On the Tenth Day of January, 2021, the Septuagenarian Discovers the Septuagint
I acknowledge the fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy on the Tenth Day of January 2021. At any given place, and time, the external circumstances impacting our living conditions vary as all of us have individualistic life experiences even while sharing a common living environment.
I seek Emotional Equilibrium or Emotional Balance or Mood Balance while preparing to face challenges posed in the new year of my life. I seek Wisdom shared by the Septuagint, the Greek version of the Bible known to Jesus during His lifetime. He cautions people about hardened hearts, spiritual blindness, and deafness that makes people unresponsive to human pain and suffering. I should not hope or desire to find people who have the heart to know my problems, who have eyes to see my difficulties, and who have ears to listen to my pitiable groans.
It helps me to secure my Emotional Equilibrium by knowing the Septuagint, particularly, the ideas shared by Prophet Isaiah which guided Jesus during His very difficult Life Journey.
I am not surprised to find that people do not understand the pain that I reveal in my writing. I am not surprised to find that people do not perceive the hardships that I endure. I am not surprised to find that people cannot hear my voice filled with desperation.
I am not perturbed for I live among people whose hearts have become dull. At least for now, I must live without the benefit of healing promised by Jesus.
Jesus speaks of conversion that leads to healing of hearts. Time has healing power of its own. Both physical wounds and emotional injuries heal under the influence of time. In 2021, I need to wait with patience and ask for the blessings of perseverance for the healing process to manifest its results.My Redeemer lives. I live on the hope of meeting Him.
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA 48104-4162 BHAVANAJAGAT.ORG
The Clinton Curse. America in Crisis. No Economist Can Save the United States.
In my analysis, President Clinton’s Economic Policy to formulate a Balanced Budget is not consistent with LORD God Creator’s Economic Plan for the man in his golden years of his life. The issue is not that of Austere Spending or Deficit Spending Plans of the US Federal Government. God’s Plan clearly demands that the dignity of the man must be upheld in his Old Age when the man needs rest from daily labor to support his mortal existence.
Americans will give attention to my words after they fail to resolve the Economic Crisis through either Liberal or Conservative Spending Plans to revive the National Economy.
January 08, 1835. The U.S. national debt reaches $0 for the first time
On January 8, 1835, President Andrew Jackson achieves his goal of entirely paying off the United States’ national debt. It was the only time in U.S. history that the national debt stood at zero, and it precipitated one of the worst financial crises in American history.
The elimination of the national debt was both a personal issue for Jackson and the culmination of a political project as old as the nation itself. Since the time of the Revolution, American politicians had argued over the wisdom of the nation carrying debt. After independence, the federal government agreed to take on individual states’ war debts as part of the unification of the former colonies. Federalists, those who favored a stronger central government, established a national bank and argued that debt could be a useful way of fueling the new country’s economy. Their opponents, most notably Thomas Jefferson, felt that these policies favored Northeastern elites at the expense of rural Americans and saw the debt as a source of national shame.
Jackson, a populist whose Democratic Party grew out of Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican Party, had a personal aversion to debt stemming from a land deal that had gone sour for him in his days as a speculator. Campaigning for re-election in 1832, Jackson vetoed the re-charter of the national bank and called the debt “a moral failing” and “black magic.” Jackson vetoed a number of spending bills throughout his tenure, putting an end to projects that would have expanded nationwide infrastructure. He further paid down the debt by selling off vast amounts of government land in the West, and was able to settle the debt entirely in 1835.
Jackson’s triumph contained the seeds of the economy’s undoing. The selling-off of federal lands had led to a real estate bubble, and the destruction of the national bank led to reckless spending and borrowing. Combined with other elements of Jackson’s fiscal policy as well as downturns in foreign economies, these problems led to the Panic of 1837. A bank run and the subsequent depression tanked the U.S. economy and forced the federal government to begin borrowing again.
The U.S. has been in debt ever since. The debt skyrocketed during the Civil War but was nearly paid off by the early 20th Century, only to balloon again with the onset of World War I. Numerous presidents and politicians have decried the debt and even pledged to do away with it, with conservatives and libertarians frequently echoing Jackson. Nevertheless, with the debt now surpassing $22 trillion, it is unlikely that the events of 1835 will be repeated in the foreseeable future.
Many traditions in the East have proposed that consciousness without content is possible and could be achieved with mental training. In my analysis, the concept of consciousness without contents is irrational and invalid.
Consciousness is the natural principle, the vital principle that moves and animates all Life. It has a set of defining features; it is the principle by which a living cell or organism knows the fact of its own existence, it knows as to where it exists, and knows as to how it is existing.
Consciousness describes the condition of an individual; the condition of knowing, awareness, or recognizing the fact, the state, and the act of existence or living in a given environment. Thus, consciousness is a natural principle that could explain what an individual knows and experiences about the world around one and inside one.
There are two aspects of consciousness that is registered subjectively by an individual; 1. Consciousness is a state of knowing or awareness of what goes on around an individual, and 2. Consciousness is a state of knowing or awareness of what goes on within the individual.
Consciousness is an absolute attribute of Life; it is the fundamental characteristic of living matter or living substance described as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, the essential living matter or material substance of all animal, and plant cells. Wherever Protoplasm is found, irrespective of the size, shape, and form of the cell or of the living organism, the contents of its consciousness could be discovered.
WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?
Consciousness is described as a state of knowing, or awareness, or recognizing the existence, truth, or fact of ‘something’. What is that ‘something’ that is known or recognized by consciousness? I propose to explore the contents of consciousness to answer the question of What is Consciousness?
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A SENSE EXPERIENCE:
Consciousness is generally viewed as a form of relationship or act of the mind towards objects in nature. Consciousness has been described as a continuous field or stream of mental sense-data. Some biologists and neurophysiologists view consciousness as a brain function and describe it as an exclusive function of the nerve cells; neuronal and axonal function. Dr. Florian Mormann and Dr. Christof Koch have defined Neural Correlates of Consciousness( Florian Mormann & Christof Koch (2007) NCC, Scholarpedia 2(12):1740 ) as the minimal neuronal mechanisms jointly sufficient for any one specific conscious percept. Further, Mormann & Koch state that, “Consciousness is a puzzling, state-dependent property of certain types of complex, biological, adaptive, and highly connected systems. A Science of Consciousness must strive to explain the exact relationship between phenomenal, mental states and brain states.” They have posed the question: ” What is the nature of the relationship between the immaterial, conscious mind and its physical basis in the electrochemical interactions in the body? The answer to this question is very simple. Consciousness is related to a material substance that is called Protoplasm and electrochemical interactions in the body describe the properties of this living substance or material. The brain cells and all other cells have the same basic features; they are constituted by Protoplasm which has a Biological Membrane to define the limits of the Cell. Mormann & Koch also erroneously suggest that, “Only a few particular systems can experience anything, why they are Conscious and other systems such as the enteric nervous system or the immune system are not Conscious.” The enteric nervous system does in fact provide a wide range of conscious experiences. A baby would respond with a cry when it experiences gripes or colic. In the practice of Clinical Medicine, evaluation of pain as a symptom and as a diagnostic clinical sign plays a very significant role. The pain experienced by an individual with gastrointestinal, or genitourinary problems, or from inflammation of tissues and organs, and from problems with skeleton and musculature is registered by consciousness. The immune system behaves in a conscious manner and displays specificity, selectivity, and memory. A Living Cell is a highly complex, biological, adaptive, and highly connected system known in the Natural Science. A simple understanding of various cell functions would explain this issue. For example, mitochondria are organelles found within most cells which provide the cells with energy. Extensive protein translocation occurs in mitochondria where about one thousand different polypeptides are imported from the cytosol. This event is orchestrated by distinct translocation machineries in the outer and the inner mitochondrial membranes. Mitochondria display functional awareness and perform the task of oxidising sugars and fats in a deliberate, and sequential manner that involves the use of different enzymes to facilitate each chemical reaction.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A PHYSICAL OR BODY EXPERIENCE:
Apart from thoughts, intellect, feelings, moods, and perception of various sensory information, man is aware of the fact of and the state or condition of his physical existence. Man is aware or Conscious of hunger, thirst, and sexual drive. Man is aware of vital functions like respiration, and circulation. Man is alerted and often reacts with a sense of fear when these vital functions are disturbed or threatened in a significant manner. Consciousness or awareness includes awareness of bodily functions such as appetite, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting sensation, deglutition ( the act of swallowing food and drink ), satiation, and the functions of excretion and the associated sensations like the fullness of the bladder, and rectum. The human organism has awareness of its internal condition such as the state of hydration, water and electrolyte balance, and acid/base balance. The chemical events collectively called “metabolism” require concentration of hydrogen ions and electrolytes to remain within narrow limits in the tissue cells and in the fluids which bathes them. Body responds to both volume changes and changes in the osmotic pressure of the body fluids. Life is possible only if the hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids is kept within a narrow range. In health, a blood hydrogen ion concentration of 36-44 nmol/liter or pH 7.37 – 7.45 is maintained by several closely integrated but widely differing mechanisms. 19th century French physiologist Claude Bernard had defined “Homeostasis” as “all the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of life.” All living things maintain a constant internal environment or Internal Milieu. Living cells and organisms are aware or conscious of the environment in which they exist as well as the state of their own internal environment making possible to witness this phenomenon of Homeostasis.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A CELLULAR EXPERIENCE:
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes, the former Dean of Harvard Medical School defines Life by stating, “To live is to function and that is all there is in living.” Who or what is the subject who lives because of its living functions? Consciousness is a cellular experience of the cells of the brain and the body. It is an experience shared by the Whole Organism. It is an experience shared by all the living cells. The living functions of cells include uptake and conversion of nutrients, synthesis of new molecules, production of energy, and regulation and coordination of metabolic sequences apart from function of reproduction by asexual cell division. All the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells, differing it is true, but that are essentially similar to an ovum. The most significant feature of similarity between the cells is presence of a soft, gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as Protoplasm is similar to that found in the ovum or the egg cell. This viscous, translucent, colloidal substance is enclosed in a membrane called Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. A small, spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the protoplasm. The protoplasm could be differentiated into cytoplasm/cytosol, and nucleoplasm based upon its location. Cytoplasm refers to protoplasm located outside the nucleus. Nucleoplasm refers to the protoplasm located inside the nucleus. The two essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of presence of protoplasm and the nucleus. The most striking characteristics of protoplasm are its vital properties of “MOTION,” and “NUTRITION”. Protoplasm has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position and the motion is described as amoeboid movement as the motion is similar to the motion that is observed in Amoeba proteus. Nutrition is the power which protoplasm has of attracting or drawing the materials that are necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter/environment. Nutrition is not a passive, unguided, and physical event. The Biological Membrane or the Plasma Membrane allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses; some compounds are able to pass through the Membrane easily, others are completely blocked. The Biological Membrane helps to maintain cell’s internal environment or constant interior milieu in which intracellular reactions occur. To maintain life, the cell not only repairs or replaces, ( or both) its structures by continual synthesis of new organic molecules. This is characteristic of functional awareness or consciousness that is at work at the cellular level. The human organism uses a repair process and it is described as Inflammation and Repair. Wound healing, and hemostasis (or controlling blood leakage or bleeding from an injured blood vessel) are natural mechanisms operated by Cellular Consciousness. Human existence is possible because of this valuable and protective healing process which comes into immediate play after an injury or damage. Similarly, the human organism defines its identity and defends its existence by deploying unique protein molecules such as the antibodies. Antibodies recognize their antigens or foreign protein molecules with high affinity and extreme selectivity. The ability to develop specific immunity to infection is only one consequence of a wider capacity in the individual to recognize and to specifically respond to the foreignness of an extensive range of biological substances that are not normally present in the body of that individual. The adaptive immune system remembers that particular infectious agent and can prevent it causing disease later. The immune system consists of a variety of molecules and cells that are distributed throughout the body. They play an important role in inflammation, tissue damage and repair, the killing of bacteria, viruses, and tumor cells. Cellular Consciousness defends human existence.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A SOCIAL EXPERIENCE:
Sociology lays claim to the whole of human life beyond the biological level because virtually all human activities possess a social aspect. Consciousness can be viewed as the capacity in an individual to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes in the social environment. Man is a social being and he is aware of the social structures and the social organization that he is part of. Parental instincts and social instincts describe an aspect of social behavior exhibited by all animals. Animals exhibit social behaviors and form parental societies to care for their offspring. Bacteria come together to live as colonies. At cellular level, the social aspect of consciousness is reflected by the cell’s abilities such as association, cooperation, communication using signaling molecules, recognition, and functional subordination in its interactions with other living cells present in its environment. In an Ecological System, the consciousness plays the role to establish the interrelatedness, the interdependence, and the interconnectedness of its participating members.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A MORAL EXPERIENCE:
Consciousness is the attribute of a conscientious person. Conscious behavior is often described as conscientious action that is scrupulous, characterized by or done with careful attention. Conscience describes awareness of one’s own acts and the application of knowledge to discern an act as right or wrong, good or evil, selfish or altruistic. Man has the intrinsic ability to recognize his acts of transgression or sinful conduct. Man is a creature with conscience and hence exists as a moral being.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS A SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCE:
The word spiritual is often used to describe the fact of having a relationship based on sympathy of thought or feeling. Consciousness has a spiritual function as it establishes a relationship between the energy dependent living cell and its energy provider. The living cell is a thermodynamically unstable system. This means that without continuous input of energy, a cell will degrade spontaneously into a nonliving collection of molecules. The life’s journey of the human organism begins as a single, fertilized egg cell. This single, fertilized egg cell is conscious of its existence, is conscious of its energy dependence and it promptly connects itself to its energy provider. Human life begins to move forward when this egg cell implants itself into the maternal tissue and the biological mother has no cortical awareness of this implantation. Thus, cortical awareness does not describe the totality of consciousness. The Science of Consciousness must describe the mental, the sensory, the physical, the cellular, the social, the moral, and the spiritual aspects of Consciousness.
CONSCIOUSNESS IS AWARENESS OF EXISTENCE IN AN ENVIRONMENT:
Consciousness describes condition of an individual; condition of knowing, awareness, or recognizing the fact, the state, and the act of existence or living in a given environment. Thus, Consciousness is a natural principle that could explain what an individual knows and experiences about the world around one and inside one. There are two aspects of Consciousness that is registered subjectively by an individual; 1. Consciousness is a state of knowing or awareness of what goes on around an individual, and 2. Consciousness is a state of knowing or awareness of what goes on within the individual. Who is this individual who has ability to know and be aware of its external and internal environment ? The term environment refers to all the conditions, circumstances, and influences surrounding, and affecting existence of a given individual, or group of individuals. The individual is a living organism and the organism could be unicellular or multicellular.
CONSCIOUSNESS AND MATERIAL SUBSTANCE:
Consciousness is an absolute attribute of Life; it is the fundamental characteristic of living matter or living substance described as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, the essential living matter or material substance of all animal, and plant cells. Wherever Protoplasm is found, irrespective of the size, shape, and form of the cell or of the living organism, the contents of its Consciousness could be discovered.
CONSCIOUSNESS-THE LAW OF INDIVIDUALITY AND CREATION:
The contents of consciousness vary from individual to individual. There are individualistic variations in the contents of consciousness. There can never be two identical living individuals. Even when the cells are cloned and have the same or identical genomes, the state, or condition of Protoplasm that is Conscious is never identical. With the same genome, or different genomes, the living cells can only exist or live as individuals and they have no other choice. The living substance is the same, and the nature of consciousness is the same and yet the contents of consciousness are not the same. This Individualistic variation of consciousness is the characteristic of all living things and I describe it as ‘The Law of Individuality and Creation’.
THE PRINCIPLES OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
Consciousness is the natural principle, the vital principle that moves and animates all Life. It has a set of defining features; it is the principle by which a living cell or organism knows the fact of its own existence, it knows as to where it exists, and knows as to how it is existing. Cognition is described as the act of knowing. Cognitive Science involves the study of all human activities related to Knowledge. These activities include attention, creativity, memory, perception, problem solving, thinking, and the use of language. Cognition is the process involved in knowing, or the act of knowing which includes awareness and judgment. The nature of cognition, the relationship between the knowing mind and external reality, is applicable in the study of living functions that are characteristic of the living substance or material called Protoplasm. These functions at cellular level that require cognition include nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and association with other living cells present in the immediate environment. The human brain is often viewed as the Seat of Knowledge. Human brain’s ability to acquire, process, store, and use of information is essentially function of the cytoplasm of the brain cells. Cognitive functions like perception and memory would establish Protoplasm as the Seat of Knowledge.
CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE HUMAN ORGANISM:
There are two distinct aspects of human Consciousness namely the Capacity for Consciousness and the Contents of Consciousness. When Consciousness is viewed as a psychological or strictly as a mental function, it is represented by the Contents of Consciousness, function of Cerebral Cortex. When Consciousness is understood as a biological or living function, it is represented by the aspect of Capacity for Consciousness. The upper brain-stem, the neural structures like the Reticular Formation, and Thalamus function to compose the contents of Consciousness and project the contents to the cerebral hemispheres via the tracts of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Integrity of these neurons and neural connections is important to maintain the alertness, and Arousal State of the Whole Organism in its relationship to its environment and internal maintenance of coordination of various living functions.
THE GRADING OF CONSCIOUSNESS IN CLINICAL MEDICINE:
Apart from philosophers, psychologists, psychics, theologians and others, the term consciousness is frequently used by the practitioners of Clinical Medicine. It is a useful term with several practical applications in management of individuals with a variety of conditions that impact the neural functions, particularly the Arousal. In medical practice, the assessment and grading of consciousness serves the purpose of being good predictor of the eventual long-term outcome or prognosis of the underlying disease or medical condition.
In Clinical Medicine, the medical practitioner evaluates the Level of Arousal or Alertness of his patient. The different levels of consciousness are:
a. alert or awake, fully Conscious and fully Oriented to person, place, and time. This Orientation represents the normal operation of Higher Intellectual Functions. A person who is Conscious, but is under the influence of alcohol or other psychotropic drugs, neural stimulants or depressants may not be fully oriented.
b. phase of automatism – the person is not fully alert as in Sleep-walking, or recovering from the effects of anesthesia.
c. Lethargic – drowsy, sleepy, but easily arousable.
d. Delirium – a state of mental confusion, a toxic condition, altered physical, and mental state or condition.
e. Stupor – semiconscious, responsive only to painful stimuli.
f. Coma – Unconscious or not responsive to painful stimuli.
Similarly, the Edinburgh method of grading Consciousness is:
Grade 0 – Fully Conscious
Grade 1 – drowsy but responsive to vocal command.
Grade 2 – Unconscious but responsive to minimal painful stimuli.
Grade 3 – Unconscious but just responsive to strong painful stimuli.
Grade 4 – Unconscious with no response to verbal commands and all other painful stimuli.
The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS ) is universally used in assessment of the head injury victim. This Scale measures and provides a score that ranges from 3 to 15 points by evaluating three kinds of responses from the patient.
1. Eye Opening: Spontaneous eye opening=4; Eye opening in response to command=3; Eye opening in response to painful stimuli=2; and no response of eye opening=1.
2. Motor Response: Obeys commands=6; Localizes pain=5; Shows flexion(decorticate) response to pain=3; Shows extension (decerebrate) response to pain=2; and no response(no reflex muscular activity)=1.
3. Vocal Response: Oriented to person, place, and time=5; Confused=4; Shows inappropriate speech=3; Makes incomprehensible sounds=2; and no vocal sounds=1.
Such neurological evaluations are repeated periodically to record significant changes in the medical condition of the patient. However, it must be noted that Clinical Medicine always evaluates totality of all living functions and the medical usage of the terms Conscious and Unconscious represent a careful interpretation in the context of the medical condition of the patient.
THE TOTALITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS:
The Science of Consciousness must explore and investigate the entire contents of Consciousness. By understanding the nature of experience provided by the Totality of Consciousness, the condition, the state, or the act of being Conscious could be explained.
Consciousness is a Mental Experience:
The term consciousness is most widely used as meaning “attention to the contents or workings of one’s own mind.” English philosopher John Locke defined Consciousness as a psychological condition; it is described as perception of what passes in a man’s own mind. In Indian tradition, mental activities are of four kinds and collectively constitute what is named as “ANTAHKARANA”; these are : 1. “MANAS”- the seat of thoughts, 2. “BUDDHI” or intellect and knowledge, 3. “CHITTA” or the seat of emotions such as Kindness and Love, and 4. “AHAMKARA” or self-ego. The mental experience, the awareness or knowing of these activities of thoughts, intellect, moods, feelings, and self-ego describe consciousness as a mental experience. Using this view, many philosophers, religious thinkers, and mystics have shared their experience of different levels of consciousness and have given names to the higher levels or states of consciousness. Terms such as Pure Consciousness, Cosmic Consciousness, and Super Consciousness may describe some kind of mental experience and such terms may not add any information to understand the Totality of Consciousness and its experience.
I ask my readers to define the term consciousness as a biological function, the characteristic of the living things that signifies the existence of its living matter or the corporeal substance.
Firstly, I acknowledge that I no longer depend upon my intellect to support my frugal earthly existence. I am indeed astounded for my intellect has vanished for all practical purposes. I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from thoughts shared by Saint Paul in his First Letter to the Church at Corinth.
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verse 19:
“For it is written:
“I will destroy the wisdom of the wise;
the intelligence of the intelligent I will frustrate.”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians 1:19 which refers to Book of Isaiah, Chapter 29, Verse 14:
“Therefore once more I will astound these people
with wonder upon wonder;
the wisdom of the wise will perish,
the intelligence of the intelligent will vanish.”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verse 20:
“Where is the wise man? Where is the scholar? Where is the philosopher of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of the world?”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verse 21:
“For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not know him, God was pleased through the foolishness of what was preached to save those who believe.”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verse 25:
“For the foolishness of God is wiser than man’s wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than man’s strength.”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verse 27:
“But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong.”
I seek wisdom to guide me in 2021 from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 1, Verses 28 & 29:
“He (GOD) chose the lowly things of the world and the despised things – and the things that are not – to nullify the things that are.”
WISDOM FROM THE SPIRIT TO GUIDE ME IN 2021:
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verses 4 and 5:
“My message and my preaching were not with wise and persuasive words, but with a demonstration of the Spirit’s power, so that your faith might not rest on men’s wisdom, but on God’s power.”
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, the wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verse 6:
“We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or of the rulers of this age, who are coming to nothing.”
Saint Paul graciously acknowledges the wisdom of the ‘mature’ but I recognize the role of natural aging process which invariably and inevitably compromises man’s mental faculties and impairs man’s intellectual functions. No man can truly boast before God about his intelligence or wisdom. Man merely enjoys intelligence or wisdom under the operating Principle called Divine Providence. No man can escape from the natural consequences of aging or maturing called ‘Senescence’. For man leads a perishable, conditioned, mortal existence, man needs Wisdom of LORD of GLORY, the LORD who conquered Death.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verse 9:
“However, as it is written:
‘No eye has seen,
no ear has heard,
no mind has conceived
what God has prepared for those who love Him.”
This verse refers to wisdom from Isaiah, Chapter 64, Verse 4.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from Book of Isaiah, Chapter 64, Verse 4:
“Since ancient times no one has heard,
no ear has perceived,
no eye has seen any God besides you,
who acts on behalf of those who wait for Him.”
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verse 10:
“But God has revealed it to us by His Spirit. The Spirit searches all things, even the deep things of God.”
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verse 11:
“For who among men knows the thoughts of a man except the man’s Spirit within him?”
I am glad to note that Saint Paul made a clear distinction between man’s Mind, the Seat of Thoughts and man’s Spirit which I often describe as ‘The Knowing-Self’, the true or real ‘SELF’ that knows all the activities of man’s Body and Mind. This Mind-Spirit Dualism is important to gain full understanding of man.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verses 13 & 14:
“This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, expressing spiritual truths in spiritual words( or Spirit interpreting spiritual truths to spiritual men). The man without Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him, and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually discerned.”
This statement of Saint Paul may give impression that man may live in this world without assistance of Vital, Animating Principle called Spirit or Soul. In my analysis, all men, and all living beings have Spirit or Soul as there is no existence in absence of Spirit or Soul. Man and all living entities need Divine Grace, Mercy, and Compassion often described as ‘PROVIDENCE’ to sustain, to support, and to maintain their fragile, transient existence in natural world. However, man can be foolish, man can be ignorant if he believes that he exists in physical world without assistance of Spirit or Soul. Man, very often fails to understand that he is connected, related, joined, associated, bonded, and is in partnership with God. Man receives Divine Providence because of Spirit or Soul that establishes this Unity between Man and God.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 2, Verses 15 & 16:
“The spiritual man makes judgments about all things, but he himself is not subject to any man’s judgment: ‘For who has known the mind of the Lord that He may instruct him?'”
This Verse refers to wisdom from Book of Isaiah, Chapter 40, Verse 13:
“Who has understood the mind of the Lord,
or instructed him as his counselor.”
Man cannot depend upon his own thoughts, mind, intellect, and wisdom to know God’s mind. It is the Spirit or Soul which is of the Lord that can counsel, guide, and instruct man to live according to God’s thoughts, mind, intellect, and wisdom.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021, wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 3, Verse 19:
“For the wisdom of this world is foolishness in God’s sight. As it is written: ‘He catches the wise in their craftiness.'”
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit, wisdom from Book of Job, Chapter 5, Verse 13:
“He (LORD) catches the wise in their craftiness,
and the schemes of the wily are swept away.”
Man cannot discover God’s mind by inventing schemes or mental tricks, or by using cunningness or deception. Man has to submit to Will of God and learn about God with guidance, assistance, instruction, and counsel of the Spirit, the Spirit of the Lord.
I seek Wisdom From the Spirit to Guide me in 2021 wisdom from 1 Corinthians, Chapter 3, Verse 20:
“and again, ‘The Lord knows that the thoughts of the wise are futile.'”
During 2021, I need wisdom to guide me to discover my purpose in my life. I cannot discover the purpose of my life without understanding God’s Plan for my life. I cannot discern God’s Plan for my life using my thoughts, human mind, human intellect, and human wisdom for they are all destined to be destroyed and are not comparable to God’s thoughts, God’s Mind, God’s Intelligence, and God’s Wisdom. However, I draw inspiration and hope from the teachings of Saint Paul which he shared with us in his First Letter to Corinthians.
MAN’S PURPOSE IN LIFE
Knowing my purpose in life primarily involves knowing God and understanding God for my mortal existence is not accounted by my physical or intellectual work. I have no existence in this physical world if I do not experience God’s Grace, Mercy, and Compassion. I have no choice other than that of praising the LORD if I am able to think and act in natural world. In words of Saint Paul’s First Letter to the Church in Corinth, I submit:
“Therefore as it is written,
‘Let him who boasts, boast in the Lord.'” (1 CORINTHIANS 1:31)
Saint Paul was inspired by divine revelation of Prophet Jeremiah and his statement refers to Book of Jeremiah, Chapter 9, verses 23 and 24:
“This is what the LORD says:
‘Let not the wise man boast of his wisdom
or the strong man boast of his strength
or the rich man boast of his riches,
but let him who boasts boast about this:
that he understands and knows me,
that I am the LORD, who exercises kindness, justice and righteousness on earth,
for in these I delight.'” declares the LORD.
Man has a purpose in life for certain things endure despite man’s mortal existence. These things are, 1. Man’s Faith in God, 2. Man’s Hope in God’s promise of Salvation, and 3. God’s Unconditioned Love.
Man has purpose in Life for God’s Unconditioned Love helps man to transcend barriers imposed by conditioned, physical existence which include challenges of illness, injury, and aging or senescence.
I wish all my readers a Very Happy New Year 2021. All said and done, a ‘Penny of God’s Foolishness is Greater than a Pound of man’s Wisdom’. For my thoughts and my words are futile, I ask you to seek Wisdom from God’s Power as revealed by the Spirit of God.
Christmas Day Holiday celebration should reflect the very essence of Christianity. The Gospel according to Apostle John, Chapter 3, verse# 16 declares: “For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but have eternal life.” The Christmas tradition is about the Joy that is associated with the birth of baby Jesus and the exchange of gifts to express the sense of happiness. Christmas holiday is not in remembrance of God’s Law. Jesus Christ has established ‘LOVE’ as the God’s Greatest Commandment. The Gospel according to Apostle Matthew (Chapter 22, verses#37-40), and The Gospel according to Apostle Mark (Chapter 12, verses# 28-31) describe the Commandments of Love: “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength. This is the first great commandment. The second is this: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’ There is no commandment greater than these. All the Law and the Prophets hang on these two Commandments.” The Gospel according to Apostle John, Chapter 13, verse# 34 describes the need for neighborly relations among people based upon Love: “A new command I give you: Love one another, as I have loved you, so you must love one another.”
The word “LOVE” does not appear in the TORAH( Law) given to the Jews at Mount Sinai. I conducted a study of the holiday traditions of the US and I am totally surprised to note that there is no traditional celebration of the Proclamation of the two Great Love Commandments of Jesus. Jewish Holiday “SHAVUOT” celebrates the giving of the ‘TORAH’ (the LAW or Instruction) to the Jews. God gave the Ten Commandments ( The Decalogue, The Code of The Ten Words)on the sixth night of the Hebrew month of ‘Sivan’. Shavuot always falls 50 days (PENTECOST) after the second night of Passover. The 49 days between Passover and Shavuot are known as ‘Omer’. While retaining the essence of The Code of The Ten Words Jesus changed the Operating Principle of the TORAH or The Law. Jesus instructs that the Law would be followed by His believers not through the use of force or authority but by simply embracing the equally powerful influence called “LOVE.”
I am posting this article to make an open appeal to all the members of the US Congress to pass a decree or law to commence a new tradition in the national life that celebrates the central role of love in developing wholesome human relationships. I am using the term ‘Whole Body’ to describe the perfect unity of body, mind, heart, soul, and God that establishes man as a Whole Being. Love is central to man’s relationship to God and man’s relations with other persons. The term love includes the feelings or the emotion of love expressed by a person (“The Subject”) and it involves a personal experience evoked when another person (“The Object”) reflects the feelings of love. Love has to be known as “The Medium” that generates the attachment or devotion to another person; and this attachment implies connection by ties of affection, sexual attraction, devotion, friendship, goodwill, compassion, respect, trust, and commitment. This kind of care and concern for a person, or persons in a relationship could be called ‘Whole Love’ if whatever is done for Love occurs beyond good and evil.
The concept of Holiday begins with the story of creation as revealed in the Book of Genesis and it involves the observance of a ‘Holy Day’. “And God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it He rested from all the work of creating that He had done (Genesis, Chapter 2, verse#3).”
Holiday is a day of freedom from labor sanctioned by God, and it is set aside for leisure and recreation to renew man’s relationship with his Creator. In Civil Society, certain days are set aside by Law or Custom and Traditions for the suspension of official business activities and very often in commemoration of some important events in national life. I am using the term ‘Whole Holiday’ to recognize a specific day that is set aside by Human Law in recognition of the Divine Law that is conducive to the development of harmonious, or wholesome interpersonal relationships that are essential to promote the health, and well-being of all people. In the US, there are several holidays that are legal and none of them directly address the central issue of developing Love relationships.
Martin Luther King Day is a holiday observed on the third Monday in January to commemorate the birthday(January 15) of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr(1929-1968) for his role in improving interracial relationships.
Saint Valentine’s Day is celebrated on February 14 and it has become a popular tradition to choose or to greet a sweetheart. But this concept of romantic interest in a person is more related to a sexual attraction and other attributes of ‘Whole Love’ such as trust, respect, and commitment may not be always present. Secondly, the tradition of Valentine’s Day is not related to the concept of God is Love and God Loves man.
Presidents’ Day is a legal holiday celebrated on the third Monday in February, specially commemorating the birthday of President George Washington (February.22), 1732-1799, First President of the US (1789-1797) and President Abraham Lincoln (February.12), 1809-1865, 16th President of the US (1861-1865).
The tradition of Memorial Day holiday was instituted in 1868 as ‘Decoration Day’ to honor the Civil War dead. The last Monday in May is observed as a legal holiday in memory of the dead servicemen of all wars for they gave their precious lives to let the countrymen enjoy all their freedoms.
Fourth of July or Independence Day is a legal holiday to celebrate the anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
The first Monday in September is observed as Labor Day, a legal holiday to pay tribute to the American Workforce which includes millions of hard-working hourly wage earners who are often called laborers.
Columbus Day is a legal holiday in the US commemorating the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus on October 12, 1492. The holiday is observed on the second Monday in October.
Veterans Day is a legal holiday honoring all veterans of the armed forces. It is observed on Armistice Day – November 11, the anniversary of the armistice of World War I in 1918.
Thanksgiving Day is among the major US holiday traditions to commemorate the Pilgrims’ celebration of the good harvest of 1621 at Plymouth Colony. The US Congress decreed in 1941 to observe this holiday of thanksgiving and feasting on the fourth Thursday of November.
In the United States, we have no Law, or a cultural tradition to commemorate the event in which Jesus Christ has issued the two great commandments asking people to observe the Law of ‘Whole Love’ which demands, 1. The Love of God with Whole Body, Heart, Mind, and Soul, and 2. The Love of Neighbor as a requirement of God’s Law for man. After my ‘Whole Discovery’, the discovery of the experience of ‘Whole Love’ at Whole Foods Market, Ann Arbor, Michigan on Wednesday, July 30, 2014, I have decided to promote the establishment of a ‘Whole Tradition’ to follow the Spirit of the ‘Whole Law’ to truly observe the Commandment of ‘Whole Love’. To commemorate my ‘Whole Discovery’, I am writing this appeal to ask all the members of the US Congress to approve a new Law to observe the last Wednesday of July as the ‘Whole Love Holiday’. The choice of Wednesday is very appropriate as most other legal holidays are observed on Mondays as a matter of convenience and not for the purposes of obedience to a Divine Law which should be the source and inspiration for the Human Law. The concept of ‘Whole Love’ represents the ‘Whole Law’ that is explicitly pronounced by Jesus Christ as the only Commandment that man must follow and observe in his lifetime. To acknowledge the ‘Whole Law’, to celebrate its pronouncement, we need a new ‘Whole Tradition’ which is reflected by instituting a new ‘Whole Holiday’.
December Solstice in Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA was on Monday, December 21, 2020 at 5:02 am Eastern Standard Time
WINTER SOLSTICE DESCRIBES THE MAGIC OF CREATION. THE ROTATIONAL SPIN OF EARTH CAN BE INTERPRETED AS PURPOSIVE ACTION AS NO OTHER CELESTIAL BODY SHARES THE SAME ROTATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS.
In my analysis, the natural phenomenon called ‘Winter Solstice’ describes the Magic of Creation. I ask my readers to make the distinction between Mechanistic Actions and Purposive Actions. The natural events such as Day and Night, the changing seasons are synchronized with fundamental living functions which are always guided, sequential, goal-oriented, and purposeful events.
While the Sun shines all the time, man experiences the alternating periods of light and darkness and varying Seasons as if there are two worlds on the same Planet. Winter Solstice in the Northern Hemisphere is called Summer Solstice in the Southern Hemisphere. This separation of Light from Darkness is unique to planet Earth. The man has already discovered thousands of other planets. None of them share the ‘Rotational Spin’ characteristics that set Earth apart from all other heavenly objects.
The map below indicates the position of the Sun and areas of sunlight versus darkness at sunset today in New York City, 4:32pm EST.
Winter Solstice 2018: 10 Facts About the Shortest Day of the Year
BY Jane Rose
December 20, 2018
Amid the whirl of the holiday season, many are vaguely aware of the approach of the winter solstice, but how much do you really know about it? Whether you’re a fan of winter or just wish it would go away, here are 10 things to note—or even celebrate—about the solstice.
1. IT HAPPENS ON DECEMBER 21 UTC THIS YEAR.
The date of the winter solstice varies from year to year and can fall anywhere between December 20 and December 23, with the 21st or 22nd being the most common dates. The reason for this is because the tropical year—the time it takes for the sun to return to the same spot relative to Earth—is different from the calendar year. The next solstice occurring on December 20 will not happen until 2080, and the next December 23 solstice will not occur until 2303.
2. IT HAPPENS AT A SPECIFIC, BRIEF MOMENT.
Not only does the solstice occur on a specific day, but it also occurs at a specific time of day, corresponding to the instant the North Pole has aimed furthest away from the sun on the 23.5-degree tilt of the Earth’s axis. This is also the time when the sun shines directly over the Tropic of Capricorn. In 2017, this moment occurs at 4:28 p.m. UTC (Coordinated Universal Time). For those of us on Eastern Standard Time, the solstice will occur at 11:28 a.m. on December 21. And regardless of where you live, the solstice happens at the same moment for everyone on the planet.
3. IT MARKS THE LONGEST NIGHT AND SHORTEST DAY OF THE YEAR FOR THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE.
As most are keenly aware, daylight hours grow shorter and shorter as the solstice approaches, and begin to slowly lengthen afterward. It’s no wonder that the day of the solstice is referred to in some cultures as the “shortest day” or “extreme of winter.” New York City will experience 9 hours and 15 minutes of sunlight, compared to 15 hours and 5 minutes on the summer solstice. Helsinki, Finland, will get 5 hours and 49 minutes of light. Barrow, Alaska, will not have a sunrise at all (and hasn’t since mid-November; its next sunrise will be on January 22), while the North Pole has had no sunrise since October. The South Pole, though, will be basking in the glow of the midnight sun, which won’t set until March.
4. ANCIENT CULTURES VIEWED THE WINTER SOLSTICE AS A TIME OF DEATH AND REBIRTH.
The seeming death of the light and the very real threat of starvation over the winter months would have weighed heavily on early societies, who held varied solstice celebrations and rites meant to herald the return of the Sun and hope for a new life. Scandinavian and Germanic pagans lit fires and may have burned Yule logs as a symbolic means of welcoming back the light. Cattle and other animals were slaughtered around midwinter, followed by feasting on what was the last fresh meat for several months. The modern Druidic celebration Alban Arthan reveres the death of the Old Sun and the birth of the New Sun.
5. THE DAY MARKS THE DISCOVERY OF NEW AND STRANGE WORLDS.
The Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth on December 21, 1620, to found a society that would allow them to worship freely. On the same day in 1898, Pierre and Marie Curie discovered radium, ushering in an atomic age. And on December 21, 1968, the Apollo 8 spacecraft launched, becoming the first manned moon mission.
6. THE WORD SOLSTICE TRANSLATES ROUGHLY TO “SUN STANDS STILL.”
Solstice derives from the Latin scientific term solstitium, containing sol, which means “sun,” and the past participle stem of sistere, meaning “to make stand.” This comes from the fact that the sun’s position in the sky relative to the horizon at noon, which increases and decreases throughout the year, appears to pause in the days surrounding the solstice. In modern times, we view the phenomenon of the solstice from the position of space, and of the Earth relative to the Sun. Earlier people, however, were thinking about the Sun’s trajectory, how long it stayed in the sky and what sort of light it cast.
7. STONEHENGE IS ALIGNED TO THE SUNSET ON WINTER SOLSTICE.
The primary axis of the megalithic monument is oriented to the setting sun, while Newgrange, another structure built around the same time as Stonehenge, lines up with the winter solstice sunrise. Some have theorized that the position of the Sun was of religious significance to the people who built Stonehenge, while other theories hold that the monument is constructed along with natural features that happen to align with it. The purpose of Stonehenge is still subject to debate, but its importance on the winter solstice continues into the modern era, as thousands of hippies, pagans, and other types of enthusiasts gather there every year to celebrate the occasion.
8. ANCIENT ROMANS CELEBRATED REVERSALS AT THE MIDWINTER FESTIVAL OF SATURNALIA.
A Saturnalia celebration in England in 2012.
The holiday, which began as a festival to honor the agricultural god Saturn, was held to commemorate the dedication of his temple in 497 BCE. It quickly became a time of widespread revelry and debauchery in which societal roles were overturned, with masters serving their slaves and servants being allowed to insult their masters. Mask-wearing and play-acting were also part of Saturnalia’s reversals, with each household electing a King of Misrule. Saturnalia was gradually replaced by Christmas throughout the Roman Empire, but many of its customs survive as Christmas traditions.
9. SOME TRADITIONS HOLD THAT DARK SPIRITS WALK THE EARTH ON THE WINTER SOLSTICE.
The Iranian festival of Yalda is celebrated on the longest night of the year. In pre-Islamic times, it heralded the birth of Mithra, the ancient sun god, and his triumph over darkness. Zoroastrian lore holds that evil spirits wander the earth and the forces of the destructive spirit Ahriman is strongest on this long night. People are encouraged to stay up most of the night in the company of one another, eating, talking, and sharing poetry and stories, in order to avoid any brushes with dark entities. Beliefs about the presence of evil on the longest night are also echoed in Celtic and Germanic folklore.
10. SOME THOUGHT THE WORLD WOULD END ON THE 2012 WINTER SOLSTICE.
December 21, 2012, corresponds to the date 188.8.131.52.0 in the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar used by the ancient Mayans, marking the end of a 5126-year cycle. Some people feared this juncture would bring about the end of the world or some other cataclysmic event. Others took a newer Age-y view (literally) and believed it heralded the birth of a new era of deep transformation for Earth and its inhabitants. In the end, neither of these things appeared to occur, leaving the world to turn through winter solstices indefinitely, or at least as long as the Sun lasts.
The Indo-Pak war of 1971 was a defining moment in the history of the subcontinent, resulting in Bangladesh becoming independent. This established the progress of the Indian Armed Forces including the Army, Air Force and Navy. The war started on 3 December 1971, when the struggle for independence was going on in East Pakistan. The war ended 13 days later on 16 December with the surrender of the Pakistani Army. Since then, this day has been celebrated as Vijay Diwas in India and Bangladesh.
In an official release on Tuesday, the Defence Ministry has said, “In December 1971, the Indian Armed Forces secured a decisive and historic Victory over Pakistan Army, which led to the creation of a Nation – Bangladesh and also resulted in the largest Military Surrender after the World War – II. From 16 December, the Nation will be celebrating 50 Years of India-Pak War, also called ‘Swarnim Vijay Varsh’. Various commemorative events are planned across the Nation.”
Prime Minister Modi was received by Defence Minister Rajnath Singh at the venue. The Prime Minister, Chief of Defence Staff and Tri-Service Chiefs laid a wreath and pay homage to the fallen soldiers.
The Prime Minister lit up the ‘Swarnim Vijay Mashaal’ from the eternal flame of National War Memorial on the occasion.
“Four Victory Mashaals (flames) were lit from the Eternal Flame of National War Memorial. These Mashaals will now be carried to various parts of the country including to villages of Param Vir Chakra and Mahavir Chakra Awardees of 1971 War. Soil from the villages of these Awardees and from areas where major battles were fought in 1971 is being brought to the NWM,” read the release.
India’s Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw on 13th December said “You surrender or We wipe you out,” soon after which India won the war over Pak armed forces.
I regret I have only one life to give for my country. -Prem Ramchandani
Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday visited the National War Memorial (NWM) in Delhi, where he lit the ‘Swarnim Vijay Mashaal’ on the 50th anniversary of the 1971 India-Pakistan war.
Firstly, let me begin this conversation with a tribute to Guglielmo Marconi and the new opportunities that he created to communicate with each other. There are several options for our conversation.
Bhavanajagat.com welcomes all of its readers, both male and female to participate in an open, Whole Conversation about ourselves. I very often use the masculine term man for reasons of linguistic convenience, brevity, and clarity . It is my intention to give attention to the Whole Human Person. We can talk about who we are, what we do, where we live, and about our purpose in life. We need to know about ourselves and know about our place in the world and universe in which we live.
At the same time, the Whole Conversation could be directed towards understanding the basic concepts about man, woman, life, existence, and the world without violating any concerns about privacy or private information. We can exchange our ideas, our views, and our thoughts on a range of subjects in a polite, meaningful conversation mixed with a sense of humor. I may suggest that we could use the method called conceptual analysis, or that of applied philosophy to understand mental concepts, ideas, thoughts, and views. I suggest that we could use a simple reasoning process to verify statements for their accuracy and consistency. A Whole Conversation is hopefully pleasing to hear, and may provide some amusement and a sense of joy to the listener of the conversation. In my opinion, we all exist as ‘Dudes’ as we are all special in our own manners of speech, dress, attitudes, and behavior. Whether we like it or not, there is no real choice and I want to say that you are unique, important, special, distinctive, and one of your own kind.
December 12, 1901
First radio transmission sent across the Atlantic Ocean
Italian physicist and radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi succeeds in sending the first radio transmission across the Atlantic Ocean, disproving detractors who told him that the curvature of the earth would limit transmission to 200 miles or less. The message–simply the Morse-code signal for the letter “s”–traveled more than 2,000 miles from Poldhu in Cornwall, England, to Newfoundland, Canada.
Born in Bologna, Italy, in 1874 to an Italian father and an Irish mother, Marconi studied physics and became interested in the transmission of radio waves after learning of the experiments of the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. He began his own experiments in Bologna beginning in 1894 and soon succeeded in sending a radio signal over a distance of 1.5 miles. Receiving little encouragement for his experiments in Italy, he went to England in 1896. He formed a wireless telegraph company and soon was sending transmissions from distances farther than 10 miles. In 1899, he succeeded in sending a transmission across the English Channel. That year, he also equipped two U.S. ships to report to New York newspapers on the progress of the America’s Cup yacht race. That successful endeavor aroused widespread interest in Marconi and his wireless company.
Marconi’s greatest achievement came on December 12, 1901, when he received a message sent from England at St. John’s, Newfoundland. The transatlantic transmission won him worldwide fame. Ironically, detractors of the project were correct when they declared that radio waves would not follow the curvature of the earth, as Marconi believed. In fact, Marconi’s transatlantic radio signal had been headed into space when it was reflected off the ionosphere and bounced back down toward Canada. Much remained to be learned about the laws of the radio wave and the role of the atmosphere in radio transmissions, and Marconi would continue to play a leading role in radio discoveries and innovations during the next three decades.
In 1909, he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in physics with the German radio innovator Ferdinand Braun. After successfully sending radio transmissions from points as far away as England and Australia, Marconi turned his energy to experimenting with shorter, more powerful radio waves. He died in 1937, and on the day of his funeral all British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) stations were silent for two minutes in tribute to his contributions to the development of radio.
Today, India is celebrating the Armed Forces Flag Day.
Since 1949, December 7 is observed as the Armed Forces Flag Day throughout the country to honour the martyrs and the men in uniform who valiantly fought and continue to fight on our borders to safeguard the country’s honour.
On August 28, 1949, the government had set up a committee under the defence minister and had decided to observe a Flag Day annually on December 7.
This came right after India had achieved independence and the welfare of the defence personnel had to be taken care of. The Armed Forces Flag Day was observed to distribute small flags to the civilians and in return collect donations.
The Flag day is mainly observed to serve three basic purposes which include rehabilitation of battle casualties, the welfare of serving personnel and their families, resettlement and welfare of ex-servicemen and their families.
According to the ministry of defence, every year around 60,000 defence personnel are compulsorily retired. They are released between 35-40 years of age and they are physically fit and young. Therefore, taking the responsibility of these ex-soldiers (ESM) and their families is important.
On the Flag Day all three branches of the Indian armed forces, the Indian Army, the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy, arrange a variety of shows, carnivals, dramas and other entertainment programmes to showcase to the general public the efforts of their personnel to ensure national security.
The 13th Amendment to the US Constitution was duly ratified on December 06, 1865. I ask my readers to give their attention to the reality of Modern-Day Slavery in the United States.
In my analysis, in modern times, Slavery is reintroduced into the US by compromising the property rights of alien workers who subscribe to the Old Age Retirement Income Insurance Benefit plans of the Social Security Act.
I hold President Bill Clinton responsible for the violation of the Human Rights of Senior Aliens who reside in the country without access to their monthly retirement income benefit.
On December 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, officially ending the institution of slavery, is ratified. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” With these words, the single greatest change wrought by the Civil War was officially noted in the Constitution.
The ratification came eight months after the end of the war, but it represented the culmination of the struggle against slavery. When the war began, some in the North were against fighting what they saw as a crusade to end slavery. Although many northern Democrats and conservative Republicans were opposed to slavery’s expansion, they were ambivalent about outlawing the institution entirely. The war’s escalation after the First Battle of BullRun, Virginia, in July 1861 caused many to rethink the role that slavery played in creating the conflict. By 1862, Lincoln realized that it was folly to wage such a bloody war without plans to eliminate slavery. In September 1862, following the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam in Maryland, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all slaves in territory still in rebellion on January 1, 1863, would be declared forever free. The move was largely symbolic, as it only freed slaves in areas outside of Union control, but it changed the conflict from a war for the reunification of the states to a war whose objectives included the destruction of slavery.
Lincoln believed that a constitutional amendment was necessary to ensure the end of slavery. In 1864, Congress debated several proposals. Some insisted on including provisions to prevent discrimination against blacks, but the Senate Judiciary Committee provided the eventual language. It borrowed from the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 when slavery was banned from the area north of the Ohio River. The Senate passed the amendment in April 1864.
A Republican victory in the 1864 presidential election would guarantee the success of the amendment. The Republican platform called for the “utter and complete destruction” of slavery, while the Democrats favored the restoration of states’ rights, which would include at least the possibility for the states to maintain slavery. Lincoln’s overwhelming victory set in motion the events leading to the ratification of the amendment. The House passed the measure in January 1865 and it was sent to the states for ratification. When Georgia ratified it on December 6, 1865, the institution of slavery officially ceased to exist in the United States.
Does an Exception Clause in the 13th Amendment Still Permit Slavery?
The amendment, which officially abolished slavery in the United States in 1865, includes a loophole regarding involuntary servitude.
The year the Civil War ended, the U.S. amended the Constitution to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude. But it purposefully left in one big loophole for people convicted of crimes.
The 13th Amendment, ratified in 1865, says: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Scholars, activists, and prisoners have linked that exception clause to the rise of a prison system that incarcerates black people at more than five times the rate of white people, and profits off of their unpaid or underpaid labor.
“What we see after the passage of the 13th Amendment is a couple of different things converging,” says Andrea Armstrong, a law professor at Loyola University in New Orleans. “First, the 13th Amendment text allows for involuntary servitude when convicted of a crime.” At the same time, “black codes” in the south created “new types of offenses, especially attitudinal offenses—not showing proper respect, those types of things.”
After the Civil War, new offenses like “malicious mischief” were vague, and could be a felony or misdemeanor depending on the supposed severity of the behavior. These laws sent more black people to prison than ever before, and by the late 19th century the country experienced its first “prison boom,” legal scholar Michelle Alexander writes in her book The New Jim Crow.
“After a brief period of progress during Reconstruction, African Americans found themselves, once again, virtually defenseless,” Alexander writes. “The criminal justice system was strategically employed to force African Americans back into a system of extreme repression and control, a tactic that would continue to prove successful for generations to come.”
States put prisoners to work through a practice called “convict-leasing,” whereby white planters and industrialists “leased” prisoners to work for them. States and private businesses made money doing this, but prisoners didn’t. This meant many black prisoners found themselves living and working on plantations against their will and for no pay decades after the Civil War.
Was this slavery by another name? Armstrong argues that the 13th Amendment makes an exception for “involuntary servitude,” not “slavery,” and that there are important historical and legal distinctions between the two. However, she says no court has formally dealt with this distinction, and many courts have used the two terms interchangeably. In 1871, the Virginia Supreme Court ruled that a convicted person was “a slave of the State.”
Like chattel slavery before it, convict-leasing was brutal and inhumane. Across the country, “tens of thousands of people, overwhelmingly black, were leased by the state to plantation owners, privately owned railroad yards, coal mines and road-building chain gangs and made to work under the whip from dusk till dawn—often as punishment for petty crimes such as vagrancy or theft,” reports The Washington Post.
Many prisoners died in these conditions. In July 2018, researcher Reginald Moore announced he’d found the remains of 95 black prisoners who’d died working in Sugar Land, Texas in the early 20th century. Experts estimate their ages ranged from 14 to 70, meaning some would’ve been born into pre-Civil War slavery, freed, incarcerated and then forced into unpaid labor again. More than 3,500 prisoners died in Texas between 1866 and 1912, the year Texas outlawed convict-leasing because the death toll was so high.
States also benefited and profited off of prison labor by forcing chain gangs to build roads and creating prison farms to grow crops like sugar and snap peas. Today, states and private companies still rely on prisoners performing free or extremely low-paid labor for them. For example, California saves up to $100 million a year, according to state correctionsspokesman Bill Sessa, by recruiting incarcerated people as volunteer firefighters.
“[States] would not be able to incarcerate as many people as they do without this, in effect, a subsidy of the cost,” Armstrong says. “So it masks the true nature and the true cost of incarceration.”
Decades of prison and civil rights activism have sought to improve conditions and pay for incarcerated workers. In 1971, inmates at New York’s Attica Correctional Facility took control of the prison and issued a list of demands, including the right to join labor unions and earn a minimum wage. More recently, in the summer of 2018, prisoner laborers across the United States went on strike to protest what they called “modern-day slavery.”