have the ability to develop resistance on exposure to a prolonged stressful situation. While performing the task in a stressful situation, they may display psycho-somatic symptoms of overt stress syndrome.

GROUP IV: These are persons with no preformed stress resistance. They have a very low ability to create resistance upon exposure to a stressful stimulus. These individuals are more likely to abandon the task which may have exposed them to a stressful experience. They would try to escape from stress rather than attempting to create resistance to stress stimuli. If they cannot escape, the lack of stress resistance is manifested in a variety of bizarre symptoms.

GROUP V: These are persons who are non-resistant to stress. They have no preformed stress resistance. They are not capable of favorably reacting to situations producing stress. Their biological existence could be threatened if they are exposed to a stressful situation. They may manifest an overt psychiatric illness apart from the inability to perform a task that could generate the stress reaction. Such individuals must be recognized in their childhood and they must be provided the proper environment and psychological counseling.

The part played by stress varies in different individuals according to their basic personalities. The factors that impact the role of stress include environmental influences, community with its varied backgrounds of culture patterns and life habits. Pre-existent resistance against stress reduces the requirement of immediate psycho-physical response. If the problem of suicide is viewed as a stress reaction, the prevention of suicide would require promoting the idea of stress resistance.

THE PROBLEM OF SUICIDE:

A man’s right to life is a well-recognized principle. Very often, the law would defend a man’s right to life and would condone the act of killing if it is purely intended for purposes of self-defense. Does a man have the right to kill himself or renounce his life? Suicide is condemned by various societies. Major religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam oppose the practice of suicide. Attempts to commit suicide are punishable by law in several countries. In the East, some cultural traditions have glorified acts of self-immolation or of renouncing life to resist the enemy or to defend personal dignity, honor, or as an extreme measure of self-preservation.

Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. To defend her true nature, to preserve her essence, to resist the violation of her personal dignity and honor, Rani Padmini of Chittorgarh, India had courageously responded to a difficult and challenging life situation by an act of self-immolation. Her physical being was destroyed by fire which she had willingly embraced and yet her spirit has survived. She declared victory over Death and she lives as an immortal person in the hearts of Indians and gives them a sense of Pride and Identity.

In the West, attitudes have been slowly changing. The law may permit euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide under very special circumstances that affect the quality of life of an individual.

THE PROBLEM OF SUICIDE IN THE ARMED FORCES:

Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. While serving as Medical Officer of the Indian Army Medical Corps, I provided Comprehensive Health Care to troops and their families. The concept of Fitness to Fight includes both Physical Fitness and Mental Fitness. The goal is to keep troops Fighting Fit at all times and under all conditions that may impose physical, psychological, social, or biological Stress. Indian Tradition has always paid attention to the well-being of all aspects of health and it includes Moral well-being and spiritual well-being of man. During years I had served, the incidence of Suicidal Death in Indian Armed Forces was minimal.

To members of the Armed Forces, the problem of suicide is of special significance. The Armed Forces as a military establishment have a very challenging and difficult duty to perform. It has to conserve man-power, keep up the morale of its troops, and retain its fighting abilities and capacities at all times, both during peace and during the war. In ethical, and moral terms, Armed Forces believe in the act of killing and accepts the inevitability of causing deaths during the conduct of military operations. Armed Forces also actively prepares its members to overcome the fear of death and willingly exposes its members to the risks of getting killed both for the purposes of training and during actual combat situations.

A soldier is not expected to kill himself to escape from the stress of his military duty and at the same time, he must retain a very high level of motivation to kill the enemy and be willing to get killed in the performance of his task.

Armed Forces selects its members with due care and chooses people with preformed stress resistance and further uses training as a tool to build up the stress resistance level of its members. The qualities of valor, duty, and honor define the essence and the Spirit of Service. Armed Forces members must exist to display their essence.

I participated in the military operations that were conducted in the Chittagong Hill Tracts during the India-Pakistan War of 1971. I encouraged men to overcome stress and promoted the value of stress resistance. Kindly refer to my blog post titled ‘The Victory over Death – The Psychology of Warfare.

THE PREVALENCE OF SUICIDE:

Suicide has become much more common and it ranks as the second or third most common cause of death during adolescence. Suicide is also most pronounced in the older age. The rate of suicide is greatest between the ages of 35 and 75 years with a peak at about the age of 55 years. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, in the year 2007, suicide was the third leading cause of death for young people ages 15 to 24. Among ages 65 and older, of every 100,000 people, 14.3 died by suicide in the year 2007. This figure is higher than the national average of 11.3 suicides per 100,000 people in the general population.

THE WARNING SIGNS OF SUICIDE:

Suicide constitutes the greatest risk in manic-depressive psychosis. During the depression, or mania, the psychotic individual shows no insight into the abnormal nature of his mood. Depression is a major symptom of neurosis. Attacks of depression are characterized by signs that the person has deep feelings of melancholia( sadness ). The sufferer typically looks unhappy, he feels hopeless and worthless, considers his life a torment. The depressed individual may experience a desire to punish himself by self-destruction and may directly or indirectly express such feelings or thoughts.

The American Society for Suicide Prevention posted these warning signs of suicide, and signs of depression :- Unrelenting low mood, pessimism, hopelessness, desperation, anxiety, psychic pain, inner tension, withdrawal, sleep problems, increased alcohol or other drug use, recent impulsiveness & taking unnecessary risks, threatening suicide or expression of a strong desire or wish to die, making a plan, giving away prized possessions, sudden or impulsive purchase of a firearm, obtaining other means of killing oneself such as poisons or medications, unexpected rage or anger. Changes in attitude, personal behavior could be always discovered and the individual who is at the risk of taking his life could be helped by simple observation.

THE CAUSES OF SUICIDE:

Current research and thinking on suicide tend to view biological, psychological, social-structural, and social-situational factors as interacting with each other. Sociological theories of suicide usually emphasize the importance of either the social structure or the social situations, and the cultural pressures that individuals face. Psychological theories emphasize personality and cognitive factors.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY OF SUICIDE:

Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. EMILE DURKHEIM (April 1858 to November 1917 ) is considered to be the founder of the French School of Sociology.

Emile Durkheim in his paper ‘Le Suicide’ published in 1897, had tried to explain the apparent and purely individual decision to renounce life as a product of social forces or ‘social functionalism’. He had introduced the term ‘anomie’ or anomy. Suicide results from the breakdown of social standards that people need to regulate their behavior. A failed society produces in its members a sense of futility, lack of purpose, emotional emptiness, and despair. Anomie is a condition of relative normlessness of a society or social group. It may also mean a state of mind of a person who has no standards or sense of continuity or obligation to maintain his social bonds.

THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF SUICIDE:

The desire to escape depression is the most frequently cited motivation to explain suicide. A personality factor could be involved in persons who believe that suicide constitutes a solution to the problems that they may be facing. The suicide victim’s ideas, beliefs, and ways of thinking have a causal relationship with an underlying personality. The way people view their problems can produce a greater or lesser tendency to depression and suicide.

THE QUEST FOR AUTHENTIC EXISTENCE:

Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. Philosopher, Nobel Laureate Jean-Paul Sartre recommended the quest for authentic existence. He claimed that Suicide is absurd; it is absurd to get rid of what man is (etre-en-soi) as the true subjectivity of man (etre-pour-soi)disappears at the same time.

The Existentialists suggest that a person must find a situation in which he finds his true significance. In his Existentialist book, ‘Being and Nothingness’, philosopher and Nobel laureate Jean-Paul Sartre divides the being( the existing reality ) into two categories. One category is called being-in-itself (etre-en-soi ) and it may describe the essence of the man, the sum of the intrinsic properties without which a thing would cease to be what it is. The second category is being-for-itself ( etre-pour-soi ) which comprises the being that has thoughts, feelings, and consciousness. The being-for-itself exists only when it is supported by the being-in-itself. Existentialists view man in terms of his existing thoughts and actions rather than in terms of his essence. According to Sartre, man’s own existence is always attempting to overcome a radical estrangement between man as the object of scientific study or man himself(etre-en-soi ) and the subjectivity man knows in his thoughts and consciousness(etre-pour-soi ). A man’s life in the world and his social transactions often conceal his true subjectivity. A sense of authentic existence is given to each person when he realizes his true subjectivity as a being that is conscious. Sartre claimed that suicide is a final act of absurdity. Suicide is absurd; for in getting rid of what man is(etre-en-soi ), the true subjectivity of man(etre-pour-soi) also disappears at the same time.

THE PREVENTION OF SUICIDE:

There is no single approach that could be expected to succeed in substantially reducing the incidence of suicide. However, it will not be incorrect to claim that suicide is 100 percent preventable. The act of killing oneself or the action called suicide is totally preventable even when suicidal thoughts may not be preventable. If an individual’s mind is engaged in suicidal thoughts, it may not be possible to prevent those thoughts as the thoughts have already originated. I may succeed in preventing the individual from acting upon his suicidal thoughts. As long as a man knows his thoughts, and would not let his thoughts overwhelm him, man can lead a normal life even when the mind engages in ideas or thoughts about suicide.

STAY INFORMED AND STAY CONNECTED:

Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. Suicide is totally preventable if a man seeks information about his ‘essence'(true or real Self) and the connection, bonding, partnership, relationship, association, or ‘yoking’ with an external agency that supports his existence.

To help prevent suicide, I would like to keep the man informed by sharing the following information, and the man must reflect upon the nature of ‘connection’ that sustains man’s existence in the physical world.

EXISTENCE PRECEDES ESSENCE :

Existence is the state of being in the world of actuality. The essence is the most significant part of a thing’s nature, the sum of the intrinsic properties without which a thing would cease to be what it is.

What is the fundamental nature or quality that is important or essential to define the true substance of the man? To understand human essence, a human being must be defined as a physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational being. The subjective reality of man’s existence precedes and defines man’s essence. Existence is the first priority and must be preserved if a man wants to define his nature or essence. To defend human existence, the physical, the mental, the social, the moral, the spiritual, and the rational well-being of man must be defended.

As I have mentioned before, Indian tradition honors the man who may define his moral, or spiritual essence by putting an end to his physical existence. That is the only exception to the rule.

The rule is; human existence does not depend upon the contents of man’s thoughts, feelings, desires, emotions, self-pride or ego. Man must always strive to rationally understand and evaluate his thoughts, feelings, desires, moods, emotions, and self-pride and should not act upon them to compromise his existence which is truly independent of such factors that impact human life. If I think that I must live for two hundred years, the thoughts about a long life span would not change the basis for my biological existence. Similarly, if I think that I must kill myself, the suicidal thought does not alter the basis for my biological existence. Suicidal thoughts do not describe human essence. A stress-resistant individual would have the ability to investigate and reflect upon his suicidal thoughts and trace the reason for such thoughts. Stress is a problem that is associated with identity and individuality. The human person is a multicellular organism and man must know as to how the human organism establishes its identity and its individuality. While man seeks to define his essence in terms of his identity, the organism seeks to identify the Individual for whose existence the cells perform functions to support.

IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY – TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN:

Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. If Essence describes one facet of the coin, Existence describes the second face of the same coin.

Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. If Identity is described by one side of the coin, Individuality is described by the second side of the same coin.

Mental health is related to the understanding of identity and individuality. We need to understand as to how identity and individuality are established in the multicellular human organism.

My mind may define my identity in one manner and my human organism may establish my identity in a different manner. My mind may seek my identity from my thoughts, intellectual information & knowledge, emotions, and false ego. These four aspects of mental activities or functions are named in the Indian tradition as Manas, Buddhi, Chitta, and Ahamkara. These four mental activities are together named as Mano Chatushtayam or AntaHkaranam. Indian tradition asks people to recognize that the true identity of the individual does not pertain to these four aspects of human brain activities.

The attempts by man to establish his identity on the basis of his morphological appearance, anthropometric data, biometric information, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, language or nation/ place of origin have no biological relevance in terms of supporting the existence of that human individual.

Man exists as long as he has the ability to defend his individuality and maintains the integrity of the various physiological/metabolic activities that support the vital functions that impart the quality or condition called Life and keeps the organism living. In the human organism, this functional unity is maintained by an anatomical structure called Brain Stem. Man lives as an individual while the functions of the Brain Stem are intact and a man dies if the functional activity is not found in the Brain Stem. Man can seek any kind of identity if he could maintain the individuality that the Brain Stem supports.

Man is free to change his morphological appearance, can change his sexual identity, can change occupation, speak a different language, change his place of residence, practice a different religion or no religion, and can change the nature of his personal relationships with others while he maintains his individuality as a living organism. A man must be always conscious of his individuality which demands that he exists as a distinct entity from his mind and its mental activities.

A man could be aware of the presence of suicidal thoughts engaged by his mind and yet maintain his separation from those thoughts. A man who seeks to exist as an individual will have no problem in resisting his thoughts, feelings, emotions, and mood changes. Such mental activities would not overwhelm or overpower the person.

The problem of stress does not go away. However, man can become stress-resistant. Such stress resistance from psychogenic stimuli is the key for prevention of suicide. The man who is facing challenging life situations represents just one side of the coin, and on the second side is represented the man who maintains his individuality as a human organism. This separation of identity from individuality gives us the scope to make people stress-resistant and to avoid the psychological compulsions of suicidal thoughts. When this separation is established, a man would not act in ways that could harm him in body or mind. To promote mental health, to prevent the consequences of mental disease, we need to give the tools to people to understand and define individuality and identity as two separate aspects of the same coin.

THE ‘SELF’ AND THE ‘KNOWING-SELF’:

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE–THE ART OF SELF-DISCIPLINE AND SUICIDE PREVENTION. THE CONCEPT OF SELF AND THE KNOWING-SELF WILL HELP TO PRACTICE SELF-RESTRAINT, SELF-CONTROL, AND SELF-DISCIPLINE.

The living human being could be divided into two categories. One category could be called ‘SELF’ that may be compared to Sartre’s being-in-itself or etre-en-soi. The ‘SELF’ represents man’s state of existence as the physical, mental, and social being. Both Rene Descartes and Jean-Paul Sartre divide man into two categories; 1. a physical or inert substance that has no thoughts, feelings, or consciousness, and 2. the mind that has thoughts, feelings, and is a conscious entity. Sartre further named the second as the Being-for-itself or etre-pour-soi which is capable of making decisions and giving man the freedom to act according to his free will. I do not subscribe to the views held by Descartes or Sartre and I would not seek separation of mind and body into two distinct categories. Man is a multicellular organism; the body cannot exist without a mind/brain and the mind/brain cannot exist without a body which has vital organs like lungs, heart, liver, and kidneys. The body and the mind/brain have to function together. I have also stated my view about consciousness. Please visit the page titled, “I AM CONSCIOUSNESS, THEREFORE I AM”

I AM CONSCIOUSNESS THEREFORE I AM

Consciousness is not an exclusive psychological function. Consciousness is a biological function that is shared by all living cells which display the attributes such as recognition, sensitiveness, coordination, cooperation, functional awareness, and awareness of the external and internal environment and condition.

The category that I call ‘SELF’ represents the physical self with various organs and tissues and the mental self which represents mental activities associated with thinking, intellect/knowledge, emotions, feelings, moods, and ego or self-pride. The ‘SELF’ may describe the essence or nature, or identity of the man in terms of the man’s own mental awareness and other people in his environment. The second category that I describe could be called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’. The ‘Knowing-Self’ is aware or conscious of its state and fact of biological existence. It may not always be aware of its external environment. A man who is in a state of sound sleep, a man who is under the influence of drugs, chemicals, or pharmacological agents like anesthetics, or a person with a head injury loses some components of the function called consciousness. However, a man at all times of his living condition is conscious of his internal condition/environment, maintains the state of equilibrium or homeostasis, and supports the vital functions that define his individuality as an organism. The category called the ‘Knowing-Self’ is related to the individuality and in the multicellular human organism this function is served by the Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem which gives the person the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’. Man needs the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ to compose the ‘Contents of Consciousness’. In the absence of the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’, man has no ‘Contents of Consciousness’ and could be declared dead if the function called ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ could not be sustained.

The ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ is essential for man’s biological existence. The ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ is required for a man to exist as a moral, spiritual, and rational being. Man exists with an intrinsic ability to discern right from wrong and exists because of his spiritual nature which gives him the ability to acquire and manipulate energy for his various metabolic, living functions. The category called ‘Self’ may experience all the difficult, and challenging situations posed by life, and the category called the ‘Knowing-Self’ is not subject to these sensory or mental experiences that impact the ‘Self’.

THE GOD CONNECTION:

Man must recognize that his biological existence depends upon energy acquisition. Man lives energy-dependent existence and must acquire energy from external sources right from the beginning of his life journey from the moment of conception. Man does not acquire this energy because of his intellectual effort, or acquired knowledge. The ‘egg cell’ that is fertilized is conscious of its energy dependence and it implants itself into the tissues of the mother who may not be mentally aware of this process called implantation by which the human embryo starts deriving its energy from its mother. This embryo grows and develops into a complex, multicellular organism and continues to derive energy from external sources. This ‘CONNECTION’ between the energy-seeker and the energy-provider could be called ‘GOD CONNECTION’.

Man has no ability to establish this kind of energy acquisition for his survival. If Sun is viewed as the source of extraterrestrial or Cosmic Power, the Solar Energy is trapped by chloroplasts found in the cells of all green plants. This energy is further made available to man by presence of intracellular organelles called mitochondria which are described as the powerhouses of the cells. Man has no direct control on the nature of this ‘Connection’ and its operation. The man simply exists as there is a Provider for his energy requirements.

In good health or ill-health, under all circumstances and conditions, and during all the stages of his mortal existence, man needs this grace, mercy, and compassion to keep himself alive. This is a supernatural mechanism or a ‘God Connection’ that supports man while he leads his energy-dependent existence. Man who experiences this compassion, mercy, and grace that is sustaining his life would derive a sense of joy and experiences the condition called true happiness. A man who has discovered true happiness cannot experience a mood called depression.

It is really hard to kill oneself while the man is connected to a source of Happiness. Man must experience this sense of Joy and Happiness and realize its uplifting power to alter any depressed feeling or mood. If pain is an inevitable aspect of human life, compassion is also an inescapable aspect of human existence. If pain is true, compassion is also equally true. I invite people to find Compassion, Mercy, and the Grace of the Divine Providence in their lives. It would be irrational or absurd to break the God Connection by the act called Suicide.

Rudranarasimham, Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

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BACKSTABBERS OF THE TIBETAN NATION. THE DOOMED PRESIDENCY OF NIXON AND FORD

BACKSTABBERS OF THE TIBETAN NATION. THE DOOMED PRESIDENCY OF NIXON AND FORD

The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford stands in Ann Arbor. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.
The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Backstabbers of Tibetan Nation.
September 08, 1974. President Ford grants pardon to President Nixon. The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.

On September 08, 1974, President Gerald R. Ford grants unconditional pardon to Richard M Nixon, 37th President of the United States of America. I served in Special Frontier Force during the presidency of Nixon and Ford. I live in Ann Arbor, Michigan where I have the opportunity to visit Gerald R. Ford’s Presidential Library on the University of Michigan Campus. 

The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Nixon and Kissinger treacherous actions in the Vietnam War cannot be pardoned.
In my opinion, President Ford’s pardon may not include Nixon’s Vietnam Treason. I cannot grant pardon to Nixon for he had never admitted his crime of Betrayal, Treachery in the conduct of the Vietnam War. I still recognize Nixon and Ford as Backstabbers of Tibetan Nation. Their Presidency doomed for they failed to play the ‘Tibetan Card’.
 
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
 
 
Nixon and Ford attending the funeral function of President Lyndon B. Johnson. The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford.

This Day in History: Ford pardons Nixon

SEPTEMBER 08
 
 
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The Watergate scandal erupted after it was revealed that Nixon and his aides had engaged in illegal activities during his reelection campaign–and then attempted to cover up evidence of wrongdoing. With impeachment proceedings underway against him in Congress, Nixon bowed to public pressure and became the first American president to resign. At noon on August 9, Nixon officially ended his term, departing with his family in a helicopter from the White House lawn. Minutes later, Vice President Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th president of the United States in the East Room of the White House. After taking the oath of office, President Ford spoke to the nation in a television address, declaring, “My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over.”
 
Ford, the first president who came to the office through appointment rather than election, had replaced Spiro Agnew as vice president only eight months before. In a political scandal independent of the Nixon administration’s wrongdoings in the Watergate affair, Agnew had been forced to resign in disgrace after he was charged with income tax evasion and political corruption. Exactly one month after Nixon announced his resignation, Ford issued the former president a “full, free and absolute” pardon for any crimes he committed while in office. The pardon was widely condemned at the time.
 
Decades later, the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation presented its 2001 Profile in Courage Award to Gerald Ford for his 1974 pardon of Nixon. In pardoning Nixon, said the foundation, Ford placed his love of country ahead of his own political future and brought needed closure to the divisive Watergate affair. Ford left politics after losing the 1976 presidential election to Democrat Jimmy Carter. Ford died on December 26, 2006, at the age of 93.
The doomed presidency of Nixon and Ford. September 08, 1974. Doomed for not playing the 'Tibet Card'.
September 08, 1974. President Ford grants pardon to President Nixon. The doomed Presidency of Nixon and Ford. Doomed for not playing the ‘Tibet Card’.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

September 05, 2019. My thoughts on President Radhakrishnan’s Birthday

September 05, 2019. My thoughts on President Radhakrishnan’s Birthday

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

September 05, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India. On Wednesday, September 05, 2018, I want to share my reflections on my Mylapore, Madras, Chennai Family Connections. This relationship connects several important events of my life’s journey. I believe in the doctrine of predestination, I can trace my life’s journey as a series of predetermined events.

In my analysis, time and place are of equal importance in the formulation of predetermined events. I shall discuss the role of time and place in the context of three issues; 1. Birth Place, 2. Relationships, for example, Radhakrishnan worked in Presidency College, Madras where my father studied and worked, and 3. Final Destination.

My Birthplace

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Mylapore, Madras, Chennai, my birthplace predetermined my connection to Radhakrishnan as well as my connection to my wife who is also born on the fifth day of September.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Radhakrishnan studied in Madras Christian College and later worked in Presidency College, Madras. My wife talks about Madras Christian College for her father, and four of her brothers studied there. In February 1973, just after I got married, I visited Madras Christian College along with my wife to meet her younger brother who was studying there for his Master of Science degree.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

My father studied in Presidency College, Madras and later worked there during my early childhood years spent in Mylapore. Apart from Radhakrishnan, his son, Sarvepalli Gopal also worked in Presidency College

My Relationships

In October 1962, my connection to Radhakrishnan was shaped by Communist China’s attack on India across the Himalayan Frontier. On one hand the Spirit of Nationalism inspired me to serve in the Indian Army, and on the other hand, it profoundly influenced my thinking about choosing a life partner. At the same time, the 1962 India-China War prepared a very special place to render my military service while I am still a college student. In September 1969, I was granted the Short Service Regular Commission to serve in the Indian Army Medical Corps. My educational career prepared me for this role as well as giving me the opportunity to find a partner who accepted my passion to serve in the Olive-Green military uniform. I got married in January 1973 while I was serving at Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam in SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22, a special military organization founded in 1962.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.

The military organization is known as Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 came into its existence during the presidency of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (05 September 1888 to 17 April 1975), the second President of the Republic of India is known to me from my early childhood. His daughter (Rukmini) was married to my maternal grandfather’s younger brother who had also lived in Mylapore.

My maternal grandfather, Dr Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who worked as Professor of Medicine in Madras Medical College lived at 2/37 Kutchery Road, Mylapore. I was born at my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence daily.  At that time, Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India (1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956. In India’s Capital City of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The Institution of the Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Since 1962, India instituted Radhakrishnan’s birthday (05 September) as Teacher’s Day. Since that time, every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and my father who belonged to the teaching profession. Radhakrishnan correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice. In 1962, during his Presidency, India bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.

INDIA–TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha (Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image.

Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to the People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The President of India, Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China makes a great impact upon the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

India achieved its full independence from the British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s Ambassador to the Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President. He served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962.

India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when the People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War to contain the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not obtain direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951, Communist China imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement to justify its illegal and unjust military occupation of Tibet.

It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ch’ing Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s full Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 49-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the founding of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking meeting with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung.

Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries despite sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs. Tibetans retained their traditional style of governance through the Institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government which ruled Tibet for four centuries.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President.

Both India and Tibet strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honor the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Connections.

Both India and Tibet desired friendly and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.

While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheel” Agreement of 1954 between India and People’s Republic of China had recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad (first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Indian Vice President Dr Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping). 

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.

THE ORIGIN OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22:

The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation called ST CIRCUS.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010, was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang (Nepal) Operation.

During 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North-East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Indian President Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.

THE 1962 INDIA–CHINA WAR:

I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded or killed in action. China paid a heavy price and utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards a better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it with a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.

The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962, and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.

THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22:

President John F. Kennedy had immediately responded to the Chinese attack on India. Apart from delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.

The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.

1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.

2. The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.

3. India started increasing its own defense-preparedness and strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.

4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack and decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

5. India, Tibet, and the United States joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which has come to be known as the Special Frontier Force with its official Headquarters in New Delhi.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The History of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORIC VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:

After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s personal health demanded a serious attention and President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy, and the visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. The historic visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy and Radhakrishnan.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

I met Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement in May 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would take me to Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency.

In India, Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and a statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.

September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. My reflections on Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.

The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE

September 05. Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. Reflections on my Madras – Tibet – US Family Connections.