Remembering September 11, 2001: Spiritual Warfare against Terrorism
Remembering September 11, 2001. Can Terror define man? The man may experience Fear when taken by surprise of a terrorist attack but the man’s Spiritual Essence is defined by Faith, Trust, Hope and Love. The Man is a Spiritual Being and the man will overcome the evil in the War on Terrorism.
THIS DAY IN HISTORY: 09/11/2001 – ATTACK ON AMERICA
On September 11, 2001 Al-Qaeda terrorists hi-jacked four jets and flew them into the towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon, and the last was forced down by flight attendants and passengers. This and other events were recapped in this video clip. Russ Mitchell tells us the major historical events that took place on September 11, including the attacks that killed almost 3,000 people.
At 8:45 a.m. on a clear Tuesday morning, an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashes into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The impact left a gaping, burning hole near the 80th floor of the 110-story skyscraper, instantly killing hundreds of people and trapping hundreds more in higher floors. As the evacuation of the tower and its twin got underway, television cameras broadcasted live images of what initially appeared to be a freak accident. Then, 18 minutes after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767–United Airlines Flight 175–appeared out of the sky, turned sharply toward the World Trade Center, and sliced into the south tower at about the 60th floor. The collision caused a massive explosion that showered burning debris over surrounding buildings and the streets below. America was under attack.
The attackers were Islamic terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations. Reportedly financed by Saudi fugitive Osama bin Laden’s al Qaeda terrorist organization, they were allegedly acting in retaliation for America’s support of Israel, its involvement in the Persian Gulf War, and its continued military presence in the Middle East. Some of the terrorists had lived in the United States for more than a year and had taken flying lessons at American commercial flight schools. Others had slipped into the U.S. in the months before September 11 and acted as the “muscle” in the operation. The 19 terrorists easily smuggled box-cutters and knives through security at three East Coast airports and boarded four flights bound for California, chosen because the planes were loaded with fuel for the long transcontinental journey. Soon after takeoff, the terrorists commandeered the four planes and took the controls, transforming the ordinary commuter jets into guided missiles.
As millions watched in horror the events unfolding in New York, American Airlines Flight 77 circled over downtown Washington and slammed into the west side of the Pentagon military headquarters at 9:45 a.m. Jet fuel from the Boeing 757 caused a devastating inferno that led to a structural collapse of a portion of the giant concrete building. All told, 125 military personnel and civilians were killed in the Pentagon along with all 64 people aboard the airliner.
Less than 15 minutes after the terrorists struck the nerve center of the U.S. military, the horror in New York took a catastrophic turn for the worse when the south tower of the World Trade Center collapsed in a massive cloud of dust and smoke. The structural steel of the skyscraper, built to withstand winds in excess of 200 mph and a large conventional fire, could not withstand the tremendous heat generated by the burning jet fuel. At 10:30 a.m., the other Trade Center tower collapsed. Close to 3,000 people died in the World Trade Center and its vicinity, including a staggering 343 firefighters and paramedics, 23 New York City police officers, and 37 Port Authority police officers who were struggling to complete an evacuation of the buildings and save the office workers trapped on higher floors. Only six people in the World Trade Center towers at the time of their collapse survived. Almost 10,000 other people were treated for injuries, many severe.
Meanwhile, a fourth California-bound plane–United Flight 93–was hijacked about 40 minutes after leaving Newark International Airport in New Jersey. Because the plane had been delayed in taking off, passengers on board learned of events in New York and Washington via cell phone and Airfone calls to the ground. Knowing that the aircraft was not returning to an airport as the hijackers claimed, a group of passengers and flight attendants planned an insurrection. One of the passengers, Thomas Burnett, Jr., told his wife over the phone that “I know we’re all going to die. There’s three of us who are going to do something about it. I love you, honey.” Another passenger–Todd Beamer–was heard saying “Are you guys ready? Let’s roll” over an open line. Sandy Bradshaw, a flight attendant, called her husband and explained that she had slipped into a galley and was filling pitchers with boiling water. Her last words to him were “Everyone’s running to first class. I’ve got to go. Bye.”
The passengers fought the four hijackers and are suspected to have attacked the cockpit with a fire extinguisher. The plane then flipped over and sped toward the ground at upwards of 500 miles per hour, crashing in a rural field in western Pennsylvania at 10:10 a.m. All 45 people aboard were killed. Its intended target is not known, but theories include the White House, the U.S. Capitol, the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland, or one of several nuclear power plants along the eastern seaboard.
At 7 p.m., President George W. Bush, who had spent the day being shuttled around the country because of security concerns, returned to the White House. At 9 p.m., he delivered a televised address from the Oval Office, declaring “Terrorist attacks can shake the foundations of our biggest buildings, but they cannot touch the foundation of America. These acts shatter steel, but they cannot dent the steel of American resolve.” In a reference to the eventual U.S. military response he declared: “We will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.”
Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S.-led international effort to oust the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and destroy Osama bin Laden’s terrorist network based there, began on October 7, 2001. Bin Laden was killed during a raid of his compound in Pakistan by U.S. forces on May 2, 2011.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE: WORLD SUICIDE PREVENTION DAY
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH: THE SEVEN DIMENSIONS OF HUMAN BEING. THESE ARE, 1.MAN IS A CREATED BEING, AND MAN IS CONSTITUTED AS 2. PHYSICAL, MORTAL BEING, 3. MENTAL BEING, 4. SOCIAL BEING, 5. MORAL BEING, 6. SPIRITUAL BEING AND 7. RATIONAL BEING.
September 10 is observed as World ‘Suicide Prevention Day’ and September is ‘Suicide Awareness Month’. To promote Suicide Awareness, I would like to promote awareness of the Seven Dimensions of Human Being. These dimensions are 1. Man is a Created Being, and man is constituted as 2. Physical, Mortal Being, 3. Mental Being, 4. Social Being, 5. Moral Being, 6. Spiritual Being, and 7. Rational Being.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH. SPIRITUALITY IS ABOUT FORMULATING INTERPERSONAL, AND INTRAPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS BASED UPON SHARED FEELINGS OF TRUST, RESPECT, AND COMMITMENT. SPIRIT OR SOUL IS THE VITAL, ANIMATING PRINCIPLE THAT OPERATES ALL LIVING SYSTEMS.
Spirit or Soul is the vital, animating principle that operates all living systems. Spirituality is about formulating interpersonal, and intrapersonal relationships based upon shared feelings of trust, respect, and commitment.
MAN’S PHYSICAL EXISTENCE:
Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. The subjective reality of man’s physical existence is conditioned by his physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being.
If a man is viewed as a multicellular organism, we may have to ask ourselves the following question. Who or What is the Subject that lives because of the living functions of trillions of individual, independent cells? Man has to explore the biological basis for his existence in nature. The subjective and objective reality of man’s physical existence is conditioned by his physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being.
MENTAL HEALTH – THE MIND-BODY CONNECTION:
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – SEPTEMBER IS SUICIDE AWARENESS MONTH. MENTAL HEALTH IS ABOUT FORMULATING HARMONIOUS SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS. SPIRIT OR SOUL IS THE OPERATING PRINCIPLE THAT DEVELOPS FUNCTIONAL HARMONY BETWEEN VARIOUS CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND ORGAN SYSTEMS OF THE HUMAN ORGANISM.
Mental health is an important component of total positive health when health is defined as not the mere absence of disease, but as a state of man’s physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational well-being. Physical conditions and ailments affect mental well-being.
Mental health and well-being could have important consequences affecting the physical, and social well-being of the man and may even threaten his ability to maintain the biological integrity to survive as a human organism. Mental health is defined as the capacity in an individual to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to changes in the social environment.
A living organism has a tendency to maintain normal internal stability by coordinated responses that automatically compensate for environmental changes. Claude Bernard had explained this concept of ‘milieu Interieur’ as that of “all the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of life.” This concept of homeostasis, maintenance of stability and equilibrium is applicable to man’s existence within a social group. A living thing maintains its individuality while being a member of a social group.
Mental equilibrium and mental tranquility are needed to maintain internal stability and for developing harmonious relationships with others present in the social environment. The different constituent parts of one’s personality should work in harmony so that an individual faces life situations rationally, successfully, and happily. The aim of the positive mental health care is to strengthen and develop well-integrated personality by influencing the behavioral pattern of the individual so that psychological situations are controlled by the individual in a logical, and rational manner. The individual while facing challenging life situations must arrive at solutions without disrupting the physical, mental, or social well-being.
Mental health comprises the well-being of the intellectual and the emotional components of the mind. The intellectual breakdown of the individual deprives him of logical and rational thinking. The decisions taken will be faulty if the individual is not capable of logical and rational thinking. Such faulty decisions tend to affect an individual’s well-being. The intellectual breakdown is always accompanied by an emotional breakdown. Emotional imbalance affects an individual’s reactions. The individual may show an inability to cope with life situations. The inability to withstand the strain and stress of life situations could affect the physical well-being of the individual. The aim of this presentation is to understand the nature of man’s essence and existence in the physical world and to use that information to prevent the problem of suicide.
STRESS AND STRESS RESISTANCE:
Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. A person with a well-integrated personality acquires high resistance against stress and will be able to react healthily while confronting unwholesome life situations.
Resistance against mental and emotional breakdown is built up by the autonomic process of integration of personality. It is the normal process of the growth of personality within the group environs. An individual with a well-integrated personality acquires high resistance against difficult situations. The individual will be able to react healthily while confronting unwholesome life situations.
A healthy mind and ability to be molded in an integrated personality depends upon several factors including the physical, social, and psychological environment in which the individual is growing. It also depends upon the cultural patterns and attitudes handed down from one generation to the next. From a very young age, integration of the personality proceeds along with intellectual development and emotional molding. Children must be given a better chance to develop integrated personalities with resistance against stress.
Stress stimuli generate a chain of psycho-physical reactions strong enough to cause manifest effects. Personalities can be divided into 5 types according to their ability to resist strain and stress to master a given difficult life situation without a physical or mental breakdown. The same psychogenic stimulus may not cause a similar reaction in all individuals. Each person reacts in a different manner according to the level of preformed stress resistance.
GROUP I: Highly stress-resistant. These persons have a high level of preformed resistance. They also have the ability to develop resistance within a short time when exposed to stress stimuli. This group comprises of people with well-integrated personalities with dominant will power and power of endurance. They carry out the task even while under great stress without experiencing any negative consequences. They successfully master a stressful and difficult situation. These individuals live in good positive health and may not have a preexisting disease condition or a predisposition to such disease conditions that may undermine the physical and mental aspects of their health and well-being.
GROUP II: These persons have an average amount of preformed stress resistance. They overcome the stressful situation partially. In the attempt to master the stressful situation and to achieve success the person may suffer from precipitation of internal conditions such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and so on when other predisposing factors are also existing. However, the individual completes the task while facing a stressful stimulus. These persons perform better if they maintain good positive health.
GROUP III: These are persons with very low preformed stress resistance. They still have the ability to develop resistance on exposure to a prolonged stressful situation. While performing the task in a stressful situation, they may display psycho-somatic symptoms of overt stress syndrome.
GROUP IV: These are persons with no preformed stress resistance. They have a very low ability to create resistance upon exposure to a stressful stimulus. These individuals are more likely to abandon the task which may have exposed them to a stressful experience. They would try to escape from stress rather than attempting to create resistance to stress stimuli. If they cannot escape, the lack of stress resistance is manifested in a variety of bizarre symptoms.
GROUP V: These are persons who are non-resistant to stress. They have no preformed stress resistance. They are not capable of favorably reacting to situations producing stress. Their biological existence could be threatened if they are exposed to a stressful situation. They may manifest an overt psychiatric illness apart from the inability to perform a task that could generate the stress reaction. Such individuals must be recognized in their childhood and they must be provided the proper environment and psychological counseling.
The part played by stress varies in different individuals according to their basic personalities. The factors that impact the role of stress include environmental influences, community with its varied backgrounds of culture patterns and life habits. Pre-existent resistance against stress reduces the requirement of immediate psycho-physical response. If the problem of suicide is viewed as a stress reaction, the prevention of suicide would require promoting the idea of stress resistance.
THE PROBLEM OF SUICIDE:
A man’s right to life is a well-recognized principle. Very often, the law would defend a man’s right to life and would condone the act of killing if it is purely intended for purposes of self-defense. Does a man have the right to kill himself or renounce his life? Suicide is condemned by various societies. Major religions like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam oppose the practice of suicide. Attempts to commit suicide are punishable by law in several countries. In the East, some cultural traditions have glorified acts of self-immolation or of renouncing life to resist the enemy or to defend personal dignity, honor, or as an extreme measure of self-preservation.
Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. To defend her true nature, to preserve her essence, to resist the violation of her personal dignity and honor, Rani Padmini of Chittorgarh, India had courageously responded to a difficult and challenging life situation by an act of self-immolation. Her physical being was destroyed by fire which she had willingly embraced and yet her spirit has survived. She declared victory over Death and she lives as an immortal person in the hearts of Indians and gives them a sense of Pride and Identity.
In the West, attitudes have been slowly changing. The law may permit euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide under very special circumstances that affect the quality of life of an individual.
THE PROBLEM OF SUICIDE IN THE ARMED FORCES:
Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. While serving as Medical Officer of the Indian Army Medical Corps, I provided Comprehensive Health Care to troops and their families. The concept of Fitness to Fight includes both Physical Fitness and Mental Fitness. The goal is to keep troops Fighting Fit at all times and under all conditions that may impose physical, psychological, social, or biological Stress. Indian Tradition has always paid attention to the well-being of all aspects of health and it includes Moral well-being and spiritual well-being of the man. During the years I served, the incidence of Suicidal Death in Indian Armed Forces was minimal.
To members of the Armed Forces, the problem of suicide is of special significance. The Armed Forces as a military establishment have a very challenging and difficult duty to perform. It has to conserve man-power, keep up the morale of its troops, and retain its fighting abilities and capacities at all times, both during peace and during the war. In ethical, and moral terms, Armed Forces believe in the act of killing and accepts the inevitability of causing deaths during the conduct of military operations. Armed Forces also actively prepares its members to overcome the fear of death and willingly exposes its members to the risks of getting killed both for the purposes of training and during actual combat situations.
A soldier is not expected to kill himself to escape from the stress of his military duty and at the same time, he must retain a very high level of motivation to kill the enemy and be willing to get killed in the performance of his task.
Armed Forces selects its members with due care and chooses people with preformed stress resistance and further uses training as a tool to build up the stress resistance level of its members. The qualities of valor, duty, and honor define the essence and the Spirit of Service. Armed Forces members must exist to display their essence.
I participated in the military operations that were conducted in the Chittagong Hill Tracts during the India-Pakistan War of 1971. I encouraged men to overcome stress and promoted the value of stress resistance. Kindly refer to my blog post titled ‘The Victory over Death – The Psychology of Warfare.
THE PREVALENCE OF SUICIDE:
Suicide has become much more common and it ranks as the second or third most common cause of death during adolescence. Suicide is also most pronounced in the older age. The rate of suicide is greatest between the ages of 35 and 75 years with a peak at about the age of 55 years. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, in the year 2007, suicide was the third leading cause of death for young people ages 15 to 24. Among ages 65 and older, of every 100,000 people, 14.3 died by suicide in the year 2007. This figure is higher than the national average of 11.3 suicides per 100,000 people in the general population.
THE WARNING SIGNS OF SUICIDE:
Suicide constitutes the greatest risk in manic-depressive psychosis. During both depression, and mania, the psychotic individual shows no insight into the abnormal nature of his mood. Depression is a major symptom of neurosis. Attacks of depression are characterized by signs that the person has deep feelings of melancholia ( sadness ). The sufferer typically looks unhappy, he feels hopeless and worthless, considers his life a torment. The depressed individual may experience a desire to punish himself by self-destruction and may directly or indirectly express such feelings or thoughts.
The American Society for Suicide Prevention posted these warning signs of suicide, and signs of depression:- Unrelenting low mood, pessimism, hopelessness, desperation, anxiety, psychic pain, inner tension, withdrawal, sleep problems, increased alcohol or other drug use, recent impulsiveness & taking unnecessary risks, threatening suicide or expression of a strong desire or wish to die, making a plan, giving away prized possessions, sudden or impulsive purchase of a firearm, obtaining other means of killing oneself such as poisons or medications, unexpected rage or anger. Changes in attitude, personal behavior could be always discovered and the individual who is at the risk of taking his life could be helped by simple observation.
THE CAUSES OF SUICIDE:
Current research and thinking on suicide tend to view biological, psychological, social-structural, and social-situational factors as interacting with each other. Sociological theories of suicide usually emphasize the importance of either the social structure or the social situations, and the cultural pressures that individuals face. Psychological theories emphasize personality and cognitive factors.
THE SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY OF SUICIDE:
Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. EMILE DURKHEIM (April 1858 to November 1917 ) is considered to be the founder of the French School of Sociology.
Emile Durkheim in his paper ‘Le Suicide’ published in 1897, had tried to explain the apparent and purely individual decision to renounce life as a product of social forces or ‘social functionalism’. He had introduced the term ‘anomie’ or anomy. Suicide results from the breakdown of social standards that people need to regulate their behavior. A failed society produces in its members a sense of futility, lack of purpose, emotional emptiness, and despair. Anomie is a condition of relative normlessness of a society or social group. It may also mean a state of mind of a person who has no standards or sense of continuity or obligation to maintain his social bonds.
THE PERSONALITY THEORY OF SUICIDE:
The desire to escape depression is the most frequently cited motivation to explain suicide. A personality factor could be involved in persons who believe that suicide constitutes a solution to the problems that they may be facing. The suicide victim’s ideas, beliefs, and ways of thinking have a causal relationship with an underlying personality. The way people view their problems can produce a greater or lesser tendency to depression and suicide.
THE QUEST FOR AUTHENTIC EXISTENCE:
Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. Philosopher, Nobel Laureate Jean-Paul Sartre recommended the quest for authentic existence. He claimed that Suicide is absurd; it is absurd to get rid of what man is (etre-en-soi) as the true subjectivity of man (etre-pour-soi)disappears at the same time.
The Existentialists suggest that a person must find a situation in which he finds his true significance. In his Existentialist book, ‘Being and Nothingness’, philosopher and Nobel laureate Jean-Paul Sartre divides the being( the existing reality ) into two categories. One category is called being-in-itself (etre-en-soi ) and it may describe the essence of the man, the sum of the intrinsic properties without which a thing would cease to be what it is. The second category is being-for-itself ( etre-pour-soi ) which comprises the being that has thoughts, feelings, and consciousness. The being-for-itself exists only when it is supported by the being-in-itself. Existentialists view the man in terms of his existing thoughts and actions rather than in terms of his essence. According to Sartre, man’s own existence is always attempting to overcome a radical estrangement between man as the object of scientific study or man himself (etre-en-soi ) and the subjectivity man knows in his thoughts and consciousness (etre-pour-soi ). A man’s life in the world and his social transactions often conceal his true subjectivity. A sense of authentic existence is given to each person when he realizes his true subjectivity as a being that is conscious. Sartre claimed that suicide is a final act of absurdity. Suicide is absurd; for in getting rid of what man is (etre-en-soi ), the true subjectivity of man (etre-pour-soi) also disappears at the same time.
THE PREVENTION OF SUICIDE:
There is no single approach that could be expected to succeed in substantially reducing the incidence of suicide. However, it will not be incorrect to claim that suicide is 100 percent preventable. The act of killing oneself or the action called suicide is totally preventable even when suicidal thoughts may not be preventable. If an individual’s mind is engaged in suicidal thoughts, it may not be possible to prevent those thoughts as the thoughts have already originated. I may succeed in preventing the individual from acting upon his suicidal thoughts. As long as a man knows his thoughts, and would not let his thoughts overwhelm him, man can lead a normal life even when the mind engages in ideas or thoughts about suicide.
STAY INFORMED AND STAY CONNECTED:
Spirituality Science–September is Suicide Awareness Month. Suicide is totally preventable if a man seeks information about his ‘essence'(true or real Self) and the connection, bonding, partnership, relationship, association, or ‘yoking’ with an external agency that supports his existence.
To help prevent suicide, I would like to keep the man informed by sharing the following information, and the man must reflect upon the nature of ‘connection’ that sustains man’s existence in the physical world.
EXISTENCE PRECEDES ESSENCE:
Existence is the state of being in the world of actuality. The essence is the most significant part of a thing’s nature, the sum of the intrinsic properties without which a thing would cease to be what it is.
What is the fundamental nature or quality that is important or essential to define the true substance of the man? To understand human essence, a human being must be defined as a physical, mental, social, moral, spiritual, and rational being. The subjective reality of man’s existence precedes and defines man’s essence. Existence is the first priority and must be preserved if a man wants to define his nature or essence. To defend human existence, the physical, the mental, the social, the moral, the spiritual, and the rational well-being of man must be defended.
As I have mentioned before, Indian tradition honors the man who may define his moral, or spiritual essence by putting an end to his physical existence. That is the only exception to the rule.
The rule is; human existence does not depend upon the contents of man’s thoughts, feelings, desires, emotions, self-pride or ego. Man must always strive to rationally understand and evaluate his thoughts, feelings, desires, moods, emotions, and self-pride and should not act upon them to compromise his existence which is truly independent of such factors that impact human life. If I think that I must live for two hundred years, the thoughts about a long life span would not change the basis for my biological existence. Similarly, if I think that I must kill myself, the suicidal thought does not alter the basis for my biological existence. Suicidal thoughts do not describe the human essence. A stress-resistant individual would have the ability to investigate and reflect upon his suicidal thoughts and trace the reason for such thoughts. Stress is a problem that is associated with identity and individuality. The human person is a multicellular organism and man must know as to how the human organism establishes its identity and its individuality. While man seeks to define his essence in terms of his identity, the organism seeks to identify the Individual for whose existence the cells perform functions to support.
IDENTITY AND INDIVIDUALITY – TWO SIDES OF THE SAME COIN:
Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. If Essence describes one facet of the coin, Existence describes the second face of the same coin.
Spirituality Science – September is Suicide Awareness Month. If Identity is described by one side of the coin, Individuality is described by the second side of the same coin.
Mental health is related to the understanding of identity and individuality. We need to understand as to how identity and individuality are established in the multicellular human organism.
My mind may define my identity in one manner and my human organism may establish my identity in a different manner. My mind may seek my identity from my thoughts, intellectual information & knowledge, emotions, and false ego. These four aspects of mental activities or functions are named in the Indian tradition as Manas, Buddhi, Chitta, and Ahamkara. These four mental activities are together named as Mano Chatushtayam or AntaHkaranam. Indian tradition asks people to recognize that the true identity of the individual does not pertain to these four aspects of human brain activities.
The attempts by a man to establish his identity on the basis of his morphological appearance, anthropomorphic data, biometric information, race, ethnicity, gender, religion, language, occupation, or nationality/ place of origin have no biological relevance if strictly evaluated in terms of supporting the existence of that human individual.
The man exists as long as he has the ability to defend his individuality and maintains the integrity of the various physiological/metabolic activities that support the vital functions that impart the quality or condition called Life and keeps the organism living. In the human organism, this functional unity is maintained by an anatomical structure called Brain Stem. Man lives as an individual while the functions of the Brain Stem are intact and a man dies if functional activity is not found in the Brain Stem. Man can seek any kind of identity if he could maintain the individuality that the Brain Stem supports.
Man is free to change his morphological appearance, can change his sexual identity, can change occupation, speak a different language, change his place of residence, practice a different religion or no religion, and can change the nature of his personal relationships with others while he maintains his individuality as a living organism. A man must be always conscious of his individuality which demands that he exists as a distinct entity from his mind and its mental activities.
A man could be aware of the presence of suicidal thoughts engaged by his mind and yet maintain his separation from those thoughts. A man who seeks to exist as an individual will have no problem in resisting his thoughts, feelings, emotions, and mood changes. Such mental activities would not overwhelm or overpower the person.
The problem of stress will not go away. However, the man can become stress-resistant. Such stress resistance from psychogenic stimuli is the key for prevention of suicide. The man who is facing challenging life situations represents just one side of the coin, and on the second side is represented the man who maintains his individuality as a human organism. This separation of identity from individuality gives us the scope to make people stress-resistant and to avoid the psychological compulsions of suicidal thoughts. When this separation is established, a man would not act in ways that could harm him in body or mind. To promote mental health, to prevent the consequences of mental disease, we need to give the tools to people to understand and define individuality and identity as two separate aspects of the same coin.
THE ‘SELF’ AND THE ‘KNOWING-SELF’:
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE–THE ART OF SELF-DISCIPLINE AND SUICIDE PREVENTION. THE CONCEPT OF SELF AND THE KNOWING-SELF WILL HELP TO PRACTICE SELF-RESTRAINT, SELF-CONTROL, AND SELF-DISCIPLINE.
The living human being could be divided into two categories. One category could be called ‘SELF’ that may be compared to Sartre’s being-in-itself or etre-en-soi. The ‘SELF’ represents man’s state of existence as the physical, mental, and social being. Both Rene Descartes and Jean-Paul Sartre divide man into two categories; 1. a physical or inert substance that has no thoughts, feelings, or consciousness, and 2. the mind that has thoughts, feelings, and is a conscious entity. Sartre further named the second as the Being-for-itself or etre-pour-soi which is capable of making decisions and giving man the freedom to act according to his free will. I do not subscribe to the views held by Descartes or Sartre and I would not seek separation of mind and body into two distinct categories. Man is a multicellular organism; the body cannot exist without a mind/brain and the mind/brain cannot exist without a body which has vital organs like lungs, heart, liver, and kidneys. The body and the mind/brain have to function together. I have also stated my view about consciousness. Please visit the page titled, “I AM CONSCIOUSNESS, THEREFORE I AM”
Consciousness is not an exclusive psychological function. Consciousness is a biological function that is shared by all living cells which display the attributes such as recognition, sensitiveness, coordination, cooperation, functional awareness, and awareness of the external and internal environment and condition.
The category that I call ‘SELF’ represents the physical self with various organs and tissues and the mental self which represents mental activities associated with thinking, intellect/knowledge, emotions, feelings, moods, and ego or self-pride. The ‘SELF’ may describe the essence or nature, or identity of the man in terms of the man’s own mental awareness and of other people in his environment. The second category that I describe could be called the ‘KNOWING-SELF’. The ‘Knowing-Self’ is aware or conscious of its state and the fact of its own biological existence. It may not always be aware of its external environment. A man who is in a state of sound sleep, a man who is under the influence of drugs, chemicals, or pharmacological agents like anesthetics, or a person with a head injury loses some components of the function called consciousness. However, a man at all times of his living condition is conscious of his internal condition/environment, maintains the state of equilibrium or homeostasis, and supports the vital functions that define his individuality as an organism. The category called the ‘Knowing-Self’ is related to the individuality and in the multicellular human organism this function is served by the Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem which gives the person the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’. Man needs the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ to compose the ‘Contents of Consciousness’. In the absence of the ‘Capacity for Consciousness’, man has no ‘Contents of Consciousness’ and could be declared dead if the function called ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ is not sustained.
The ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ is essential for man’s biological existence. The ‘Capacity for Consciousness’ is required for a man to exist as a moral, spiritual, and rational being. The man exists with an intrinsic ability to discern right from wrong and exists because of his spiritual nature which gives him the ability to acquire and manipulate energy for his various metabolic, living functions. The category called ‘Self’ may experience all the difficult, and challenging situations posed by life, and the category called the ‘Knowing-Self’ is not subject to these sensory or mental experiences that impact the ‘Self’.
THE GOD CONNECTION:
The man must recognize that his biological existence depends upon energy acquisition. Man lives energy-dependent existence and must acquire energy from external sources right from the beginning of his life journey, that is, from the moment of conception. The man does not acquire this energy because of his intellectual effort, or acquired knowledge. The fertilized ‘Egg Cell’ is conscious of its energy dependence and it implants itself into the tissues of the mother who may not be mentally aware of this process called implantation by which the human embryo starts deriving energy from its mother. The embryo grows and develops into a complex, multicellular organism and continues to derive energy from external sources. This ‘CONNECTION’ between the energy-seeker and the energy-provider could be called ‘GOD CONNECTION’.
The man has no ability to formulate this kind of energy acquisition capacity for his survival in the natural world. The Sun is the source of extraterrestrial or Cosmic Power, and the Solar Energy is trapped by chloroplasts found in the cells of all green plants. This energy is further made available to the man by the presence of intracellular organelles called mitochondria which are described as the powerhouses of the cells. The man has no direct control on the nature of this ‘Connection’ and its operation. The man simply exists as there is a Provider for his energy requirements.
In good health or ill-health, under all circumstances and conditions, and during all the stages of his mortal existence, the man needs Divine Grace, Mercy, and Compassion to keep himself alive. Providence is a supernatural mechanism or a ‘God Connection’ that supports man while he leads his energy-dependent existence. Man who experiences this compassion, mercy, and grace that is sustaining his life would derive a sense of joy and experiences the condition called true happiness. A man who has discovered true happiness cannot experience a mood called depression.
It is really hard to kill oneself while the man is connected to a source of Happiness. The man must experience this sense of Joy and Happiness and realize its uplifting power to alter any depressed feeling or mood. If pain is an inevitable aspect of human life, so also compassion is an inescapable aspect of human existence. Just like pain, compassion also provides an equally true life experience. I invite people to find Compassion, Mercy, and Grace of the Divine Providence in their living experience. It would be irrational or absurd to break the God Connection by the act called Suicide.
I have been demanding for a long time to give public recognition to the fallen soldiers of Special Frontier Force. Finally, on September 07, 2020, Company Leader Nyima Tenzin of Special Frontier Force has departed from us with due public honor.This is the first time a Tibetan’s sacrifice is known to all of India.
MONDAY, MAY 25, 2020 – THE UNKNOWN SOLDIER OF AMERICA PAYS TRIBUTE TO THE UNMOURNED FREEDOM FIGHTERS OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE
India’s Special frontier force’s Tibetan soldier Nyima Tenzin cremated with full public honor
With his body wrapped in Indian and Tibetan flags, Tenzin was cremated as the atmosphere reverberated with slogans like “Bharat Mata Ki Jai”, “We salute Indian army”. The Indian National anthem was also sung along with and the anthem of Tibetan Government in Exile which is considered as the Tibetan National Anthem written in 1950.
Senior Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Ram Madhav’s presence at the official funeral of a Tibetan soldier from the secretive Special Frontier Force (SFF) on Monday created a flutter in diplomatic and political circles amid the border standoff with China.
The funeral of SFF Company Leader Nyima Tenzin, killed in a landmine blast in an operation along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) during August 29-30, was held at Leh in the union territory of Ladakh. The funeral cortege was joined by scores of cars and motorcycles and people waving the Indian and Tibetan flags.
Tenzin’s coffin, carried in an army truck, was draped in the Indian tricolor and Tibetan flag, which were handed over to his widow at the funeral. Experts noted this was probably the first time an SFF personnel who died in action was given a public funeral, complete with military honors and a volley of shots by a ceremonial guard.
Following the protocol for those killed in action, Indian Army troops folded the two flags and handed them over to Tenzin’s wife. Tenzin had 33 years of service in the SFF. He leaves behind his wife and three children. This is the first time a Tibetan’s sacrifice is known to all of India. Tenzin Yangkey, a student, said that they came to the funeral to pay tributes to a man who sacrificed his life for India. “We are all proud of him,” Yangkey said.
During the operation, another junior soldier Tenzin Loden, 24, was critically injured in the same explosion, and is currently undergoing treatment at the military hospital in Ladakh. The injured Tenzin Loden is from the same settlement.
BJP national general secretary Madhav posted photos of the funeral and paid tribute to Tenzin on Twitter but subsequently deleted the tweet. Screenshots of his tweet, which were widely shared, showed he had posted: “Attended [the] funeral of SFF Coy Ldr Nyima Tenzin, a Tibetan who laid down his life protecting our borders in Ladakh, and laid a wreath as a tribute. Let [the] sacrifices of such valiant soldiers bring peace along the Indo-Tibetan border. That will be [the] real tribute to all martyrs.”
People present at the funeral shouted slogans such as “Bharat Mata ki jai”, “Tibet desh ki jai”, “Vikas Regiment zindabad” and “We salute Tenzin”. SFF is also known as Establishment 22 and Vikas Regiment. Banners put up at the funeral site by SFF ex-servicemen described Tenzin as a soldier who “sacrificed his life to protect his second homeland India fighting common enemy China”.
Madhav spoke to the media at the funeral, saying in Hindi that he hoped Tenzin’s sacrifice “will bring peace to the border” and that “efforts are on to end the tension”. He added, “We hope peace will be restored soon.”
People familiar with developments said Madhav hadn’t attended the funeral as a representative of the government. On Sunday, Madhav began a two-day visit to Ladakh, a union territory that was carved out of the erstwhile state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose special status was scrapped in August 2019.
However, the move marks a shift from the government’s reported decision in early 2018 asking officials and leaders to skip events which were being organised at the time to mark the Dalai Lama’s 60 years in exile. As the government worked to improve ties with China, especially through the mechanism of informal summits, the Tibet issue was largely sidelined.
SFF was raised with former Tibetan guerrillas in 1962 and went on to see action during the 1971 war with Pakistan that led to the creation of Bangladesh and the 1999 Kargil conflict. It is led by army officers and most of its personnel are men of Tibetan origin.
Amitabh Mathur, a former special secretary in the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) who advised the government on issues related to Tibet, said it made sense for India to use a force such as SFF in the current scenario because of the special skills of its personnel. “They are used to operating at high altitudes and it would be an enormous waste if they are kept away from the terrain where they are most useful,” he said.
However, he said the Indian side will have to ensure that their use is followed up with other messages that reach the overall Tibetan community and a consistent policy. “There has to be some sort of gesture, an overt sign and this message should reach the Tibetans in Tibet,” he added.
MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 07, 2020. LABOR DAY MUSINGS. CURSED IS THE GROUND WHERE THE MAN IS DENIED THE RETIREMENT INCOME BENEFITS
In the United States, Labor activists, and Labor Unions made great progress to defend the rights of Working Class. Unfortunately, President Bill Clinton undermined this progress by approving legislation that took away the dignity of unskilled, hourly wage earners who legally work in the US paying the Federal, State, and the Local taxes apart from making contributions to Social Security and Medicare like any other US citizen who pays taxes. President Clinton on August 22, 1996, signed into law, Public Law 104-193, ‘The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act’ (PRWORA) which places restrictions on the payments of monthly retirement income benefits to alien workers in the US under Title II of the Social Security Act. Refer to Section 401(b) (2) of PRWORA.
For many unskilled, hourly wage earners performing labor in the US, the American Workplace is defined as Work until Death for they have no Retirement option. The American Workplace of the alien worker who labors in America with no Retirement option derives its definition from the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, verses 17 to 19.
I ask my readers to reflect upon the awful consequences of President Clinton’s actions on this Labor Day. Apart from the alien workers, the ground gets cursed with consequences to all its denizens. The Clinton Curse compels Americans to live and work paying off their foreign debt. This nation runs its government on money borrowed from other nations.
An illustration of the first Labor Day parade, via Wiki Commons
Though Labor Day has been embraced as a national holiday–albeit one many Americans don’t know the history of–it originated right here in New York City. The holiday is a result of the city’s labor unions fighting for worker’s rights throughout the 1800s. The event was first observed, unofficially, on Tuesday, September 5th, 1882, with thousands marching from City Hall up to Union Square. At the time, the New York Times considered the event to be unremarkable. But 135 years later, we celebrate Labor Day on the first Monday of every September as a tribute to all American workers. It’s also a good opportunity to recognize the hard-won accomplishments of New York unions to secure a better workplace for us today.
According to Untapped Cities, the holiday has its roots in a common 19th-century tradition in which laborers held picnics and parades to draw awareness to worker’s rights. Organized unions emerged from there, and New York City became a hotbed for labor activists by the Industrial Revolution of the 1880s.
Back then, laborers were fighting against low wages, unfair hours, child labor and unsafe working environments. (Most workers at the time worked six days a week, 10 or 12 hours a day, and Sunday was the only day off. There were no paid vacations, no sick days and very few breaks during a day.) Two labor groups, the Knights of Labor and the Tailor’s Union, established a city-wide trade consortium–known as the Central Labor Union of New York, Brooklyn, and Jersey City, or the CLU–in January of 1882 to promote similar goals. They called for things like fair wages, an eight-hour workday and an end to child labor. The group also proposed that for one day a year, the country celebrates American workers with parades and celebrations. The CLU went ahead and organized the first parade for the September 5th of that year.
According to Brownstoner, two different men within the labor movement were credited for the parade. Matthew Maguire, a machinist, first proposed a holiday and parade in 1882. He was the secretary of the CLU. But that same year, Peter J. McGuire, co-founder of the American Federation of Labor, also proposed a parade. The debate between the original founder of Labor Day was never settled, though Matthew Maguire usually gets the credit.
The parade began outside City Hall, with the CLU advertising it as a display of the “strength and esprit de corps of the trade and labor organizations.” It was important to the event that the men gave up a day’s pay to partake in the festivities. And they did arrive in droves, with banners and signs with slogans like “NO MONEY MONOPOLY” and “LABOR BUILT THIS REPUBLIC AND LABOR SHALL RULE IT.”
No drinking was allowed at the parade, which featured everyone from the Jewelers Union of Newark to the typographical union, which was known as ‘The Big Six.’ Along the route, which passed Canal Street on its way to Union Square, hundreds of seamstresses hung out the windows cheering the procession, blowing kisses and waving their handkerchiefs. It’s said as many as 20,000 men marched that day.
The party after the marchers hit Union Square was celebratory, according to the New York history book Gotham. Here’s a passage from the book: Finally, after passing by a reviewing stand filled with labor dignitaries, the participants adjourned, via the elevated, to an uptown picnic at Elm Park. There they danced to jigs by Irish fiddlers and pipers and were serenaded by the Bavarian Mountain Singers while the flags of Ireland, Germany, France, and the USA flapped in the autumn air.
Labor Day parade float in New York City, early 20th century, via New York Department of Labor Labor parades began in other cities around the county, and for a while, the day was known as “the workingman’s holiday.” By 1886, several cities had an annual parade, with the legislation in the works to make the day a state holiday. Though New York was the first state to introduce a bill to make the holiday official, Oregon was the first to actually pass it as law in 1887. New York quickly followed suit that same year, as did New Jersey, Massachusetts, and Colorado.
Labor unions, of course, went on to secure rights like the eight-hour workday, collective bargaining, health insurance, retirement funds, and better wages. These days, the holiday is better known as a marker to the end of summer than a celebration of the working class. But it’s a nice reminder such hard-fought battles, which brought accomplishments that now define the American workplace, took root in New York.
I served in the Indian Army and the very first posting of my service gave me the opportunity to join the Tibetan Resistance Movement inheriting the concept of a ‘Soldier for Life’. In my analysis, the Biden statement on Tibet is not adequate. China cannot be contained just by giving verbal assurances of promoting the Tibetan Human Rights. The military occupation of Tibet must be resisted. The military occupier of Tibet must be evicted. This military mission cannot be accomplished without giving India strong support along the Himalayan Frontier. The US in the past has failed to engage China’s military power. Most recently, the Trump administration has changed the course and the direction of the US Policy in Kashmir. In my analysis, President Trump has displayed a better understanding of the great Tibet Problem. China cannot be pushed aside without pushing the Dragon out of Kashmir.
Biden says he will meet Dalai Lama, sanction China over Tibet
The nominee also vowed to impose sanctions on Chinese officials responsible for human rights abuses in Tibet and “step up” support for Tibetans.
WORLD Updated: Sep 05, 2020 08:06 IST
Yashwant Raj Hindustan Times, Washington
Joe Biden, the Democratic presidential nominee, has said that as president he will meet the Dalai Lama, continuing a decades-old practice followed by American presidents with the exception of President Donald Trump, and press China to resume talks with Tibetans for “meaningful autonomy”.
The nominee also vowed to impose sanctions on Chinese officials responsible for human rights abuses in Tibet and “step up” support for Tibetans.
Biden accused Trump of maintaining a “deafening silence” on Chinese actions in Tibet and focusing instead on an “empty trade deal” and nurturing his “very good friendship” with China’s President Xi Jinping.
“As President, I’ll put values back at the center of American foreign policy,” Biden said in a statement Thursday. “I’ll meet with His Holiness the Dalai Lama; appoint a new Special Coordinator for Tibetan issues.”
The nominee called out Trump for not meeting the Tibetan leader yet, saying “It’s disgraceful, though not surprising, that Trump is the first American president in three decades who has not met or spoken with His Holiness the Dalai Lama”.
The appointment of a special coordinator is mandated by the US Tibetan Policy Act of 2002 — “to promote substantive dialogue between the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Dalai Lama or his representative”. The position has been vacant since January 2017, when President Trump took office.
Biden went on to say: “I’ll work with our allies in pressing Beijing to return to direct dialogue with the representatives of the Tibetan people to achieve meaningful autonomy, respect for human rights, and the preservation of Tibet’s environment as well as its unique cultural, linguistic and religious traditions.”
He will also “step up” support for the Tibetan people, he said, by, among things, expanding Tibetan language services at Radio Free Asia and Voice of America to get information from the outside world into Tibet.
But the Trump administration has not been soft exactly on China over Tibet, as charged by Biden. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo announced visa restrictions in July on some Chinese officials because of Beijing’s restrictions on US diplomats, journalists and tourists from travelling to Tibet and for “human rights abuses” there.
September 05, 2020. My thoughts on President Radhakrishnan’s Birthday
September 05, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday is celebrated as Teacher’s Day in India. On Saturday, September 05, 2020, I want to share my reflections on my Mylapore, Madras, Chennai Family Connections. This relationship connects several important events of my life’s journey. I believe in the doctrine of predestination, I can trace my life’s journey as a series of predetermined events.
In my analysis, time and place are of equal importance in the formulation of predetermined events. I shall discuss the role of time and place in the context of three issues; 1. Birth Place, 2. Relationships, for example, Radhakrishnan worked in Presidency College, Madras where my father studied and worked, and 3. Final Destination.
Mylapore, Madras, Chennai, my birthplace predetermined my connection to Radhakrishnan as well as my connection to my wife who is also born on the fifth day of September.
Radhakrishnan studied in Madras Christian College and later worked in Presidency College, Madras. My wife talks about Madras Christian College for her father, and four of her brothers studied there. In February 1973, just after I got married, I visited Madras Christian College along with my wife to meet her younger brother who was studying there for his Master of Science degree.
My father studied in Presidency College, Madras and later worked there during my early childhood years spent in Mylapore. Apart from Radhakrishnan, his son, Sarvepalli Gopal also worked in Presidency College.
My Relationships In October 1962, my connection to Radhakrishnan was shaped by Communist China’s attack on India across the Himalayan Frontier. On one hand the Spirit of Nationalism inspired me to serve in the Indian Army, and on the other hand, it profoundly influenced my thinking about choosing a life partner. At the same time, the 1962 India-China War prepared a very special place to render my military service while I was still a college student. In September 1969, I was granted the Short Service Regular Commission to serve in the Indian Army Medical Corps. My educational career prepared me for this role as well as giving me the opportunity to find a partner who accepted my passion to serve in the Olive-Green military uniform. I got married in January 1973 while I was serving at Doom Dooma, Tinsukia District, Assam in SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22, a special military organization founded in 1962.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.
The military organization is known as Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 came into its existence during the presidency of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.
Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (05 September 1888 to 17 April 1975), the second President of the Republic of India is known to me from my early childhood. His daughter (Rukmini) was married to my maternal grandfather’s younger brother who also lived in Mylapore.
My maternal grandfather, Dr Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who worked as Professor of Medicine in Madras Medical College lived at 2/37 Kutchery Road, Mylapore. I was born at my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence daily. At that time, Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India (1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956. In India’s Capital City of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The Institution of the Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.
Since 1962, India instituted Radhakrishnan’s birthday (05 September) as Teacher’s Day. Since that time, every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and my father who belonged to the teaching profession. Radhakrishnan correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice. In 1962, during his Presidency, India bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.
INDIA–TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:
The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha (Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image.
Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to the People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The President of India, Dr Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche.
The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China makes a great impact upon the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.
India achieved its full independence from the British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s Ambassador to the Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President. He served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962.
India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when the People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War to contain the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not obtain direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951, Communist China imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement to justify its illegal and unjust military occupation of Tibet.
It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ch’ing Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s full Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 49-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the founding of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.
The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking meeting with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung.
Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries despite sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs. Tibetans retained their traditional style of governance through the Institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government which ruled Tibet for four centuries.
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President.
Both India and Tibet strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.
A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honor the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi.
Both India and Tibet desired friendly and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.
India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.
While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheel” Agreement of 1954 between India and People’s Republic of China had recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.
Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence (PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Dr Rajendra Prasad (first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
Indian Vice President Dr Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22:
The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation called ST CIRCUS.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010, was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang (Nepal) Operation.
During 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North-East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Indian President Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
THE 1962 INDIA–CHINA WAR:
I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded or killed in action. China paid a heavy price and utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards a better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it with a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.
The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962, and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.
THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22:
President John F. Kennedy had immediately responded to the Chinese attack on India. Apart from delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.
The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.
1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.
2. The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing (RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.
3. India started increasing its own defense-preparedness and strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.
4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack and decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.
5. India, Tibet, and the United States joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which has come to be known as the Special Frontier Force with its official Headquarters in New Delhi.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.
The History of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.
PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORIC VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:
After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s personal health demanded a serious attention and President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy, and the visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. The historic visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
The history of Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy and Radhakrishnan.
I met Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement in May 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would take me to Special Frontier Force, Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency.
In India, Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and a statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22, Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras (Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.
The history of Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.
A PRAYER TO LORD GANESHA FOR SUCCESS THROUGH OBEDIENCE AND HUMILITY
The annual festival of Ganesha Chaturthi marks the birth of Lord Ganesha, the son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. It involves 10 days of celebration and takes place in the Bhadrapada month as per the Hindu calendar. The auspicious festival begins on August 22 this year, which is a Saturday. The festival inaugurates with people bringing or making clay idols (murtis) of the Lord, and concludes on the day of Anant Chaturdashi, when the idol is submerged in the nearest body of water, called Ganesha visarjan.
Lord Ganesha is one of the most worshiped deities among Indian Hindus. Also known as Vinayaka or Ganpati, the elephant God is revered as the God of beginnings and the remover of obstacles.
Indian Cultural Traditions offer tools for Success in all dimensions of Life including health, education, employment, social status and social relationships. The Formula For Success is simple; perform all tasks making an estimate to take care of negative consequences or outcomes, and plan for roadblocks or obstacles in the planning stage of executing any action. Indians initiate actions seeking Blessings of Lord Ganesha for their desire for Success in Life should not be directed by intellectual pride or arrogant use of physical or material power.
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
The Campaign to Repeal the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 is not about giving citizenship rights to non-citizens. It is about upholding the Supreme Law of the Land to abolish bondage, servitude, and slavery. The Reconstruction of America is not yet over. Slavery re-appeared in this Land in a new form and remains hidden or unnoticed. ‘The Clinton Curse’ explains as to why the United States failed on August 22, 1996. The Curse reveals the nature of The Beast that is waiting to overtake this nation.
THE CLINTON CURSE – THE BEAST IS WAITING TO OVERTAKE THE UNITED STATES
WHERE IS PROTECTION FOR MAN DURING THE GOLDEN YEARS OF HIS LIFE? HOW TO SURVIVE THE CLINTON CURSE?
THE GREAT AWAKENING MOVEMENT. SPIRITUAL WARFARE AGAINST THE CLINTON CURSE
A NEW BEGINNING IN AUGUST 1996 TO BALANCE THE BUDGET – RECOGNIZE REALITY OF THE CLINTON CURSE. AN ECONOMIC DISASTER SET IN MOTION
PRESIDENT CLINTON’S NEW BEGINNING IN 1996.
ECONOMIC OPPRESSION OF ALIEN WORKERS
On August 22, 1996, US President Bill Clinton (Democrat) signed into Law that reintroduced Slavery, Involuntary Servitude, Serfdom and Forced Labor in the pretext of making ‘A New Beginning’.
Welfare Reform Act or Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) is unjust and unfair for it violates Constitutional Law that defends natural rights of all people living in United States. All US taxpayers must be treated as equals for receiving retirement income benefits for which they paid taxes. President Clinton’s action constitutes a transgression of President Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation that saved US Non-Citizens or Aliens from the indignity of Slavery.
EXPOSING THE CLINTON CURSE – TRAVESTY OF EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION IS THE UNDERLYING CAUSE OF 2020 ECONOMIC DISASTER
NATURAL LAW vs MAN MADE LAW – CLINTON’S SLAVERY MANDATE IS CONTEMPT OF OVER 600,000 AMERICANS WHO DIED BECAUSE OF SLAVERY
US CONGRESS MUST DO THE RIGHT THING TO SAVE AMERICA FROM THE CLINTON CURSE, THE ECONOMIC DISASTER OF 2020.
I ask my readers to review 43-word 13th Amendment and tell me if those words still govern, rule, and operate the lives of all people, wage earners who perform labor in the US paying taxes. My readers should not be surprised if I describe the US Congress as “Slave Driver.” The reason for my claim is based on the ‘PRWORA’ enacted by the US Congress in 1996 amending The US Social Security Act of 1935. This legal provision enacted by 104th US Congress is incorporated as Section 202(y) of the Social Security Act. It mandates that no Retirement Income benefits shall be payable to registered alien(non-citizen) taxpayers in the United States without showing proof of lawful residency as determined by the Attorney General. In my view, the Social Security Administration must not demand a document such as an unexpired Employment Authorization Document (EAD if an alien worker has attained full retirement age as determined by law.
Social Security Act, Section 202(y) violates the principle enshrined in those 43 words called the 13th Amendment. This 1996 amendment to the Social Security Act is fundamentally flawed for it is unconstitutional. It takes away the property rights (earnings, wages, and retirement income) of individuals who paid Federal, State, Local, Social Security and Medicare Taxes working in this country to attain full retirement age.
The Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln (Republican) in September 1862 came into effect on January 01, 1863 freeing slaves in all territory still at War with the Union.
These slaves were not citizens of the Land and had no political rights of their own. In Law, Servitude or Slavery refers to the burden imposed upon the property of a person by a specified right another has in its use. Servitude involves labor in which the person who performs labor has no right to his earnings from labor. The Emancipation Proclamation specifically protects, defends, preserves and safeguards rights of aliens or non-citizens residing in the United States.
The amended Social Security Act unfairly gives power to the Social Security Administration to withhold the property (wages, earnings, monthly retirement income benefits) of alien workers who are not convicted felons. In my analysis, the Social Security Act of 1935 amended in 1996 fails to enshrine the guiding principles clearly stated in the US Constitution, the Supreme Law of this Land.
I ask my readers to make the distinction between Social Security Tax and Monthly Retirement Benefit. The first represents tax paid to the government and the second represents earning or wage entitled to a retired person to provide income and security during old age.
The 150th Anniversary of the 13th Amendment on December 9, 2015.
Speaker Ryan’s Press Office
WASHINGTON – Earlier today, at a ceremony in Emancipation Hall of the United States Capitol Visitor Center, President Obama and leaders of Congress commemorated the 150th anniversary of the 13th amendment to the Constitution. Following are House Speaker Paul Ryan’s (R-WI) remarks at the ceremony, as prepared for delivery:
The Thirteenth Amendment is just 43 words long. It is so short that, when you read it, you can almost miss the whole significance. You have to stop and remind yourself that 600,000 people died in the Civil War—600,000 died over 43 words. Or to be more precise, they died in a war that decided whether those 43 words would ever be written.
All said and done, President Clinton’s Evil Plan failed to resolve the problem of National Debt. The Repeal PRWORA Movement exposes President Clinton’s contemptuous violation of Constitutional Principles of equal protection, equal justice and equal treatment under Law.
The US Social Security Administration must either obtain a criminal conviction or designate the septuagenarian Senior Alien as “SLAVE” to withhold the payment of his monthly retirement income benefit.
President Clinton’s Slavery Law of 1996 tramples upon fundamental freedoms and human dignity entitled to all human beings without any concern for their country of origin or citizenship status.
The US Congress can levy taxes but cannot deprive any person of Life, Liberty and Property without the due process of Law. The United States needs the Blessings of LORD God’s Promise to Balance the Budget and to solve the problem of mounting National Debt.
President Clinton’s tricks and gimmicks will utterly ruin and destroy the Nation for he failed to obey the LORD.
In my analysis, India will play the Tibet Card as soon as the United States and the United Kingdom recognize the One-India Policy in Kashmir. India is not waiting for China’s affirmation of the One-India Policy in Kashmir, Sikkim, or Arunachal Pradesh. All said and done, China indeed fears India’s Tibet Card.
India’s options when it comes to Tibet are limited.
By Abhijnan Rej August 18, 2020
In an apparently important development, China’s Foreign Minister Wang Yi visited Tibet on Friday amidst unabated tensions with India over an ill-defined boundary between the two in eastern Ladakh. As the crisis between the two countries crossed the hundred-day mark early this month, during his visit “Wang praised Tibet’s achievements under President Xi Jinping, especially in securing the border with India,” the South China Morning Post reported.
India accepted Tibet as part of China through a 2003 agreement that saw a quid pro quo recognition by China of the Himalayan region of Sikkim as Indian territory. However, growing tensions since the deadly June 15 clash between the Chinese and Indian armies has led many in New Delhi to suggest that India play the “Tibet card” as retaliation to growing Chinese intransigence on the disputed boundary and beyond.
As early as 2010, New Delhi’s commitment to a “One China” policy has been contingent on Beijing maintaining a “One India” stance – official recognition that Arunachal Pradesh (but also, Jammu and Kashmir, as well as Ladakh) form part of the Indian state.
Since then, joint statements between the two countries have not included any explicit reference to Tibet as part of the People’s Republic. Famously, in 2014 then-Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj bluntly told Wang: “Mr. Minister, we support the One China policy. However, we expect you to also have a One India policy.”
Such rhetorical games aside, as The Diplomat’s contributing author Rajeswari Pillai Rajagopalan recently noted, the Modi government in unlikely to radically revisit India’s position on Tibet, for example by officially recognizing the Dalai Lama as a foreign political figure. A move along those lines would be tantamount to reneging on the 2003 agreement in Beijing’s eyes.
That, in turn, could pave the way for China de-recognizing Sikkim as Indian territory – or, more alarmingly from New Delhi’s point of view, Beijing asserting that all of Jammu and Kashmir, as well as Ladakh, are disputed territories. Note that China already considers Arunachal Pradesh as part of “South Tibet.” As strident symbolism, last year it destroyed 30,000 world maps made in China for export for failing to mark the territory as such.
Beyond Beijing’s token territorial assertions, India remains worried that China no longer feels the need to play by the old book. One of the two scuffles between the Indian and Chinese militaries on May 5 was in the Naku La region along the boundary between Sikkim and Tibet, something New Delhi has considered settled in spirit, if not on paper. Beyond this, India continues to worry about a Chinese army presence in Gilgit-Baltistan – a part of Kashmir India claims and Pakistan administers – because that forecloses the possibility of any Indian military action to take it back without drawing China in.
And then there is the fear, on both sides, that the other will resort to war with proxies to assert territorial claims, or at the very least muddle strategic calculations. China most likely remembers that following the 1962 war between the two countries, India set up a guerrilla force of Tibetan rebels.
What probably rankles Beijing (which, under Xi Jinping, seems to wear historical grievances on its sleeves) even more is the fact that covert action against China in Tibet in the 1960s was often a result of active Indian and American collaboration, even when New Delhi – as a matter of official policy – espoused non-alignment. On India’s part, it has long harbored suspicions that separatists in the eastern state of Nagaland have been trained and funded by China in the past. Were India to go down the road it paved almost 60 years ago, China could easily return the favor.
On top of this sits massive, though asymmetric, improvement in infrastructure along the India-China Tibetan boundary, which could facilitate military action by either side; the official reason Beijing provided for Wang’s Tibet visit on Friday was to take stock of “border infrastructure.”
The Tibet card for India – beyond relatively staid diplomatic signalling – is limited. At the same time, the India-China history clearly demonstrates how frontiers for both countries remain major, shared vulnerabilities. Both realize this. Therefore, for the time being, mere optics – such as Wang’s visit to Tibet – will have to make up for the lack of genuine options that carry a bite.
Abhijnan Rej is an independent New Delhi-based security analyst, researcher, and consultant.
Rej’s professional interests span geopolitics and international security. On the geopolitical side, he works on Indian foreign policy and grand strategy, great-power politics, and emerging powers in the international order. On the strategic front, Rej works on Indian national security problems related to China, Pakistan, and the Indo-Pacific, conventional and nuclear deterrence, and Indian defence policy. He is currently co-authoring a book on the geopolitics of the Indo-Pacific, as well as developing a long-term research agenda around the fundamental sciences, emerging technologies, and defence strategy.
Rej was previously Senior Fellow, Strategic Studies, at the Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi. He also has significant work experience as a quantitative researcher in academia and the corporate sector. He has published in The Washington Quarterly, War Room, War on the Rocks, The Interpreter, The National Interest (online), and Global Policy (online) along with more than a dozen occasional papers, briefs, reports, and book chapters. Rej has written for virtually all major Indian English-language media outlets, and has been quoted by the Economist, Reuters, Voice of America, CNBC, The Nation, The Australian, China Global Television Network, and Dawn, among others.
In my analysis, India is not yet ready to play the ‘Tibet Card’. India has not yet resolved the security problems imposed by the First Kashmir War of 1947-48. India was aware of China’s policy of expansionism and yet had no troops available to send a military expedition to Tibet in 1949. To play the Tibet Card, India needs Boots on the Ground. Giving political asylum to the exiled Tibetan leader is a good gesture but it will not undermine China’s ability to occupy Tibet.
It is impossible to understand the transformation of a population into a political “card” without understanding Tibet’s early 20th century.
By Ben Hales August 13, 2020
The Dalai Lama and the “Tibet Question” now seem to have returned to the Indian agenda, after the Tibetan religious leader was marginalized in recent years, and even let slip that India pushed against any meeting of his with President Xi Jinping in 2014. Indeed, scarcely a month after the now-famous Galwan Valley clash, policy experts were already suggesting India play the “Tibet Card” for leverage against China — that is, promoting an independent and free Tibetan state, undermining Beijing’s geostrategic position, and perhaps finding a definitive solution to the Sino-Indian border dispute in the process through supporting a (likely) friendly buffer.
It is impossible to understand the transformation of a population into a political “card” without understanding Tibet’s early 20th century. Before the People’s Republic of China, the Tibetan regime in Lhasa, with pan-Tibetan spiritual reach but limited practical power, considered its relationship with China to be essentially one of dynastic clientage. Through an agreement between Sakya Pandita Günga Gyeltsen (1182–1251) with the Mongol Empire before the Mongol conquest of China proper in 1279, the argument ran that Tibet, and specifically the Dalai Lama from the mid-17th century on, held a “priest-patron relationship” with dominant outside powers, effectively serving as religious tutor while remaining governor of an internally autonomous principality. This assertion, as John Powers noted, is replicated in exile literature today, much of which blends Tibetan with English-language material to support its assertions.
Chinese dynastic historians past and present have disagreed. Chinese primary material consistently interprets the relationship from the 13th century as a classic tributary one with the Chinese Yuan (Mongol) Empire, as per China’s long history as a center to which external regimes submitted. In many ways, these parallel histories of Tibet could be allowed coexist before the fall of the Qing. After all, Beijing also conveniently interpreted the 1793 trade mission of Sir George McCartney from Britain to China as a tribute mission. China’s representatives in Lhasa (ambans) considered governors by the Qing and ambassadors by Lhasa, could in some ways be both.
Qing decline turned a modus vivendi into a problem. Britain, aiming to secure India’s boundaries, decided to cultivate Tibet as a buffer state between the British Raj and Russia. Through both the Younghusband Expedition (1904) and negotiations culminating after the Qing collapse in the 1914 Simla Convention, British India demarcated a still-contentious border. In the process, the British (to quote Lord Curzon) “regard[ed] the so-called suzerainty of China over Tibet as a constitutional fiction.” As the 1911 Revolution toppled the Qing, resulting in Lhasa, with no patron to minister to as a priest, declaring independence, Britain played an early form of the “Tibet card,” leveraging its recognition for Yuan Shikai’s new government in Peking (today’s Beijing) in return for accepting Tibetan participation at the Simla talks and a maximal degree of autonomy for “Outer Tibet” (roughly the present Tibetan Autonomous Region). The result was de facto Tibetan independence 1911-1950.
Pro-PRC sources since 1959 have routinely portrayed notions of Tibetan difference as instigated by foreign imperialists, yet the proto-“Tibet Card” sketched above — the perception of Tibet as a zone for international contention and Tibetan self-assertion — truly took its modern form as a result of Chinese state action during the early 1950s itself.
The early Chinese Communist Party (CCP) had adopted a nationalities policy that accepted secession, stating in Article 14 of its 1931 constitution, “The Soviet government of China recognizes the right of self-determination of the national minorities in China, their right to complete separation from China, and to the formation of an independent state for each national minority.” But by 1949, when the CCP actually came to power, founding the PRC, reconstituting a strong, multinational polity over as much of the former Qing empire as possible became a priority.
In 1950 Chinese troops defeated Tibetan forces at the Battle of Chamdo and negotiated the 17-Point Agreement. In force from 1951-1959, the Agreement stipulated gradual socialist transformation, “step by step in accordance with the actual condition in Tibet.” “Actual conditions” became a catch-all term for Tibet’s special status. While in Han-majority regions of China traditional elites were subjected to land reform, struggle sessions, and often executions, those same indigenous elites were in Tibet co-opted as “progressives” into the CCP’s state-building project even more than they were in normal ethnic minority regions.
Considering routine discussions of the Dalai Lama as a “wolf in monk’s robes” today, the extent to which he was painstakingly cultivated by the PRC in the 1950s can appear jarring. He enjoyed personal correspondence with Mao Zedong, toured interior China to view its development from 1954-55, appeared as a Tibetan delegate to the National People’s Congress in 1954, and was appointed chairman of the Preparatory Committee for the Tibet Autonomous Region (PCTAR) in 1956, all as a religious leader in an atheist, communist state. Among the declassified folios of Western diplomatic agencies, it is clear this program was perceived to be working. One 1954 U.K. Foreign Office report noted, “Their [The Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama] praise of the new regime undoubtedly is genuine, and their followers probably will accept their glowing reports on the ‘New Order’ at face value.” For a while, it truly seemed that a “Tibet Card” as a geopolitical weapon would be stillborn.
It was not to be. As mentioned above, Tibet as defined by the PRC under the 17-Point Agreement was permitted a moderate and gradual transformation; however, Tibet as defined by the PRC in 1950s did not encompass the 25 percent of China’s landmass inhabited by ethnic Tibetans. These minority regions from 1955 were to be brought in line with interior China, experiencing socialist transformation in the push toward the communalization of agriculture. In one area specifically, Kham (approximately western Sichuan in Chinese cartography), Melvyn Goldstein has noted that this push for homogenization, including gun confiscations and coerced land reforms organized by zealous “left” tendency communist cadres, sparked an uprising. Driven back, Khampa refugees and rebels congregated around Lhasa, their reports destabilizing the delicate warming between some members of the Tibetan traditional government and the PRC state. The Dalai Lama’s circle was particularly horrified by the aerial bombing of monasteries such as Lithang held by rebels as fortified strong points.
As this continued, India — the future holder of the “Tibet Card” — was growing concerned. Despite reiterating his support for Tibet-within-China when he relinquished residual British rights to Tibet in 1954’s Panchsheel Agreement, Jawaharlal Nehru’s government was piqued that this endorsement didn’t buy PRC border concessions, and from mid-1954 began to clandestinely fund an organization of Tibetan exiles in India, Jenkhentsisum (JKTS). Congregating at Kalimpong in particular, figures such as Gyalo Thorndup (the Dalai Lama’s brother) interacted with dissidents within Tibet, from Alo Chondze to the Lord Chamberlain Phala, to agitate against continued Chinese control. This, plus growing violence in Kham by the later 1950s, caught the attention of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), who supported JKTS and provided supplies to what became Chushi Gangdruk, a Pan-Khampa resistance group operating throughout Tibet. Even as Nehru urged the Dalai Lama in a 1956 visit to India to return to Tibet rather than claim asylum, the poisoning of the Sino-Tibetan relationship was underway, drawing in India and the United States.
By the late 1950s, parallel histories had returned. The PRC was growing increasingly frustrated at Indian hosting of secessionist actors and the passive refusal of the Dalai Lama’s government to aid in the crackdown on Chushi Gangdruk, while an exasperated Tibetan traditional government saw promised protections of Buddhist institutions broken and the light touch of the 17-Point Agreement fragmenting in favor of a brewing counterinsurgency. Disillusionment trickled down to the wider Tibetan population. Earlier concern within the U.K. Foreign Office around a “genuine” conversion of the Dalai Lama to the CCP’s cause was replaced by glee in 1958 as they related the abolition of Tibet’s traditional forced labor corvée. This happened after an incident in Gyantse in September 1957, where a traditional government official beat a young Tibetan CCP cadre-in-training for failing to perform it. Rather defending a representative of the CCP’s “New Order” who was being forced to perform his feudal dues, “liberated” peasants stood by and watched, throwing “an interesting light on the esteem in which the Communist neophyte is held in Tibet today.” Considering the continued need for TAR’s comprehensive securitization today, it seems little esteem has been garnered for the CCP since.
1959 is world famous as the year Tibet’s strained relationship with the PRC snapped. After the Dalai Lama was to attend a function with only one bodyguard by PRC officials, widespread rumors among the local population that His Holiness was about to be kidnapped resulted in mass demonstrations in Lhasa and then a popular uprising from March 10-14, displacing some 70-80,000 Tibetan refugees across the border and creating the modern Tibetan-in-exile as the paradigmatic “victim diaspora,” with their own state-within-a-state centered in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh. The 1950s also crystallized the “Tibet Card” as we know it now, pulling Indian, American, and Chinese actors to the Land of Snows to offer support for different and conflicting visions of the Tibetan future.
The return to the rhetoric of the “Tibet Card” today is hardly a novelty, but a continuation of moves and mistakes made nearly 70 years ago.
Ben Hales is an MPhil Modern Chinese Studies postgraduate at the University of Oxford and a Hudson Institute Political Studies Summer Fellow. He has written for numerous publications, including Oxford Political Review and Human Rights Pulse. His dissertation on the TIbetan experience in 1950s has recently been selected for publication by the Oxford University History Society.