WINTER SOLSTICE 2019.THE CREATION OF SEASONS

WINTER SOLSTICE 2019. THE CREATION OF SEASONS.

WINTER SOLSTICE DESCRIBES THE MAGIC OF CREATION. THE ROTATIONAL SPIN OF EARTH CAN BE INTERPRETED AS PURPOSIVE ACTION AS NO OTHER CELESTIAL BODY SHARES THE SAME ROTATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS.

WINTER SOLSTICE 2019. THE CREATION OF SEASONS.

In my analysis, the natural phenomenon called ‘Winter Solstice’ describes the Magic of Creation. I ask my readers to make the distinction between Mechanistic Actions and Purposive Actions. The natural events such as Day and Night, the changing seasons are synchronized with fundamental living functions which are always guided, sequential, goal-oriented, and purposeful events.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation. After creating the Heaven and the Earth, God created Light.
Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation. After creating Light, God separated Light from Darkness to create Day and Night.

While the Sun shines all the time, man experiences alternating periods of light and darkness and varying Seasons as if there are two worlds on the same Planet. Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere is called Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. This separation of Light from Darkness is unique to planet Earth. The man has already discovered thousands of other planets. None of them share the ‘Rotational Spin’ characteristics that set Earth apart from all other heavenly objects.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation. Winter Solstice 2018 on Friday, December 21 coincides with Full Moon.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

PUMA PUNKU DIVINE SOCIETY

https://wholeangel.com/2018/10/15/the-flat-earth-the-grand-illusion-is-the-fundamental-basis-for-human-existence/

The map below indicates the position of the Sun and areas of sunlight versus darkness at sunset today in New York City, 4:32pm EST.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation. While living on the surface of planet Earth, the man experiences different amounts of Light and Darkness depending upon his physical location.

Winter Solstice 2018: 10 Facts About the Shortest Day of the Year

BY Jane Rose

December 20, 2018

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation. Stonehenge is aligned to the Sunset on Winter Solstice.

Matt Cardy/Getty Images

Amid the whirl of the holiday season, many are vaguely aware of the approach of the winter solstice, but how much do you really know about it? Whether you’re a fan of winter or just wish it would go away, here are 10 things to note—or even celebrate—about the solstice.

1. IT HAPPENS ON DECEMBER 21 UTC THIS YEAR.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/buxtree

The date of the winter solstice varies from year to year and can fall anywhere between December 20 and December 23, with the 21st or 22nd being the most common dates. The reason for this is because the tropical year—the time it takes for the sun to return to the same spot relative to Earth—is different from the calendar year. The next solstice occurring on December 20 will not happen until 2080, and the next December 23 solstice will not occur until 2303.

2. IT HAPPENS AT A SPECIFIC, BRIEF MOMENT.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/yanikap

Not only does the solstice occur on a specific day, but it also occurs at a specific time of day, corresponding to the instant the North Pole has aimed furthest away from the sun on the 23.5-degree tilt of the Earth’s axis. This is also the time when the sun shines directly over the Tropic of Capricorn. In 2017, this moment occurs at 4:28 p.m. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For those of us on Eastern Standard Time, the solstice will occur at 11:28 a.m. on December 21. And regardless of where you live, the solstice happens at the same moment for everyone on the planet.

3. IT MARKS THE LONGEST NIGHT AND SHORTEST DAY OF THE YEAR FOR THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/rmbarricarte

As most are keenly aware, daylight hours grow shorter and shorter as the solstice approaches, and begin to slowly lengthen afterward. It’s no wonder that the day of the solstice is referred to in some cultures as the “shortest day” or “extreme of winter.” New York City will experience 9 hours and 15 minutes of sunlight, compared to 15 hours and 5 minutes on the summer solstice. Helsinki, Finland, will get 5 hours and 49 minutes of light. Barrow, Alaska, will not have a sunrise at all (and hasn’t since mid-November; its next sunrise will be on January 22), while the North Pole has had no sunrise since October. The South Pole, though, will be basking in the glow of the midnight sun, which won’t set until March.

4. ANCIENT CULTURES VIEWED THE WINTER SOLSTICE AS A TIME OF DEATH AND REBIRTH.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/Eerik

The seeming death of the light and the very real threat of starvation over the winter months would have weighed heavily on early societies, who held varied solstice celebrations and rites meant to herald the return of the Sun and hope for a new life. Scandinavian and Germanic pagans lit fires and may have burned Yule logs as a symbolic means of welcoming back the light. Cattle and other animals were slaughtered around midwinter, followed by feasting on what was the last fresh meat for several months. The modern Druidic celebration Alban Arthan reveres the death of the Old Sun and the birth of the New Sun.

5. THE DAY MARKS THE DISCOVERY OF NEW AND STRANGE WORLDS.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth on December 21, 1620, to found a society that would allow them to worship freely. On the same day in 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered radium, ushering in an atomic age. And on December 21, 1968, the Apollo 8 spacecraft launched, becoming the first manned moon mission.

6. THE WORD SOLSTICE TRANSLATES ROUGHLY TO “SUN STANDS STILL.”

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/a_Taiga

Solstice derives from the Latin scientific term solstitium, containing sol, which means “sun,” and the past participle stem of sistere, meaning “to make stand.” This comes from the fact that the sun’s position in the sky relative to the horizon at noon, which increases and decreases throughout the year, appears to pause in the days surrounding the solstice. In modern times, we view the phenomenon of the solstice from the position of space, and of the Earth relative to the Sun. Earlier people, however, were thinking about the Sun’s trajectory, how long it stayed in the sky and what sort of light it cast.

7. STONEHENGE IS ALIGNED TO THE SUNSET ON WINTER SOLSTICE.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/jessicaphoto

The primary axis of the megalithic monument is oriented to the setting sun, while Newgrange, another structure built around the same time as Stonehenge, lines up with the winter solstice sunrise. Some have theorized that the position of the Sun was of religious significance to the people who built Stonehenge, while other theories hold that the monument is constructed along with natural features that happen to align with it. The purpose of Stonehenge is still subject to debate, but its importance on the winter solstice continues into the modern era, as thousands of hippies, pagans, and other types of enthusiasts gather there every year to celebrate the occasion.

8. ANCIENT ROMANS CELEBRATED REVERSALS AT THE MIDWINTER FESTIVAL OF SATURNALIA.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

A Saturnalia celebration in England in 2012.

Christopher Furlong/Getty Images

The holiday, which began as a festival to honor the agricultural god Saturn, was held to commemorate the dedication of his temple in 497 BCE. It quickly became a time of widespread revelry and debauchery in which societal roles were overturned, with masters serving their slaves and servants being allowed to insult their masters. Mask-wearing and play-acting were also part of Saturnalia’s reversals, with each household electing a King of Misrule. Saturnalia was gradually replaced by Christmas throughout the Roman Empire, but many of its customs survive as Christmas traditions.

9. SOME TRADITIONS HOLD THAT DARK SPIRITS WALK THE EARTH ON THE WINTER SOLSTICE.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/Serjio74

The Iranian festival of Yalda is celebrated on the longest night of the year. In pre-Islamic times, it heralded the birth of Mithra, the ancient sun god, and his triumph over darkness. Zoroastrian lore holds that evil spirits wander the earth and the forces of the destructive spirit Ahriman is strongest on this long night. People are encouraged to stay up most of the night in the company of one another, eating, talking, and sharing poetry and stories, in order to avoid any brushes with dark entities. Beliefs about the presence of evil on the longest night are also echoed in Celtic and Germanic folklore.

10. SOME THOUGHT THE WORLD WOULD END ON THE 2012 WINTER SOLSTICE.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

iStock.com/Delpixart

December 21, 2012, corresponds to the date 13.0.0.0.0 in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar used by the ancient Mayans, marking the end of a 5126-year cycle. Some people feared this juncture would bring about the end of the world or some other cataclysmic event. Others took a newer Age-y view (literally) and believed it heralded the birth of a new era of deep transformation for Earth and its inhabitants. In the end, neither of these things appeared to occur, leaving the world to turn through winter solstices indefinitely, or at least as long as the Sun lasts.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

Winter Solstice Describes The Magic of Creation.

DECEMBER 19, 1998. PRESIDENT CLINTON IMPEACHED FOR THE WRONG REASONS

December 19, 1998. President Clinton was impeached for the wrong reasons.

On December 19, 1998, President Bill Clinton was impeached for the wrong reasons. In my analysis, President Clinton deserves to be impeached for invoking ‘The Clinton Curse’ upon this nation by enacting the Public Law 104 – 193, ‘The New Beginning’ that reintroduced Slavery in the name of reforming Welfare Rules and Regulations. President Clinton deserves to be impeached for enacting the Slavery Law of 1996 also known as PRWORA.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

THE CLINTON CURSE. THE RETURN OF ORIGINAL SIN. THE UNITED STATES IS CURSED TO RUN ITS GOVERNMENT WITH BORROWINGS FROM FOREIGN NATIONS.

President Clinton impeached

After nearly 14 hours of debate, the House of Representatives approves two articles of impeachment against President Bill Clinton, charging him with lying under oath to a federal grand jury and obstructing justice. Clinton, the second president in American history to be impeached, vowed to finish his term.

In November 1995, Clinton began an affair with Monica Lewinsky, a 21-year-old unpaid intern. Over the course of a year and a half, the president and Lewinsky had nearly a dozen sexual encounters in the White House. In April 1996, Lewinsky was transferred to the Pentagon. That summer, she first confided in Pentagon co-worker Linda Tripp about her sexual relationship with the president. In 1997, with the relationship over, Tripp began secretly to record conversations with Lewinsky, in which Lewinsky gave Tripp details about the affair.

In December, lawyers for Paula Jones, who was suing the president on sexual harassment charges, subpoenaed Lewinsky. In January 1998, allegedly under the recommendation of the president, Lewinsky filed an affidavit in which she denied ever having had a sexual relationship with him. Five days later, Tripp contacted the office of Kenneth Starr, the Whitewater independent counsel, to talk about Lewinsky and the tapes she made of their conversations. Tripp, wired by FBI agents working with Starr, met with Lewinsky again, and on January 16, Lewinsky was taken by FBI agents and U.S. attorneys to a hotel room where she was questioned and offered immunity if she cooperated with the prosecution. A few days later, the story broke, and Clinton publicly denied the allegations, saying, “I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Ms. Lewinsky.”

In late July, lawyers for Lewinsky and Starr worked out a full-immunity agreement covering both Lewinsky and her parents, all of whom Starr had threatened with prosecution. On August 6, Lewinsky appeared before the grand jury to begin her testimony, and on August 17 President Clinton testified. Contrary to his testimony in the Paula Jones sexual-harassment case, President Clinton acknowledged to prosecutors from the office of the independent counsel that he had had an extramarital affair with Ms. Lewinsky.

In four hours of closed-door testimony, conducted in the Map Room of the White House, Clinton spoke live via closed-circuit television to a grand jury in a nearby federal courthouse. He was the first sitting president ever to testify before a grand jury investigating his conduct. That evening, President Clinton also gave a four-minute televised address to the nation in which he admitted he had engaged in an inappropriate relationship with Lewinsky. In the brief speech, which was wrought with legalisms, the word “sex” was never spoken, and the word “regret” was used only in reference to his admission that he misled the public and his family.

Less than a month later, on September 9, Kenneth Starr submitted his report and 18 boxes of supporting documents to the House of Representatives. Released to the public two days later, the Starr Report outlined a case for impeaching Clinton on 11 grounds, including perjury, obstruction of justice, witness-tampering, and abuse of power, and also provided explicit details of the sexual relationship between the president and Ms. Lewinsky. On October 8, the House authorized a wide-ranging impeachment inquiry, and on December 11, the House Judiciary Committee approved three articles of impeachment. On December 19, the House impeached Clinton.

On January 7, 1999, in a congressional procedure not seen since the 1868 impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson, the trial of President Clinton got underway in the Senate. As instructed in Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution, the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (William Rehnquist at this time) was sworn in to preside, and the senators were sworn in as jurors.

Five weeks later, on February 12, the Senate voted on whether to remove Clinton from office. The president was acquitted on both articles of impeachment. The prosecution needed a two-thirds majority to convict but failed to achieve even a bare majority. Rejecting the first charge of perjury, 45 Democrats and 10 Republicans voted “not guilty,” and on the charge of obstruction of justice, the Senate was split 50-50. After the trial concluded, President Clinton said he was “profoundly sorry” for the burden his behavior imposed on Congress and the American people.

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/president-clinton-impeached

December 19, 1998. President Clinton was impeached for the wrong reasons. US Congress Slave Driver. Repeal PRWORA. Safeguard 13th Amendment Rights.

VIJAY DIWAS, MONDAY, DECEMBER 16, 2019. SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE FALLEN HEROES

Vijay Diwas. Monday, December 16, 2019. Special Frontier Force pays tribute to the fallen heroes of the 1971 War.

New Delhi, Dec 16 (IANS) The nation is celebrating Vijay Diwas on Monday to commemorate India’s victory in the 1971 war. The Indian Armed Forces achieved a decisive victory over the Pakistan Army on December 16, 1971.

Vijay Diwas, Monday, December 16, 2019. Special Frontier Force pays tribute to the fallen heroes of the 1971 War.

“On Vijay Diwas, I pay tribute to the courage, valor, and bravery of Indian soldiers. The history that our troops created on this day will remain embossed in golden letters,” PM Modi tweeted.

Defence Minister Rajnath Singh, too, remembered the “indomitable courage” of the Indian Army when it brought the Pakistani forces on its knees, in 1971, that paved the way for the creation of Bangladesh.

“On the occasion of Vijay Diwas today the nation salutes the indomitable courage and valor of India’s armed forces. We are proud of our Armed Forces who have defended our country in every situation. We will never forget their sacrifice and service,” he tweeted.

Union Minister Harsimrat Kaur Badal also paid homage to the martyrs and tweeted, “I join the nation in saluting the soldiers of the country on Vijay Diwas. We bow down to the martyrs who laid down their lives in the war of 1971.”

A netizen wrote, “On the occasion of Vijay Diwas, remembering the courage of our soldiers and sacrifice made by the martyrs in Indo-Pak war 1971. Bharat Matha ki Jai.”

“The nation celebrates #VijayDiwas today to commemorate India’s victory over Pakistan in the 1971 war. Tributes to the martyrs who laid down their lives during the war”, tweeple remarked.

“On the occasion of #VijayDiwas sharing details on epic Battle of Basantar, one of the most intense and bloody battles of the 1971 War, lasting for 13 long days, starting on December 4. A battle that had many heroes.”, added another.

The 13-day war ended with the surrender of at least 93,000 Pakistani soldiers, bringing to an end the bitterly fought war on the eastern and western fronts. The war resulted in the subsequent secession of East Pakistan which emerged as the new nation of Bangladesh.

Vijay Diwas Monday, December 16, 2019. Special Frontier Force pays tribute to the fallen heroes of the 1971 War.

TIBETAN NATIONAL IDENTITY IS DEFINED BY MOTHER NATURE

The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.

In my analysis, the Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature and not by mere interpretation of the history of its people or by the history of foreign dynasties that conquered Tibet.

I ask my readers to give attention to the Natural Factors, Natural Conditions, Natural Causes, and Natural Mechanisms that work together to generate the experience unique to the Tibetan Nation.

The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.

Adventurers call Tibet’s Yarlung Tsangpo the “Everest of Rivers” for good reason. Stretches of it are some of the least-explored places in the world, and tales of failed expeditions abound. With headwaters in western Tibet near Mount Kailash, the river has the highest average elevation—4,000 meters (13,000 feet)—of any major river in the world.

For much of the river’s 3,000 kilometers (1,800 miles) course, it flows east through open valleys on the Tibetan Plateau. But at the eastern end of the Himalayas in southeastern Tibet, the river bends sharply, rushes through one of the most dramatic gorges in the world, and descends to the lowlands of the Ganges Delta.

The Yarlung Tsangpo gorge is defined by superlatives. Carved into granitic bedrock, it reaches more than 5,300 meters (17,000 feet) from top to bottom in some places, making it three times deeper than the Grand Canyon. It’s also one of the world’s longest canyons, stretching more than 500 kilometers (300 miles).

The first image above shows one of the most inaccessible and rugged sections, a part near the canyon entrance where the river passes between two major peaks: the 7,782-meter (25,446-foot) Namcha Barwa and the 7,294-meter (23,462-foot) Gyala Peri.

The first image above is a composite, draping a false-color view from February 25, 2004, over a three-dimensional model of the area. The images and stereoscopic data behind the model were acquired by the Advanced Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA’s Terra spacecraft. Vegetated areas range in color from red to pink; snow is white; water is black, and bare rock is earth-toned.

The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The aerial photo was taken on Dec. 8, 2019, shows the scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet. (Xinhua/Purbu Zhaxi)
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The aerial photo was taken on Dec. 8, 2019, shows the scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet. (Xinhua/Purbu Zhaxi)
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The aerial photo was taken on Dec. 8, 2019, shows the scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet. (Xinhua/Purbu Zhaxi)
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.
The Tibetan National Identity is defined by Mother Nature. The scenery along the Yarlung Tsangpo River in southeast Tibet.

DECEMBER 06. THE REALITY OF INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE AND MODERN-DAY SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES

US Congress Slave Driver. Repeal PRWORA. Safeguard 13th Amendment Rights.

The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution was duly ratified on December 06, 1865. I ask my readers to give attention to the reality of ‘Involuntary Servitude’ and Modern-Day Slavery in the United States.

US Congress Slave Driver. Repeal PRWORA to defend 13th Amendment Rights.

In my analysis, in modern times, Slavery is reintroduced into the US by compromising the property rights of alien workers who subscribe to the Old Age Retirement Income Insurance Benefit plans of the Social Security Act.

I hold President Bill Clinton responsible for this transgression on the Human Rights of Senior Aliens who reside in the country without access to their monthly retirement income benefit.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT Np. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

Modern-Day Involuntary Servitude and Slavery signed into Public Law by President Bill Clinton.

1865, December 06

13th Amendment ratified

On December 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, officially ending the institution of slavery, is ratified. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” With these words, the single greatest change wrought by the Civil War was officially noted in the Constitution.

The ratification came eight months after the end of the war, but it represented the culmination of the struggle against slavery. When the war began, some in the North were against fighting what they saw as a crusade to end slavery. Although many northern Democrats and conservative Republicans were opposed to slavery’s expansion, they were ambivalent about outlawing the institution entirely. The war’s escalation after the First Battle of Bull Run, Virginia, in July 1861 caused many to rethink the role that slavery played in creating the conflict. By 1862, Lincoln realized that it was folly to wage such a bloody war without plans to eliminate slavery. In September 1862, following the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all slaves in territory still in rebellion on January 1, 1863, would be declared forever free. The move was largely symbolic, as it only freed slaves in areas outside of Union control, but it changed the conflict from a war for the reunification of the states to a war whose objectives included the destruction of slavery.

Lincoln believed that a constitutional amendment was necessary to ensure the end of slavery. In 1864, Congress debated several proposals. Some insisted on including provisions to prevent discrimination against blacks, but the Senate Judiciary Committee provided the eventual language. It borrowed from the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 when slavery was banned from the area north of the Ohio River. The Senate passed the amendment in April 1864.

A Republican victory in the 1864 presidential election would guarantee the success of the amendment. The Republican platform called for the “utter and complete destruction” of slavery, while the Democrats favored the restoration of states’ rights, which would include at least the possibility for the states to maintain slavery. Lincoln’s overwhelming victory set in motion the events leading to the ratification of the amendment. The House passed the measure in January 1865 and it was sent to the states for ratification. When Georgia ratified it on December 6, 1865, the institution of slavery officially ceased to exist in the United States.

Does an Exception Clause in the 13th Amendment Still Permit Slavery?

The amendment, which officially abolished slavery in the United States in 1865, includes a loophole regarding involuntary servitude.

BECKY LITTLE

A statue of President Lincoln in the middle of Lincoln Park in Washington, D.C. The statue depicts Lincoln in his role as the “Great Emancipator” freeing a male slave.
Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis/Getty Images

The year the Civil War ended, the U.S. amended the Constitution to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude. But it purposefully left in one big loophole for people convicted of crimes.

The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865, says: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Scholars, activists, and prisoners have linked that exception clause to the rise of a prison system that incarcerates black people at more than five times the rate of white people, and profits off of their unpaid or underpaid labor.

“What we see after the passage of the 13th Amendment is a couple of different things converging,” says Andrea Armstrong, a law professor at Loyola University in New Orleans. “First, the 13th Amendment text allows for involuntary servitude when convicted of a crime.” At the same time, “black codes” in the south created “new types of offenses, especially attitudinal offenses—not showing proper respect, those types of things.”

After the Civil War, new offenses like “malicious mischief” were vague, and could be a felony or misdemeanor depending on the supposed severity of the behavior. These laws sent more black people to prison than ever before, and by the late 19th century the country experienced its first “prison boom,” legal scholar Michelle Alexander writes in her book The New Jim Crow.

“After a brief period of progress during Reconstruction, African Americans found themselves, once again, virtually defenseless,” Alexander writes. “The criminal justice system was strategically employed to force African Americans back into a system of extreme repression and control, a tactic that would continue to prove successful for generations to come.”

States put prisoners to work through a practice called “convict-leasing,” whereby white planters and industrialists “leased” prisoners to work for them. States and private businesses made money doing this, but prisoners didn’t. This meant many black prisoners found themselves living and working on plantations against their will and for no pay decades after the Civil War.

Was this slavery by another name? Armstrong argues that the 13th Amendment makes an exception for “involuntary servitude,” not “slavery,” and that there are important historical and legal distinctions between the two. However, she says no court has formally dealt with this distinction, and many courts have used the two terms interchangeably. In 1871, the Virginia Supreme Court ruled that a convicted person was “a slave of the State.”

Like chattel slavery before it, convict-leasing was brutal and inhumane. Across the country, “tens of thousands of people, overwhelmingly black, were leased by the state to plantation owners, privately owned railroad yards, coal mines and road-building chain gangs and made to work under the whip from dusk till dawn—often as punishment for petty crimes such as vagrancy or theft,” reports The Washington Post.

Many prisoners died in these conditions. In July 2018, researcher Reginald Moore announced he’d found the remains of 95 black prisoners who’d died working in Sugar Land, Texas in the early 20th century. Experts estimate their ages ranged from 14 to 70, meaning some would’ve been born into pre-Civil War slavery, freed, incarcerated and then forced into unpaid labor again. More than 3,500 prisoners died in Texas between 1866 and 1912, the year Texas outlawed convict-leasing because the death toll was so high.

States also benefited and profited off of prison labor by forcing chain gangs to build roads and creating prison farms to grow crops like sugar and snap peas. Today, states and private companies still rely on prisoners performing free or extremely low-paid labor for them. For example, California saves up to $100 million a year, according to state corrections spokesman Bill Sessa, by recruiting incarcerated people as volunteer firefighters.

“[States] would not be able to incarcerate as many people as they do without this, in effect, a subsidy of the cost,” Armstrong says. “So it masks the true nature and the true cost of incarceration.”

Decades of prison and civil rights activism have sought to improve conditions and pay for incarcerated workers. In 1971, inmates at New York’s Attica Correctional Facility took control of the prison and issued a list of demands, including the right to join labor unions and earn a minimum wage. More recently, in the summer of 2018, prisoner laborers across the United States went on strike to protest what they called “modern-day slavery.”

BY BECKY LITTLE

The Clinton Curse. A Balanced Budget vs Foreign Debt. The reality of Modern-Day Slavery in the US

THANKSGIVING DAY 2019 – MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING

THANKSGIVING DAY 2019 – MAN IS A SOCIAL BEING

Thursday, November 28, 2019. Reflections on man as a social being.

On Thursday, November 28, 2019, Thanksgiving Day, I want to share my thoughts on the ‘Social’ dimension of man’s existence in the natural world. Man’s mental health and well-being are determined by his ability to formulate harmonious social relations. Man uses food and drink as tools to develop and to sustain his social relationships.

Man is the natural host of trillions of microbes. It adds a new dimension to the social aspects of man’s existence in the natural world.

In my analysis, the singular reality called Man represents a biological or biotic community of independent, individual cells apart from trillions of individual microorganisms that man hosts by providing them food and shelter all the time.

The Tradition of Thanksgiving Day

The tradition of Thanksgiving Day – Man lives by giving Thanks during all days of his life.

In the United States, Thanksgiving is an annual holiday observed on the fourth Thursday of November. It is a day of feasting, and it often serves as a public expression of thanks to God in the form of prayerful eating of food. It commemorates the Pilgrims’ celebration of the good harvest and a friendly relationship between Plymouth Colonists and Native Americans in 1621. The first national Thanksgiving Day, proclaimed by President George Washington was celebrated on November 26, 1789. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln made Thanksgiving an annual holiday.

GRATITUDE IS AN ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The word “Thanks” is used to acknowledge the feelings of gratitude for a benefit that we have received; grateful acknowledgment of something received by or done for one. Giving thanks is an act that reveals the spiritual nature of a relationship between two or more entities involved in interactions. The term ‘spiritual’ describes the nature of a relationship, partnership, an association, or bonding between two living entities based upon characteristics such as cooperation, mutual assistance, tolerance, sympathy, compassion, voluntary subservience, and functional subordination to provide some benefit to the members of a biotic community participating in the biotic interactions at a given place, and in a given environment. The human organism represents a biotic community of interacting living cells. It is estimated that the human body consists of about 100 trillion cells, and the human body carries about ten times as many bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. These microbes are important to the health of humans. The man has no cortical awareness of the colonization of his body by microbial flora and has no direct awareness of the biotic interactions that take place inside his gut. The biotic interactions between the gut cells of the human body and the bacterial cells have the characteristics of spiritual biotic interactions.

The Biological Membrane performs cognitive functions.

Living cells have a corporeal substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm that demonstrates the ability that I choose to describe as Spiritual Biotic Interactions. The Biological Membrane or Cell Membrane separates the cell from its environment and other living cells present in the environment. Cells use unique proteins, biological molecules and receptor sites to recognize the other living cells and use chemical signals to facilitate the interactions. Such interactions between living cells involve cognitive abilities, the characteristics of consciousness or awareness.

The biotic interactions take place at the cellular level and are dependent upon the conscious nature of the living cell that gives it the ability to recognize the presence of other living cells in its external environment. The anatomical organ known as the brain does not play any role in these spiritual biotic interactions inside the human gastrointestinal tract. Each time we eat a meal, consume any food or drink, the act of eating gets transformed into ‘Thanksgiving’. The man has no choice and has no control over the beneficial effects his eating contributes to the microbial flora of the gut with whom he had established a mutually beneficial social relationship. Whether he likes it or not, whether he knows it or not, man lives by providing a Thanksgiving meal during all the days of his existence. Each meal functions as a serving of ‘Gratitude’. While his existence is dependent upon Lord God Creator’s Power/Force/Energy known as Mercy, Compassion, Grace, and ‘KRUPA’, the man may or may not publicly express his thanks in acknowledgment of that Compassion. However, man has no escape from the act of giving thanks and living as a Natural Host to trillions of unknown microbes.

MAN’S ESSENCE AND EXISTENCE – THE IDEA OF THANKSGIVING:

The idea of giving thanks to God is associated with the fact of celebrating the success of a bountiful harvest. Man expresses joy and happiness for success in his physical and mental endeavors. The success is often measured by the gain in material prosperity, social position and public acclaim. The desire for success is often driven by ambition, a craving for the desired object called success. It gives the impression that man would be forced to experience pain, misery, sorrow, and despair if he encounters failure in his physical and mental work. I ask readers to examine the reality or the truth that establishes man’s biological existence in the physical world. The man may try his very best to define the purpose of his mortal existence or his Essence in terms of his physical and mental output. Man is conditioned to think that his experience of joy and happiness in life is a simple product of his physical and mental work. In my opinion, man is conditioned by fear, the fear of failure in his struggle for Existence. When properly examined, it must be recognized that human existence primarily involves what may be called Divine Grace, Mercy, and Compassion or Providence. Human Existence shows the characteristics of a design, or plan to achieve a desired goal or objective. For man need not struggle to keep his existence, there is no need to fear and man has no reason to strive to avoid failure in life. When the expectation about failure is emptied from the mind, man liberates himself from the thoughts of fear. In the absence of fear, and in the absence of the expectation of failure, the man finds the experience of a living condition that is characterized by Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility. Without the experience of peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living condition, there will be no true or real joy and happiness in life. The Freedom from Fear, the lack of concern about an outcome that could be called Failure gives the man a true ability to Give Thanks to God for His benevolent guidance. Today, in giving Thanks to God, I want to proclaim my Victory over Fear, the Fear of Failure in my life.

I extend my best wishes for a Happy Thanksgiving Day to all of my readers.

Dr. R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India,

M.B.B.S. Class of April 1970.

Reflections on Thanksgiving Day 2019.

 

 

 

 

I

IN GOD WE TRUST: IGNORANCE IS BLISS

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE- THE DISCOVERY OF BHAVANAJAGAT.org: What is the “Connection” between man and Sun??? Does man have the physical and intellectual ability or capacity to harness Solar Energy to maintain his living functions?

In my analysis, the man can directly experience the Mercy, Grace, and Compassion of the LORD God Creator while having no cognitive abilities to obtain the Knowledge of God. It is very interesting to read the view of His Holiness the Dalai Lama who states that Knowledge is more important than faith to understand Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. He recommends study as an important tool in the acquisition of Knowledge.

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Science can explain the Motions of planet Earth. Science can not provide the experience of planet Earth’s Motion. The Reality of Earth’s Motions is known and is understood. But, man exists only if this Reality is not directly experienced. The physical and mental experience of the Speed of Earth, the Angular Speed, and the Linear Speed would not permit man’s physical existence on the surface of planet Earth.

Buddha contemplated on the experience of pain, suffering, and misery that characterize the human living condition. I study Science to explore the biological basis of the conditioned human existence that cannot avoid the encounter with problems like disease, aging, infirmities, and death. I experience LORD God Creator’s Mercy, Grace, and Compassion by knowing the Great Grand Illusion that separates the man from the fundamental realities of planet Earth. The man seeks his mortal existence while he remains blissfully ignorant of the linear and angular speeds of Earth. Any direct sensory experience of the speed of Earth is not compatible with human existence. In fact, the man measures the duration of his life’s journey taking the clues from events like the Sunrise and Sunset caused by the apparent motion of Sun across Sky.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

Knowledge is more important than faith to understand Buddha, says Dalai Lama

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Knowledge and not faith is necessary to understand Buddha and Buddhism.

Knowledge and not just faith is necessary to understand Buddha and Buddhism, Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama said in Aurangabad on Sunday, November 24, 2019.

Addressing the Global Buddhist Congregation, he said, “Buddhism was born and developed in India itself. Babasaheb Ambedkar played a crucial role in the revival of Buddhism in India in the 20th century.”

“Acharya Shantirakshit was invited to Tibet after which the movement to study, discuss and creation of literature began there. Tibet has tried to keep this precious literature intact till now,” the Dalai Lama said.

“Buddha never said he is a creator. He said knowledge Buddha gained couldn’t be transferred to other human beings. If you follow the path laid down by Buddha, every human being can attain that knowledge,” the spiritual leader said.

He said scientists are also studying Buddhism and the Nalanda School of thoughts related to it.

“I always tell Buddhists to be Buddhists of the 21st century. It means I tell you all to study. There are two types of followers: one with faith and others with an endowment. If you follow Buddhism with only faith, Buddhism will not last long. But with an endowment, it will surely last long. There is a need to follow Buddhism on the basis of knowledge,” the Dalai Lama told the gathering.

Reciting lines of Kadam Geshe Langri Thangpa Dorje Senge, the Dalai Lama said, “The best teacher of compassion is your enemy. Till the moment you won’t think you are the lowest among all, you cannot understand the greatness of others.”

He said Buddhism was like medicine, adding that “one medicine cannot suit every type of disease”. “Everyone should choose their own religion and follow it with tolerance. India is the best example of tolerance and many religions are co-existing in peace.”

In God We Trust: Ignorance is Bliss. Tat Asmi Prabhu – Natural VS Supernatural Dualism. Sun’s Ecliptic Path. Is this a Problem of Visual Perception or does it describe Reality of man’s conditioned existence in Natural or Terrestrial Realm?

November 24, 2019. The Origin of the Anatomically Modern Man cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism

November 24, 2019. The Origin, the Beginning, the Genesis, or the Descent of the Anatomically Modern Man, the species called Homo. sapiens, sapiens cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism.

In my analysis, Gregor Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance do not verify, do not validate, and do not corroborate the ‘Theory of Evolution’ proposed by the British naturalist Charles Darwin. In fact, the term ‘Evolution’ cannot be applied to the Living Matter or corporeal substance described in Biology as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm. The Chemical Composition of the Living Matter has essentially remained the same over billions of years. I cannot find any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism to account for the Origin, the Beginning, the Genesis, the Descent of Man from any other previously existing species other than the species identified as Homo. sapiens, sapiens.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES: THERE IS NO NATURAL CAUSE, NATURAL FACTOR, NATURAL CONDITION, OR NATURAL MECHANISM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION SEEN WHEN THE NEANDERTHAL SKULL IS COMPARED WITH THE HUMAN SKULL.

NOVEMBER 24, 1859. “Origin of Species” is published

  • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, a groundbreaking scientific work by British naturalist Charles Darwin is published in England. Darwin’s theory argued that organisms gradually evolve through a process he called “natural selection.” In natural selection, organisms with genetic variations that suit their environment tend to propagate more descendants than organisms of the same species that lack the variation, thus influencing the overall genetic makeup of the species.

Darwin, who was influenced by the work of French naturalist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and the English economist Thomas Mathus, acquired most of the evidence for his theory during a five-year surveying expedition aboard the HMS Beagle in the 1830s. Visiting such diverse places as the Galapagos Islands and New Zealand, Darwin acquired an intimate knowledge of the flora, fauna, and geology of many lands. This information, along with his studies in variation and interbreeding after returning to England, proved invaluable in the development of his theory of organic evolution.

The idea of organic evolution was not new. It had been suggested earlier by, among others, Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus Darwin, a distinguished English scientist, and Lamarck, who in the early 19th century drew the first evolutionary diagram—a ladder leading from one-celled organisms to man. However, it was not until Darwin that science presented a practical explanation for the phenomenon of evolution.

Darwin had formulated his theory of natural selection by 1844, but he was wary to reveal his thesis to the public because it so obviously contradicted the biblical account of creation. In 1858, with Darwin still remaining silent about his findings, the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace independently published a paper that essentially summarized his theory. Darwin and Wallace gave a joint lecture on evolution before the Linnean Society of London in July 1858, and Darwin prepared On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection for publication.

Published on November 24, 1859, the Origin of Species sold out immediately. Most scientists quickly embraced the theory that solved so many puzzles of biological science, but orthodox Christians condemned the work as heresy. Controversy over Darwin’s ideas deepened with the publication of The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871), in which he presented evidence of man’s evolution from apes.

By the time of Darwin’s death in 1882, his theory of evolution was generally accepted. In honor of his scientific work, he was buried in Westminster Abbey beside kings, queens, and other illustrious figures from British history. Subsequent developments in genetics and molecular biology led to modifications in accepted evolutionary theory, but Darwin’s ideas remain central to the field.

Author

History.com Editors

https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/origin-of-species-is-published-2

November 24, 2019. The Origin of the Anatomically Modern Man, the species called Homo. sapiens, sapiens cannot be accounted for by any known Natural Factor, Natural Condition, Natural Cause, or Natural Mechanism.

NOVEMBER 22. SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE 35th US PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY

HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS: November 22. Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment pays tribute to the 35th US President John F. Kennedy.

NOVEMBER 22, 1963: DEATH OF THE PRESIDENT

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
November 22, 2019. Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment pays tribute to 35th US President John F. Kennedy.

Shortly after noon on November 22, 1963, President John F. Kennedy was assassinated as he rode in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas.

By the fall of 1963, President John F. Kennedy and his political advisers were preparing for the next presidential campaign. Although he had not formally announced his candidacy, it was clear that President Kennedy was going to run and he seemed confident about his chances for re-election.

At the end of September, the president traveled west, speaking in nine different states in less than a week. The trip was meant to put a spotlight on natural resources and conservation efforts. But JFK also used it to sound out themes—such as education, national security, and world peace—for his run in 1964.

Campaigning in Texas

A month later, the president addressed Democratic gatherings in Boston and Philadelphia. Then, on November 12, he held the first important political planning session for the upcoming election year. At the meeting, JFK stressed the importance of winning Florida and Texas and talked about his plans to visit both states in the next two weeks. 

Mrs. Kennedy would accompany him on the swing through Texas, which would be her first extended public appearance since the loss of their baby, Patrick, in August. On November 21, the president and first lady departed on Air Force One for the two-day, five-city tour of Texas.

President Kennedy was aware that a feud among party leaders in Texas could jeopardize his chances of carrying the state in 1964, and one of his aims for the trip was to bring Democrats together. He also knew that a relatively small but vocal group of extremists was contributing to the political tensions in Texas and would likely make its presence felt—particularly in Dallas, where US Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson had been physically attacked a month earlier after making a speech there. Nonetheless, JFK seemed to relish the prospect of leaving Washington, getting out among the people and into the political fray.

The first stop was San Antonio. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, Governor John B. Connally, and Senator Ralph W. Yarborough led the welcoming party. They accompanied the president to Brooks Air Force Base for the dedication of the Aerospace Medical Health Center. Continuing on to Houston, he addressed a Latin American citizens’ organization and spoke at a testimonial dinner for Congressman Albert Thomas before ending the day in Fort Worth.

Morning in Fort Worth

A light rain was falling on Friday morning, November 22, but a crowd of several thousand stood in the parking lot outside the Texas Hotel where the Kennedys had spent the night. A platform was set up and the president, wearing no protection against the weather, came out to make some brief remarks. “There are no faint hearts in Fort Worth,” he began, “and I appreciate your being here this morning. Mrs. Kennedy is organizing herself. It takes longer, but, of course, she looks better than we do when she does it.” He went on to talk about the nation’s need for being “second to none” in defense and in space, for continued growth in the economy and “the willingness of citizens of the United States to assume the burdens of leadership.”

The warmth of the audience response was palpable as the president reached out to shake hands amidst a sea of smiling faces.

Back inside the hotel, the president spoke at a breakfast of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce, focusing on military preparedness. “We are still the keystone in the arch of freedom,” he said. “We will continue to do…our duty and the people of Texas will be in the lead.”

On to Dallas

The presidential party left the hotel and went by motorcade to Carswell Air Force Base for the thirteen-minute flight to Dallas. Arriving at Love Field, President and Mrs. Kennedy disembarked and immediately walked toward a fence where a crowd of well-wishers had gathered, and they spent several minutes shaking hands.

The first lady received a bouquet of red roses, which she brought with her to the waiting limousine. Governor John Connally and his wife, Nellie, were already seated in the open convertible as the Kennedys entered and sat behind them. Since it was no longer raining, the plastic bubble top had been left off. Vice President and Mrs. Johnson occupied another car in the motorcade.

The procession left the airport and traveled along a ten-mile route that wound through downtown Dallas on the way to the Trade Mart where the President was scheduled to speak at a luncheon.

The Assassination

Crowds of excited people lined the streets and waved to the Kennedys. The car turned off Main Street at Dealey Plaza around 12:30 p.m. As it was passing the Texas School Book Depository, gunfire suddenly reverberated in the plaza.

Bullets struck the president’s neck and head and he slumped over toward Mrs. Kennedy. The governor was shot in his back. 

The car sped off to Parkland Memorial Hospital just a few minutes away. But little could be done for the President. A Catholic priest was summoned to administer the last rites, and at 1:00 p.m. John F. Kennedy was pronounced dead. Though seriously wounded, Governor Connally would recover.

The president’s body was brought to Love Field and placed on Air Force One. Before the plane took off, a grim-faced Lyndon B. Johnson stood in the tight, crowded compartment and took the oath of office, administered by US District Court Judge Sarah Hughes. The brief ceremony took place at 2:38 p.m.

Less than an hour earlier, police had arrested Lee Harvey Oswald, a recently hired employee at the Texas School Book Depository. He was being held for the assassination of President Kennedy and the fatal shooting, shortly afterward, of Patrolman J. D. Tippit on a Dallas street.

On Sunday morning, November 24, Oswald was scheduled to be transferred from police headquarters to the county jail. Viewers across America watching the live television coverage suddenly saw a man aim a pistol and fire at point-blank range. The assailant was identified as Jack Ruby, a local nightclub owner. Oswald died two hours later at Parkland Hospital.

The President’s Funeral

That same day, President Kennedy’s flag-draped casket was moved from the White House to the Capitol on a caisson drawn by six grey horses, accompanied by one riderless black horse. At Mrs. Kennedy’s request, the cortege and other ceremonial details were modeled at the funeral of Abraham Lincoln. Crowds lined Pennsylvania Avenue and many wept openly as the caisson passed. During the 21 hours that the president’s body lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda, about 250,000 people filed by to pay their respects.

On Monday, November 25, 1963, President Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery. The funeral was attended by heads of state and representatives from more than 100 countries, with untold millions more watching on television. Afterward, at the gravesite, Mrs. Kennedy and her husband’s brothers, Robert and Edward, lit an eternal flame.

Perhaps the most indelible images of the day were the salute to his father given by little John F. Kennedy Jr. (whose third birthday it was), daughter Caroline kneeling next to her mother at the president’s bier, and the extraordinary grace and dignity shown by Jacqueline Kennedy.

As people throughout the nation and the world struggled to make sense of a senseless act and to articulate their feelings about President Kennedy’s life and legacy, many recalled these words from his inaugural address:

All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days, nor in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this administration. Nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet. But let us begin.

IN GOD WE TRUST – WHO IS MY NEIGHBOR?: President John F. Kennedy is known to me for he founded the military organization called the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment, in 1962 to secure Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in the occupied Land of Tibet. President Kennedy acted as a ‘True Neighbor’ of Tibet when he acted with compassion after recognizing the plight of helpless Tibetan people. The United States must reflect its true national values in the manner in which it treats its alien residents.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT CELEBRATES THE LOHIT RIVER

This is my special tribute to Lohit River and I post this blog to remember my life’s journey; a journey from 1962 to 1972.

During 1962, I was a student at Giriraj Government Arts College, Nizamabad, Andhra Pradesh, India and I was studying in the First Year of a 3-Year Bachelor of Science Degree Course. During October 1962, when China attacked India across the Himalayan Frontier, Indian people spontaneously reacted condemning the act of Chinese aggression. It gave me a strong motivation to serve the country to defend the Northern Frontier. My dream came true during 1969 when I was granted Short Service Regular Commission to join the Indian Army Medical Corps. On completion of my basic military and professional training, I was deputed to Special Frontier Force and I had the proudest moment of my life when I visited the War Memorial in Walong, Lohit District, North-East Frontier Agency(NEFA) during 1972. I got married during January 1973, while I was serving in the North-East Frontier Agency and Lohit River is my witness to my Life’s Journey and Commitment.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE - LOHIT RIVER: Map of Anjaw District, Arunachal Pradseh State, India.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the LOHIT RIVER: Map of Anjaw District, Arunachal Pradesh State, India.

I am pleased to share an article titled ‘China opens a new highway near Arunachal Pradesh Border’ written by Ananth Krishnan that was published in the HINDU on November 01, 2013. I served in that area and the military organization in which I served discouraged photography and I did not take photos of the natural scenery of that area. I would like to share some photo images published by http://GreenerPasturesInd.Wordpress.com and others, particularly the images of Lohit River that flows down the Anjaw District of Arunachal Pradesh.

The North-East Frontier Agency(NEFA) was constituted in 1912-13. To settle the border between India and Tibet, Sir Henry McMahon, Secretary in the Indian Foreign Department represented Great Britain at a conference held in Simla during 1913-14. The Simla Accord or Simla Agreement between India, Tibet, and China resulted in the McMahon Treaty and the McMahon Line established the official border between India and Tibet. India after gaining her independence and after becoming an independent Republic has ratified the McMahon Treaty. The People’s Republic of China which came into existence on October 01, 1949 opposed this Treaty and occupied Tibet during 1950 rejecting the status of Tibet of being an independent nation.

Communist China’s occupation of Tibet continues to pose a military threat to Peace and Democracy in Southeast Asia. The Supreme Ruler of Tibet, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India in March 1959 as a consequence of China’s repressive, brutal military actions. On August 26, 1959, in this northeast frontier sector, China’s People’s Liberation Army crossed the McMahon Line for the first time to capture an Indian border post. China abandoned this post during 1961 and launched a major offensive war during October 1962 attacking Indian Army positions in the entire North-East Frontier Agency.

Due to the firm intervention by US President John F. Kennedy, China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew its forces from all the areas it had captured in the North-East Frontier Agency. One of the consequences of this 1962 War of China’s Aggression on India was the creation of a military alliance/pact between India, Tibet, and the United States to defend the border and to challenge the military occupation of Tibet. This military pact/alliance has created a military organization called Establishment No. 22 which is later given the name of Special Frontier Force. I served in Special Frontier Force along with Tibetan soldiers and we were defending North-East Frontier Agency. The North-East Frontier Agency became Indian Union Territory and was named Arunachal Pradesh on January 20, 1972. The State of Arunachal Pradesh was formed on February 20, 1987.

I had arrived at Doom Dooma(Dum Duma) during February 1972 after my successful participation in the military action called ‘Operation Eagle’ which initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh on November 03, 1971 with attacks on Pakistan’s military border posts in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The United States had withdrawn its CIA personnel from our Organization prior to the launch of Operation Eagle. However, our military alliance/pact withstood the test of the times.

In 1972, the CIA contacted my Unit in North East Frontier Agency to request us for assistance to plant monitoring devices to record data from China’s underground nuclear tests in occupied Tibet. China’s occupation of Tibet, its claims for Indian territory and China’s military build-up still pose a grave threat to Peace and Freedom in Southeast Asia.

Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: I was based at Dum Duma(Doom Dooma) Airfield during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma Airfield during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Lohit River enters the plains and flows as the Brahmaputra River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Lohit River enters the plains and flows as the Brahmaputra River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: At the southern end of Lohit District, Lohit River enters the plains.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: At the southern end of Lohit District, Lohit River enters the plains.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: The bridge near Parasuram Kund also known as Brahma Kund.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: The bridge near Parasuram Kund also known as Brahma Kund.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: This Border Road along Lohit River did not exist during 1972-73. I had the pleasure of trekking along this route.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: This Border Road along Lohit River did not exist during 1972-73. I had the pleasure of trekking along this route.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Suspension Bridge across Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Suspension Bridge across Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: A Special Tribute to Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: A Special Tribute to Lohit River.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: This bridge swings in the air and is commonly called "JHULA" which refers to the swing found in recreational parks and playgrounds.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: This bridge swings in the air and is commonly called “JHULA” which refers to the swing found in recreational parks and playgrounds.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong Valley
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong Valley
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Parashuram Kund
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Parashuram Kund
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: A view taken at Hayuliang.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: A view taken at Hayuliang.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Hayuliang-Walong Road.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment No. 22 Lohit River: Hayuliang-Walong Road.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong War Memorial
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong War Memorial
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: "WALONG WILL NEVER FALL AGAIN."
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: “WALONG WILL NEVER FALL AGAIN.”
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Walong, Anjaw District.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Walong, Anjaw District.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Trip to Kibithu
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Trip to Kibithu
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Mishmi Hills
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Mishmi Hills
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Hayuliang
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Hayuliang
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: The Border Post at Kibithu
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: The Border Post at Kibithu
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Lohit River near Indo-Tibet Border
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Lohit River near India-Tibet Border.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River:
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River:

Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162, USA
The Spirits of Special Frontier Force

SERVICE INFORMATION:

R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Personal Numbers: MS-8466/MR-03277K. Rank: Lieutenant/Captain/Major.
Branch:Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission(1969-1972); Direct Permanent Commission(1973-1984).
Designation:Medical Officer.
Unit:Establishment No. 22(1971-1974)/South Column,Operation Eagle(1971-1972).
Organization: Special Frontier Force.

Published in the HINDU: November 1, 2013 03:14 IST
|
BEIJING, November 1, 2013

China opens new highway near Arunachal Pradesh border

Ananth Krishnan

Nearly 1 billion Yuan project comes to light after seven failed attempts over the past 50 years

China on Thursday opened a new highway that links what the government has described as Tibet’s “last isolated county” – located near the border with Arunachal Pradesh – with the rest of the country and will now provide all-weather access to the strategically important region.
Chinese state media have hailed the opening of the highway to Medog – which lies close to the disputed eastern section of the border with India – as a technological breakthrough, with the project finally coming to fruition after seven failed attempts over the past fifty years.
China started attempting to build the highway to Medog – a landlocked county in Tibet’s Nyingchi prefecture – in the 1960s, according to State media reports, in the aftermath of
the 1962 war with India.
With Thursday’s opening of the road, every county in Tibet is now linked through the highway network, underlining the widening infrastructure gulf across the disputed border, even as India belatedly pushes forward an upgrading of border roads in more difficult terrain.
The official Xinhua News Agency on Thursday described Medog as “the last roadless county in China”. Before this week, Medog was the only one of China’s 2,100 counties to remain isolated
from the highway network, according to State broadcaster China Central Television (CCTV).
What the project will do
State media reports have focused on the development benefits that the project would bring and have sought to play down the strategic dimensions. Local officials said the road’s opening will
bring down commodity prices and widen access to healthcare.
The road will also provide access to the border county for nine months of the year. That the government was willing to spend as much as 950 million Yuan – or $ 155 million – on a 117-km highway, with ostensibly few economic returns expected, has underscored the project’s
importance to State planners.
Local officials said prior to the opening of the highway, reaching Medog required traversing the treacherous Galung La and Doxong La mountains at an altitude of 4,000 metres. With frequent landslides, the road was often rendered impassable.
Now, the road will be accessible for “8 to 9 months per year, barring major natural disasters”, Ge Yutao, Communist Party head of the transportation department for the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), told Xinhua.
Work on the 117-km road began in 2009, a year after the project was given the green light by the State Council, or Cabinet.
Renewed attention on infrastructure projects
The opening of the road comes at a time when there has been renewed attention on
infrastructure projects in border areas in India and China.
Last week, both countries signed a Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (BDCA) during
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Beijing, aimed at expanding confidence-building measures. The agreement calls for setting up channels of communication between military commands, increasing the number of border personnel meetings, and formalizing rules such
as no tailing of patrols, to build trust and avoid incidents.
The agreement does not specify or limit either country’s plans to boost infrastructure – an
issue that, analysts say, has in the past triggered tensions along the disputed Line of Actual
Control (LAC), most notably in April when a Chinese incursion sparked a three-week-long
stand-off in Depsang, Ladakh.
Han Hua, a South Asia scholar at Peking University, suggested in a recent interview that
the “basic reason” for the incident was “too much construction” along the border. The
Chinese side, she acknowledged, did not have to build closer to the disputed LAC because
their infrastructure, as well as more favourable terrain enabled quicker mobilisation.
“If we don’t have the overall collaboration of the military, policy-makers and decision-makers
on both sides,” she said, “it will be difficult to avoid such incidents”.
‘India’s plans will not be limited’
The BDCA, Indian officials said, will not limit India’s plans to upgrade infrastructure. It recognises the principle of equal and mutual security, which allows either side to pursue its security in its own way. At the same time, officials say the BDCA will still help “regulate activity” along the border by opening up new channels of communication, even as the border continues to remain a matter of dispute.
On Thursday, Chinese Defence Ministry spokesperson Yang Yujun told a regular press conference that military personnel would hold “regular meetings” and “make joint efforts” to maintain peace in border areas, following the signing of the BDCA. The agreement, he said according to a Xinhua report, “summarised good practices and experiences on the management of differences in China-India border areas”.

Keywords: Sino-Indian border, Arunachal-China border, infrastructure, Tibet Autonomous Region

Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma or Dum Duma during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: I was based at Doom Dooma during 1972-73.
Special Frontier Force - Lohit River: Landscape of Anjaw District
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River: Landscape of Anjaw District
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River.
An aerial view of the Lohit’s braided channels in winters soon after it emerges from the hills and simply spreads on the plains. The fantastic view right till the horizon makes for a good photo opportunity. At the same time, it also brings in thought about the possible dreadful image of this whole place under a thick volume of water in monsoon. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The spot where Lohit emerges free from the mountains. A little upstream of this place is Parshuram Kund, a place squeezed tight between two virtually parallel mountain ranges. Downstream of this, on the right side, the road continues through the gradually decreasing slope towards Tezu while on the left side is jungles bringing in several more tributaries of Lohit. In winters, a whole lot of pebbled riverbed is exposed. At several places, this makes for an easy spot to collect pebbles and stones for crushers used for road building. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
A beautiful, serene destination, Parshuram Kund is a major pilgrim place on the Lohit banks. A huge Mela (fair) is held for two days on the occasion of Makar Sankranti in January every year. The story associated with the place goes that after killing his mother and brothers on the orders of his father, Parshuram could find no other place to wash off his sins. The kund here, now only a portion of it remains after the 1952 quake, was the place where the Parshu came off his blood-stained hands.
Also, upstream of this place till Tiding inside the river waters is considered to be the sacred abode of Nimkay, the spirit that is invoked by the Mishmi community before their every ritual. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Hayuliang (seen on the top left) is a scenic place at an altitude of about 4000 feet approximately almost mid-way between Tezu and Walong. As altitude decreases, alpine vegetation gives way to subtropical forests. These were some of the densest tropical jungles in all of India. But now, places such as Hayuliang and surrounding areas have become a major concrete zone as scores of government offices shifted here in the last decade. Also, it is a major congregation point for people coming from the Chhaglagam side, an area that is not entirely connected with motorable roads. Hayuliang showcases both the modern and the traditional facets of the Mishmi community, especially its housing and food habits. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
From Kibithoo till Hayuliang, the road runs parallel to the river and entirely on the right bank. At times, right near it, as can be seen here. At times, high above on the face of the lofty hills. Having a road connection makes or breaks the overall connectivity for the people and the army. In 1962, there was no road beyond Tezu, the headquarters of the then undivided Lohit district and Indian soldiers had walked almost 8-10 days to reach the respective posts near Walong and Kibithoo. Things are relatively easier now with the BRO building and maintaining roads but there is always a possibility of a landslide washing away a substantial chunk of the road and/or the hill on which that road is built. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Walong, situated at a picturesque location at an undulating 4,500 to 6,000 feet, was where the Indian soldiers braved the Chinese onslaught during the 1962 war at the nearby Namti plains. Here the Lohit flows on one side of a vast relatively plain landform at about 4,500 plus altitude while the hilly roadside has almost all the houses. There are war memorials (both old one and new one) and few government offices apart from the ALG (advanced landing ground) of the armed forces. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Places that are few and far on the left bank are connected with a variety of bridges – bamboo made, steel wire suspension bridges and at very few places, proper RCC bridges – with the road on the right bank. This one, a little downstream of the hot springs leads to Dong that receives the first sunrays of India. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The site near Walong that has hot springs aptly called Garam Pani. It is a typical Himalayan geological feature of warm water oozing out of a small opening barely meters away from the bone chilling cold waters of Lohit. This is a popular tourist destination for both locals and outsiders. In winters, as the Lohit waters ebb, the spot is open for all to reach easily. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
The difference in volume that the Lohit carries in winters and monsoons can be understood from the markings on the torn hill on the other side. The water column easily rises to almost 100 feet or more in peak monsoon and the winding river gnaws off hillocks and washes off soils and trees in its spate. In winters, icy cold water splashes the banks that are full of pebbles of various shapes and sizes. These pebbles form the core of building material for roads by the Border Road Organisation (BRO) that needs to bring tar/bitumen from outside Arunachal Pradesh. Locals in the higher reaches still majorly live in houses made of bamboo, so these pebbles hardly make to the civilian construction sites there. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
As the blue river charts a serpentine path, the sparsely populated hills are covered with large coniferous trees as found in higher altitudes. The Lohit is called Tallow in local Mishmi language. Beyond the human habitations around the Walong area, there are large and small several lakes, some of the glacial lakes, at 6,000 feet and above. These lakes feed big and small streams and rivers joining the Lohit from both sides. In monsoon, the river turns muddy and showcases an entire range of grey and ash. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
This was the only motorable road connection that the two bastis (Villages) Kaho and Mosai had with Kibithoo. Built only in 2009 as a suspension bridge by the Indian army, which touted it as the “Easternmost Road of India”, this bridge was washed away by Lohit’s perilous floods in 2012. People are left to use the hanging bridge again. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Kaho and Meshai (also called Mosai) are the two small habitations of Meyor community on the left bank of Lohit in the Kibithoo neighborhood. Kaho has just seven houses. In absence of a road (which is on the right bank all through), this hanging bridge, about six km from Kaho, is the only connection that the two bastis have with Kibithoo and hence, the rest of India. Lohit flows through a gorge for a long distance in this stretch. The atmosphere is hazy in winters on most days. Similarly, the strong winds on most days exacerbated due to the gorge make it very hard for commuters crossing the hanging bridge. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
This is a war memorial in the shape of the Mishmi community’s memorial for the dead. An emotional poem adorns the plaque at this war memorial. (Photo: Nivedita Khandekar)
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment celebrates the Lohit River.