SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE-PERISHABLE vs IMPERISHABLE DIMENSIONS OF LIFE

The Living Things are composites of 1. Form, and 2. Matter. There are many living things that live with the same ‘form’ or morphological appearance while experiencing the aging process that defines the mortal dimension of Life. The term ‘extinction’ refers to the complete disappearance of a living form from the natural world. However, the phenomenon of extinction cannot be easily applied to the Living Matter which has the faculty of propagating itself either by using the mechanism called Reproduction or the power called Nutrition which involves the ability of a Living Thing to consume Matter provided by other Living Things to renew or regenerate or rebuild its own Living Matter.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Bhavanajagat.Org

Longest-Living Animals in the World

 John Harrington 10/30/2019

How long can a creature on Earth live? Animals living on the land, in the air, and in water can, under the right circumstances, live for many decades or even centuries.

The oldest-documented creature, a clam named Ming the Mollusk, lived for 507 years. Ming was born in 1499, seven years after Christopher Columbus first arrived in North America. We don’t know how much longer Ming would have lived if researchers trying to determine its age in 2006 had not opened the clam and in the process killed it. Ming’s fate is an example of an unfortunate encounter between people and animals. 

To find the 50 longest living animals in the world, 24/7 Tempo reviewed data in the Human Ageing Genomic Resources database collection — specifically, the AnAge animal longevity database.

Cynthia Kenyon is a biochemist and geneticist working on unlocking the secrets of longevity. At a TED talk in Edinburgh, Scotland, eight years ago, she talked about aging. “There are some animals that don’t seem to age,” said Kenyon. “If you look at birds, which live a long time, cells from the birds tend to be more resistant to a lot of environmental stresses like high temperature, or hydrogen peroxide.”

About three-fourths of the 50 species on our list are either fish or mammals like whales that live in the ocean. Size doesn’t appear to be a factor in how long animals live. Salamanders called olms that weigh less than an ounce can live as long as 102 years. The largest animal on Earth, the blue whale, can live to be up to 110 years. Despite its size, the blue whale is not among the most dangerous mammals on Earth. 

Galapagos tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 177 years
> Average adult weight: 500.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
American alligator
> Oldest recorded: 77 years
> Average adult weight: 330.7 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern United States (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Sperm whale
> Oldest recorded: 77 years
> Average adult weight: 62,831.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All major ocean basins. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Andean condor
> Oldest recorded: 79 years
> Average adult weight: 23.1 lbs.
> Habitat: Pacific Coast of South America. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
China rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 79 years
> Average adult weight: 2.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
European eel
> Oldest recorded: 88 years
> Average adult weight: 8.0 lbs.
> Habitat: All over the European Continent. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Tuatara
> Oldest recorded: 90 years
> Average adult weight: 0.9 lbs.
> Habitat: Off the coast of New Zealand. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Humpback whale
> Oldest recorded: 95 years
> Average adult weight: 66,138.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All major ocean basins. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
American lobster
> Oldest recorded: 100 years
> Average adult weight: 3.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Atlantic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Olm
> Oldest recorded: 102 years
> Average adult weight: 17 grams
> Habitat: Southern Europe. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Redbanded rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 106 years
> Average adult weight: 5.4 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Blue whale
> Oldest recorded: 110 years
> Average adult weight: 299,828.7 lbs.
> Habitat: All Oceans except the Arctic. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
European pond turtle
> Oldest recorded: 120 years
> Average adult weight: 2.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Central Europe, Northwest Africa, Middle East. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 127 years
> Average adult weight: 13.0 lbs.
> Habitat: North Africa, Southwest Asia, and Southern Europe. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Eastern box turtle
> Oldest recorded: 138 years
> Average adult weight: 1.5 lbs.
> Habitat: North America and the Gulf of Mexico. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Orange roughy
> Oldest recorded: 149 years
> Average adult weight: 8.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Southern Coast of Australia. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Aldabra tortoise
> Oldest recorded: 152 years
> Average adult weight: 550.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Indian Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Red sea urchin
> Oldest recorded: 200 years
> Average adult weight: 1.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. Getty Images)
Rougheye rockfish
> Oldest recorded: 205 years
> Average adult weight: 1.1 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Pacific Ocean. (Photo Credit. NOAA)
Bowhead whale
> Oldest recorded: 211 years
> Average adult weight: 220,462.3 lbs.
> Habitat: Arctic Ocean. (Photo Credit. National Geographic Creative)
Greenland shark
> Oldest recorded: 392 years
> Average adult weight: 2,260.0 lbs.
> Habitat: Arctic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)
Ocean quahog clam
> Oldest recorded: 507 years
> Average adult weight: 0.5 lbs.
> Habitat: Northern Atlantic Ocean. (Photo Credit. Wikimedia Commons)

NOVEMBER 14- THE BIRTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: "AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA." Both India, and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMA; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.

The military organization which is known as Special Frontier Force- Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment came into its existence during the presidency of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967.

India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment.

India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru is the architect of this military organization and hence the 14th Day of November, his birthday is linked to the birth of this organization. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.

September 05-Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's birthday
September 05. Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan’s birthday. The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan belonged to Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai) and his daughter, Rukmini was married to the younger brother of my maternal grandfather, Dr. Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who lived at 2/37 Kutchery Road in Mylapore. I was born in my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my regular summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Dr. Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence daily.  At that time, Dr. Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India(1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956, while I was in Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai), and in India’s capital of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the  10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The Institution of Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan's birthday(05 September) as Teacher's Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan’s birthday(05 September) as Teacher’s Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and the Indian President. He had correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice and during his Presidency, India had bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It had inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing, and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.

INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Becuase of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to People's Republic of China's invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to the People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India, and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

India had achieved its full independence from British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s ambassador to the Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President and he had served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962. India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when the People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War and was fully interested in preventing the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not request direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India had also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951 Communist China had imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement to justify its illegal and unjust military occupation of Tibet. It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ching Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 39-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the creation of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet's isolationism.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries in spite of sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs and their traditional style of governance through the institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government continued for four centuries.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India's President and Vice President. Both India, and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President. Both India and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of an autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate a military alliance/pact in response to China's military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honour the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate a military alliance/pact in response to China’s military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honor the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Both India, and Tibet desired friendly, and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Both India and Tibet desired friendly and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China's policy of Expansionism.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China's military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai , and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India's peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The photo images of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrate the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.

While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheela” Agreement of 1954 between India and the People’s Republic of China recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.

THE ORIGIN OF THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE -ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT:

The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China's occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People's Liberation Army.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation and had been called ST CIRCUS.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010 was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010, was the first time that the US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.

In 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA's covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India during March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North-East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India's belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China's occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.

THE 1962 INDIA-CHINA WAR:

I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded, or killed in action. China paid a heavy price and had utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.

Truths about the 1962 India-China War
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards a better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.
The 1962 India-China War
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.

The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared a unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962, and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.

THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT:

President John F. Kennedy immediately responded to the Chinese attack on India. Apart from the delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) had decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to fight the threat posed by Communism. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru's visit to Washington D.C.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: People's Republic of China could not alter the course of India's foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to "NUKE" China.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: the People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared a unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.

The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.

1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.

2. The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing(RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.

3. India started increasing its own defense-preparedness and had strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.

4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack and had decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

5. India, Tibet, and the United States joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which is later formally named The Special Frontier Force to describe its official Headquarters in New Delhi.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India had withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.
Special Frontier Force- President Radhakrishnan-Clash with China
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORIC VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:

After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, as Prime Minister Nehru’s personal health demanded serious attention, President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy. The visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03/04, 1963. The historic visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
Indian President-President Kennedy-Spirits of Special Frontier Force
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment. President of India’s visit of June 03/04, 1963.
President Kennedy with Indian President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
The History of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy.

I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement during 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would be that of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency. In India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22 – Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People's Republic of China.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras(Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.
Special Frontier Force-At Sarasawa.
The history of the Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.
THE SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT – OLD FLAMES NEVER DIE – THE LIVING NEHRU LEGACY: I AM WITNESS TO THE LIVING LEGACY OF PRIME MINISTER JAWAHARLAL NEHRU. I GRATEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGE HIS TIRELESS EFFORTS TO FOSTER FRIENDLY RELATIONS BETWEEN INDIA, TIBET, AND THE UNITED STATES.

THE BALD EAGLE-THE GOLDEN EAGLE-OPERATION EAGLE- THE NIXON CONNECTION

From George L. MacGarrigle, The United States ...
Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment-Operation Eagle 1971 and the Vietnam War.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon at the White House, Washington, D.C. on November 04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 03/04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in the White House, Washington, D.C. on November 03/04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 04, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection? Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with the US President Richard Nixon in Washington, D.C. on November 03, 1971. The US did not sanction Operation Eagle.

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22-VIKAS REGIMENT- OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR:

THE EAGLE CONNECTION: THE BALD EAGLE-THE GOLDEN EAGLE-OPERATION EAGLE – WHAT IS THE CONNECTION?

The military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971 is known as Operation Eagle. This military action used the military power of ‘The Bald Eagle’ and is executed by ‘The Golden Eagle’ without getting the formal approval or sanction of the US President.

Operation Eagle was a very modest military confrontation as compared to the Vietnam War. However, a comparison must be made to understand the use of military force to defeat an enemy to obtain a political objective. The Operation Eagle was executed using US weapons, ammunition, US military radios, medical supplies, assorted tools and equipment, field gear, and U.S. Military Field Rations-Meals Ready to Eat or MREs that the US Army was using in the conduct of the Vietnam War.

In a hilly, forest terrain, the use of aerial firepower or bombing campaigns will not dislodge the enemy. The enemy must be found on the ground and must be directly attacked. This is a view of Mizo Hills of India taken from Chittagong Hill Tracts in the foreground.

The military objectives of the Vietnam War could not be accomplished because of the reliance placed upon aerial bombardment to defeat the enemy. Operation Eagle was small in its scope and size. But, it did not rely upon the use of aerial bombardment. We operated on a ‘manpack’ basis, went in search of enemy positions, and directly challenged the enemy at his own post. United States failed to attack the enemy on the ground during the Vietnam War. To defend South Vietnam, the military strategy and planning would call for Infantry attacks on the enemy inside North Vietnam. United States used more bombs as compared to the number of bombs that were dropped during the Second World War and yet could not dislodge the enemy from his entrenched positions. We need to fight and engage the enemy on the ground. Secondly, during Nixon’s presidency(1969-1974), while engaged in War, the President conceded the battle by befriending the Enemy.

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR INFANTRY WEAPONS AND FIELD GEAR:

OPERATION EAGLE 1971 AND THE VIETNAM WAR INFANTRY WEAPONS, FIELD GEAR AND COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT. INDIA’S GOLDEN EAGLE SYMBOLIZES THE MILITARY OPERATION THAT WAS WAGED WITH THE MILITARY EQUIPMENT PROVIDED BY THE BALD EAGLE THAT SYMBOLIZES AMERICAN MILITARY POWER.

A military action by Infantry is best understood by examining the weapons that are used. During Operation Eagle 1971 and the Vietnam War, the Infantry used the same kinds of Infantry weapons. We must ignore the sophisticated technology and the firepower of United States Navy and Air Force. The battle must be won on the ground. During Operation Eagle 1971 we used the same Infantry weapons, equipment, and other supplies more effectively in our battle as compared to US Army in its combat missions against its enemy in Vietnam. We did not use helicopters as gunships or to attack the enemy in support of ground troops. I would like to share some of the photo images of the Infantry Weapons and equipment that were used in the Vietnam War and which I have seen during Operation Eagle 1971.

The General Purpose Machine Gun M60 was designed for use in the Vietnam War was equally useful for Operation Eagle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
M1 Muzzle loading 81mm Mortar is a heavy piece of Infantry weapon which provides indirect fire support. During Operation Eagle, our men carried them on their backs and used them to fire upon the enemy patrols and enemy posts.
The most common weapon used by American Infantry Battalions in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. Operation Eagle was fought on a manpack basis and this short-range, lightweight mortar was very useful.
Rifle is the most basic Infantry weapon. M14 Infantry Assault Rifle was used in Vietnam. During Operation Eagle 1971, I politely refused to use this M14 Rifle as my personal weapon.The men used this Rifle. During Operation Eagle 1971, I could not bring my Sub Machine Gun or SMG and willingly participated in the battle without carrying the M14 Rifle.
During Operation Eagle 1971 we were not allowed the use of cameras or photography. I would have looked like this man wearing Olive Green Coat Poncho. I used US Army Cap-Field.
A Soldier needs his gun, boots, and clothing to protect himself. During Operation Eagle 1971, I used this US Army Nylon Poncho with Hood(Olive) to sleep on the ground and as a coat to protect myself from intense fog and dew prevalent in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Short-range, manpack, portable, frequency modulated(FM) transceiver that provides two-way voice communication. Radio Set AN/PRC – 25 is used in the Vietnam War and I used the same in Operation Eagle. Two-way voice communications could be easily monitored by the enemy. Fortunately, It posed no problem as the enemy in the Chittagong Hill Tracts had no linguistic experts. I openly communicated with my Unit Commander in my native language of Telugu and there was absolutely no risk of revealing any sensitive information.
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection?
The Bald Eagle-The Golden Eagle-Operation Eagle: What is the Connection?
The U.S. Army uses a variety of Individual Field Medical Kits. The Kits issued to us during Operation Eagle 1971 were Olive Green Canvas pouches worn on the belts by each individual. The medical supplies included Water Purification Tablets for use in water bottles, anti-Malaria pills, Insect Repellent Solution(DBP), Insect Repellent Cream(DMP), Injectable Tubonic Morphine, tetracycline tablets, Multivitamin tablets, Field dressings, bandages and others. The Kits were not stamped but the contents reveal the place of origin.
Infantry marches on its feet. Boots are the most important equipment apart from Guns. I used Ankle Canvas Boots during Operation Eagle and marched on feet to fight and dislodge the enemy from the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The Canvas Boots lasted for the entire duration of Operation Eagle. They were better than the leather boots that I would use in other operational areas.

WAR AND PEACE – A FAILURE OF U.S. DIPLOMACY:

United States failed in Vietnam as it failed to develop a clear vision to achieve its goal of resisting and containing the expansion of Communist Power in Southeast Asia. U.S. efforts to stop the spread of Communism got derailed by Dr. Henry Kissinger who chose the option of backstabbing people who support the United States in its global mission to oppose Communism using diplomacy and military power. U.S. gave away a lot during the Paris Peace Talks basically defeating the accomplishments of its military and literally ridiculing their sacrifices. The several concessions given to the Peoples’ Republic of China to win its cooperation failed to stop the flow of military assistance to North Vietnam.

The establishment of US-China relations gave no advantage to the United States for its War in Vietnam. United States added insult to its own injuries by seeking the support of Communist China to attack India across its Himalayan frontier in the North East Frontier Agency in a vain bid to stop India in its efforts to liberate Bangladesh during 1971.

President Nixon and Dr Henry Kissinger failed in their attempt to block the launching of Operation Eagle, the Bangladesh Ops of 1971.
During 1971, Richard Nixon and Dr. Kissinger played on the Sino-Soviet Split. United States moved to normalize trade with China. Dr. Kissinger and President Nixon visited Peking(Beijing) to befriend Communist China. Did it stop China from delivering military assistance to North Vietnam? Did this famous meeting stop Hanoi’s EASTER OFFENSIVE in March 1972?
President Nixon met Communist China’s Prime Minister Chou Enlai. Did this act of friendship help the US Army in the Vietnam War? Could it stop Communist North Vietnam from launching its major invasion of South Vietnam during March 1972? Using this friendship, both President Nixon and Dr. Kissinger tried their best to stop India from Liberating Bangladesh during 1971. This Nixon and Chou Enlai friendship did not stop the Liberation of Bangladesh which India initiated with Operation Eagle in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Dr. Kissinger’s diplomatic initiatives totally fail the US Policy in Southeast Asia. Communist China remains a huge military threat in this region and United States fails in its mission to curb the expansion of Communist Power.

THE BALD EAGLE AND THE GOLDEN EAGLE CONNECTION :

The Bald Eagle and the Golden Eagle came together as Operation Eagle.

My Unit participated in Operation Eagle  during 1971-72 to gain practical experience of Infantry Combat Operations to fight against Communists in a future battle.

The Operation Eagle 1971-72 was inclined towards peace. It intended to deliver peace to the people of Bangladesh who declared their independence from Pakistan during March 1971.

The War in Vietnam is over and yet the threat of Communism still persists in Southeast Asia. To deliver peace to people of Southeast Asia, the United States must learn from its failure in Vietnam. The failure was not that of the US Army which willingly sacrificed the lives of over 58,000 of its fighting men and women. The US political leadership had failed the US military mission in Vietnam. United States must seek assistance from the people of Southeast Asia and fight its enemy on the ground and dislodge the enemy in a ground battle.

Dr. R. R. Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Service Number: MS-8466, Rank. Captain,

Branch:  Army Medical Corps/Short Service Regular Commission. Designation: Medical Officer, South Column Operation Eagle 1971-72.

Unit: Headquarters Establishment No. 22  C/O  56  APO.

Organization: Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment

https://bhavanajagat.com/2008/08/18/international-control-commission-for-vietnam/

OCTOBER 31, 1984. PRIME MINISTER INDIRA GANDHI – A FLAME THAT GOT EXTINGUISHED

October 31, 1984. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Operation Eagle(1971)-Public Grievance Registration Number: MODEF/E/2011/00761 dated 24 September, 2011 is asking Government of India to give due recognition to a participant of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. This was India’s Undeclared War on Pakistan that started on November 03, 1971.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 31, 1984.
R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,
Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.
Organization: Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with President Richard Nixon on November 03, 1971 while I was taking part in Operation Eagle to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi with President Richard Nixon on November 03, 1971 while I was taking part in Operation Eagle to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh with military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi took the executive responsibility to initiate military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to initiate Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. The Battle Plan was named Operation Eagle.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi took the executive responsibility to initiate military action in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to initiate the Liberation of Bangladesh during 1971. The Battle Plan was named Operation Eagle.
On completion of my military training and medical internship, I was sent on deputation to serve in Special Frontier Force(Establishment No. 22), a multinational defense alliance/pact which is supervised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Secretariat/The Directorate General of Security.
On completion of my military training and medical internship, I was sent on deputation to serve in Special Frontier Force (Establishment No. 22), a multinational defense alliance/pact which is supervised by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet Secretariat/The Directorate General of Security.
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A Flame that got extinguished on October 3, 1984.
  •  

From ‘Rudi’ to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Verification of the Dialectical Theory of Religion

From “RUDI” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan: The Verification of the Dialectical Theory of Religion

From “Rudi” to Rudolf J. Siebert of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.


Rudi is my nickname. I studied Natural Sciences. I was introduced to the name Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow while I studied Human Pathology.

Rudolf Virchow, German pathologist in 1855 coined the biological dictum “OMNIS CELLULA E CELLULA” – All living cells arise only from pre-existing living cells.

Dr. Virchow is known as the Pope of Medicine. Cellular Pathology (1858), regarded as the root of modern pathology, introduced the third dictum in cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula (“All cells come from cells”). I refer to Dr. Rudolf Virchow’s Cell Theory in my analysis of man, society, and religion.

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.

The story of Professor Rudolf of Western Michigan University is of interest to me as it relates to a person named Rudolf of German descent. But, I do respect his age.
I want to give attention to Western Michigan University. Does this School believe in the principles of academic freedom and academic integrity at places of higher learning? My concern directly relates to their teaching of the subject called ‘Comparative Religion’. What is the WMU trying to compare? It appears that the University is indulging in comparing human thoughts described as “Religion” without any concern about the Unchanging, Everlasting, Eternal Truth or Reality called God.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION: CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS.


I directly ask the WMU to reject the redundant idea of comparing religions as the same God is existing now as in the past when planet Earth had no living species identified as Homo sapiens. sapiens. To begin with, Earth had no religion and human thoughts about God are of only recent origin. Without knowing God who exists irrespective of the presence or absence of human thought, how could we postulate about the future of society, and the future of religion? 

Professor Rudolf’s hypothesis for the future of society and the future of religion needs basic verification. His predictions apparently have not considered the fact of man’s creation as a rational being. The social/political/religious conflicts recorded in human history simply reveal that the man is alienated, separated, or even ignorant of his true or real nature. How can there be any tensions or conflicts between religions if the man has a rational experience of true God, the Reality that never changes, the Reality that is never influenced by time or place? 

The Vitruvian Man. c. 1492. The painting by Leonardo da Vinci displays the spirit of scientific inquiry. The inquiry of Man must begin with the investigation of Consciousness.

The Theory of Man:

I would be happy if Professor Rudolf Siebert joins this conversation to briefly explain his ‘Theory of Peace’.
Firstly, I have to ascertain his theory of man. I appreciate his interest in comparative religions. Most religions, unfortunately, deal with the Theory of God without properly accounting for the entity who is concerned about God.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE PROMISE OF GOOD OLD AGE: THE OLD TESTAMENT BOOK OF GENESIS IS A WRITTEN RECORD OF THE LIFE-SPAN OF HEBREW PEOPLE. HUMAN HISTORY AND THE RECORDS OF HUMAN LONGEVITY BEGIN WITH THE CREATION OF ADAM AND EVE IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN. THE HEBREW WORD ADAM MEANS MAN.


I am not opposed to the Biblical preaching, the story of the man and woman described in the Book of Genesis. So, we have a man and a woman.
Now, I ask Dr. Rudolf Siebert, his colleagues, his students, to tell me the rest of the story about the man who desires to find peace in his living condition and living experience. How can there be an experience called peace without knowing the man?

Professor Rudolf Siebert’s ‘Dialectical Theory of Religion’ proposes three global alternative futures of human society. His second alternative Future, the entirely militarized society, is a product of his creative imagination without any correspondence to the present-day reality called Military Service. He should at the least describe the name of the country to which his imagined militarized society may belong. The military is a very sophisticated professional service and the professional soldier is unwilling and is unprepared to manage the affairs of the society in which he may live.

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.

For example, the problem of civilian unrest in Hong Kong cannot be managed by professional military service. The military does not believe in the use of tactics used by the Police Service to manage civilian unrest or street protests. A professional soldier does not use a baton, teargas, water cannon, taser gun, or rubber bullets. Do you want the professional soldier to abandon his training to embrace the role of the policeman? 

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The Verification of The Dialectical Theory of Religion.
Rudolf J. Siebert was born in Frankfurt a.M., Germany.   He studied history, philology, philosophy, sociology, psychoanalysis, and theology at the University of Frankfurt a.M., the University of Mainz, the University of Munster, and the Catholic University of America, Washington D.C. from 1947 – 1955.   Professor Siebert has taught, lectured, and published widely in Western and Eastern Europe, the United States, and Canada.   He is a professor of Religion and Society in the Department of Comparative Religion at Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA.   He is the director of the Center for Humanistic Future Studies at Western Michigan University since 1980, the director of the international course on the “Future of Religion” in the Inter-University Center for Post-Graduate Studies in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia / Croatia since 1975, and the international course on “Religion and Civil Society” in Yalta, Crimea, and Ukraine since 1999.   The Inter-University Center is sponsored by the University of Simferopol, Simferopol, Ukraine, and Western Michigan University.  

Professor Siebert’s main works are The Critical Theory of Religion: Frankfurt School,  and From Critical Theory to Critical Political Theology: Personal Autonomy and Universal Solidarity.   From 1955 to the present, Professor Siebert has developed the critical or dialectical theory of religion out of the critical theory of society, from the endeavors of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt, globally known as the “Frankfurt School,” and in continual discourse with sociologists, psychologists, anthropologists, economists, philosophers, religionists, and theologians from the United States, Canada, England, Belgium, Holland, France, Germany, Yugoslavia / Croatia, Israel, and Columbia.   The dialectical theory of religion emphasizes the three global alternative futures of society: Future I – the totally administered society; Future II – the entirely militarized society; and Future III – the reconciled society.   It stresses the three global alternative futures of religion: Future I – religious fundamentalism; Future II – total secularization; Future III – the open dialectic between the religious and the secular aiming at a post-modern reconciliation between a reformed religion and transformed secular enlightenment.  

From “Rudi” to Rudolf of Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan. The verification of The Dialectical Theory of God.

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION–NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD ON OCTOBER 17, 2019

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION–NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD ON OCTOBER 17, 2019

Social Security Administration, Chicago. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

Social Security Administration, Great Lakes Program Service Center, Chicago wields its long baseball bat to hit the Septuagenarian Senior Alien with its Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

Social Security Administration writes to Senior Alien to inform:

“We are writing to you about your Social Security benefits.

What You Should Know

We changed your monthly benefit to $1,683.50 as of January 2019. We found that your prior amount was incorrect.

We cannot pay you monthly benefits at this time.

We changed your benefit amount to give you credit for your 2019 earnings. We did not include these earnings when we figured your benefit amount before.”

It reminds me of the ‘Curse’ uttered by LORD God Creator in the Book of Genesis, Chapter 3, verses 17 to 19:

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

In my analysis, it is very easy to punish the Senior Alien by simply withholding his monthly retirement income benefit payment and force him to live the rest of his life through painful toil. I remind my readers to give attention to God’s pronouncement. The ground is “Cursed” to produce thorns and thistles for the Senior Alien as well as all the others who depend on the ground for their living.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22

https://bhavanajagat.com/2018/05/18/senior-alien-in-us-gulag-vs-senior-in-occupied-tibet/

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION–NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD

Clipped from: https://bhavanajagat.com/2016/10/13/social-security-administration-notice-of-slavery-award/

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION – GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD:

· #CardPlayingDay:

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: #CARDPLAYINGDAY FOR RETIREMENT INSURANCE BENEFIT, WHO IS HOLDING THE CARDS? WHO IS PLAYING THE GAME? WHAT ARE THE RIGHTS OF SUBSCRIBER TO PLAY THE CARD GAME?

I want to tell my readers that the purpose of this article is not that of blaming any person who serves in the Social Security Administration(SSA). I truly appreciate their service and their contributions to the country and to the community.

It must be recognized that SSA has to perform its functions using the rules and regulations formulated by the applicable US laws passed by the US Congress. Ultimately, the problems reported in this article can only be resolved if the US Congress reviews the 1996 amendment to the Social Security Act of 1935.

This article pertains to the Senior Alien (#SeniorAlien) who received his Medicare Card with Medicare coverage effective from 07-01-2013.

On October 13, 2016, SSA informed the Senior Alien of his Social Security Benefits. His claim for Monthly Retirement Benefit changed to $1,508.60 as of January 2016. But, Social Security Administration cannot pay him his Monthly Benefits.

Social Security Administration, Chicago. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: HAROLD WASHINGTON SOCIAL SECURITY CENTER, CHICAGO GETS UNIQUE PLACE OF DISTINCTION IN THE US HISTORY FOR ITS NOTICE OF AWARD, DATE. OCTOBER 13, 2016 AND AUGUST 16, 2014 OVERTURNED PRESIDENT ABRAHAM LINCOLN’S EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION THAT ABOLISHED SLAVERY IN THE UNITED STATES. THIS DECISION VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: THE NOTICE OF AWARD DATED OCTOBER 13, 2016 REVISED THE DECISION SENT ON AUGUST 16, 2014. BOTH IMPOSE SLAVERY, INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE, AND FORCED LABOR AS DEFINED BY THE PROVISIONS CONTAINED IN CHAPTER 77, TITLE 18 OF THE US CODE, SECTIONS, 1581, 1584, AND 1589 AND VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.

The word ‘DECISION’ is defined as the act of deciding a question or a claim by giving a judgment; it is a conclusion made with the firmness of mind, and it describes a determination reached or given. Social Security Administration, Great Lakes Program Service Center made a “DECISION” and sent a Notice of Award on October 13, 2016, which applied a change to its earlier Decision on August 16, 2014. This could be a very historical decision for it overturns the Emancipation Proclamation made by US President Abraham Lincoln to abolish Slavery in the United States.

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019. GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: THE NOTICE OF AWARD, DATE. OCTOBER 13, 2016 AND EARLIER NOTICE ON AUGUST 16, 2014 COMMUNICATE A DECISION MADE BY SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION. THE IMMEDIATE CONSEQUENCE OF THE DECISION IS THAT OF FORCING, COMPELLING, COERCING A SENIOR ALIEN TO PERFORM LABOR AGAINST HIS WILL BY CREATING “CLIMATE OF FEAR.” IT MUST BE NOTED THAT THE SENIOR ALIEN IS ISSUED A MEDICARE CARD AND THE MEDICARE COVERAGE IS EFFECTIVE FROM 07-01-2013. THE DECISION VIOLATES THE US CONSTITUTION’S 13TH AMENDMENT.

The Notice of Award communicated the ‘Decision’, the Determination, or Conclusion reached by Social Security Administration(SSA), Great Lakes Program Service Center, Harold Washington Social Security Center, 600 West Madison Street, Chicago IL 60661-2474 on August 16, 2014, and a Revised Decision on October 13, 2016.

1. The Decision has approved the applicant’s Claim for Retirement Benefit and the entitlement date is given as October 2014. It further added the applicant’s current monthly benefit rate of $1347.80 is changed to $1,508.60 as of January 2016. SSA issued a Medicare Card to the Senior Alien and the Medicare coverage is effective from 07-01-2013. However, the Decision is silent or mute for it has not shared any fact or information that has guided the Decision-making process and it fails to establish the legal basis and information that shaped this judgment. For reasons of fairness, clarity and to ensure the practice of the principle called ‘Equal Protection Under Law’, the Decision must explain the legal basis for this approval. The Decision must disclose the US Law that may provide the authority or sanctioning power to arrive at the Decision that grants the approval of the Claim for Social Security Retirement Insurance Benefit.

2. Part-2 of the above Decision states that the Department cannot pay the monthly benefit of Retirement Insurance. It must be noted that the Social Security Retirement Insurance Plan stands on the support of two pillars;

These are 1. The Contributions made by the Employee and his Employer as mandated by the Federal Insurance Contributions Act or FICA, and 2. The Age of the Plan Subscriber for the subscriber is paid monthly benefit after attaining a predetermined qualifying age called the ‘full retirement age’.

All employees working in the US are required by the Federal Law to subscribe to this SSA Retirement Insurance with or without immigration status. For example, US citizens who may not have earned enough ‘Credits’ and who may not have reached the qualifying age( currently at 66-years), is not eligible to apply for this Retirement Benefit. The Rules for ‘Lawful Presence’ or of ‘Immigrant Status’ do not establish the eligibility criteria to subscribe and contribute to the Social Security Public Trust Fund. These Rules for Lawful Presence in the US make the distinction between US citizens and others residing in the US performing work to earn their hourly wages.

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION – NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD. BEHOLD THE MAN. JOHN 19:5. SOCIAL SECURITY IMPOSES SLAVERY, SERFDOM, AND INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE VIOLATING RIGHT TO LIFE AND FREEDOM.

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

GREAT LAKES PROGRAM SERVICE CENTER – THE NOTICE OF SLAVERY AWARD: SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION MAKES DECISION ON AUGUST 16, 2014 AND OCTOBER 13, 2016 TO LEGALLY IMPOSE BURDEN OF INVOLUNTARY SERVITUDE ON SENIOR ALIEN WHO IS NOT A CONVICTED FELON. SENIOR ALIEN WAS ISSUED MEDICARE CARD AND MEDICARE COVERAGE EFFECTIVE FROM JULY 01, 2014. BUT, SUSPENDS PAYMENT OF MONTHLY RETIREMENT INCOME BENEFIT.

I am asking my readers to behold the Senior Alien who has to live and experience consequences of the Notice of Award sent by Great Lakes Program Service Center – Harold Washington Social Security Center.

A number of provisions in the US Code target the problems of Involuntary Servitude, Slavery, and Forced Labor. These provisions are contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18. Section 1581 prohibits using force, the threat of force or the threat of legal coercion to compel a person to work against his/her will. Section 1584 of Title 18 makes it unlawful to hold a person in a condition of Slavery, that is a condition of compulsory service or labor against his/her will by use of actual force, threats of force, or threats of legal coercion. Section 1584 also prohibits compelling a person to work against his will by creating a “Climate of Fear” through the use of force, the threat of force, or the threat of legal coercion( i.e., if you don’t work, I’ll call the Immigration officials) which is sufficient to compel service against a person’s will. Section 1589 deals with Forced Labor and it broadens the definition of the kinds of coercion that might result in Forced Labor, whoever knowingly provides or obtains the labor or services of a person. 1. By threats of serious harm to or physical restraint against that person or another person, 2. By means of any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that if the person did not perform such labor or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm or physical restraint; or 3. By means of the abuse or threatened abuse of Law or the Legal Process.

The Notice of Award violates the provisions contained in Chapter 77 of Title 18 US Code. By suspending Monthly Benefit Payments, Social Security Administration used the force of its authority to legally coerce Senior Alien to perform labor against his will if he desires to live in the US. The Decision ‘NOT’ to pay the Monthly Benefit creates a “Climate of Fear.”

The Senior Alien lives in the condition named Slavery for the Government Agency exercised power to withhold the Senior Alien’s property or financial assets invested in the Social Security Public Trust Fund. In other words, the Social Security Administration’s Notice of Award communicates a Decision causing the Demise of the Emancipation Proclamation abolishing slavery in the US.

Social Security Administration. Notice of Slavery Award on October 17, 2019.

MY MARGINALIZED EXISTENCE IN EXILE

LIVING TIBETAN SPIRITS. MY MARGINALIZED EXISTENCE IN EXILE

My marginalized existence in exile.

Living Tibetan Spirits who inhabit my consciousness know the experience of my marginalized existence in exile. 

I am alive without Freedom or Free Will to choose. I can narrate my story either as a Blessing or a Curse. In my belief, when the man suffers, the Lands gets cursed. 

As the desire for Freedom is the root cause of my pain and suffering, how can I receive the Blessings of Peace?

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No.22

Living Tibetan Spirits

Vanished homelands of Tibet

Meghaa Aggarwal  | Updated on October 18, 2019, Published on October 18, 2019

Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.

Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.
Living Tibetan Spirits. My marginalized existence in exile.

 Uncertain ground: The politics of Tibet’s geography is so contested that even a map of the region could land the publishers in trouble.

Madhu Gurung’s deeply researched anthology Tibet With My Eyes Closed, evokes the history, culture, and identity of a community that is at risk of being forgotten

Sixty years ago, Chinese occupation forced the 14th Dalai Lama to flee Tibet and seek refuge in India. Thousands of Tibetans followed him, giving up a nomadic, agrarian life for a marginalized existence in exile. The 11 stories that make up journalist Madhu Gurung’s anthology Tibet With My Eyes Closed are true accounts of displaced Tibetans trying to find salvation in the midst of heartbreaking loss.

Dehradun-based Gurung has worked with organizations such as Oxfam, UNIFEM, BBC, and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Her first book The Keeper of Memories, historical fiction on the Gorkhas, was shortlisted for the Shakti Bhatt First Book Award in 2016. The author, whose mother was Tibetan, seems driven by a passionate need to inform. She begins the book with a background to Tibet, which instinctively makes me seek out a map. That’s when the irony hits home. We are talking of such fraught geography that even an innocuous map of the Tibetan region can land publishers in trouble!

Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.

Living Tibetan Spirits. My Marginalized Existence in Exile.
Living Tibetan Spirits. My marginalized existence in exile.

Tibet With My Eyes Closed: Stories Madhu Gurung Speaking Tiger Non-fiction ₹350

Prayer flags of five colors — blue, white, red, green and yellow — representing the five core elements of space, wind, fire, water, and earth respectively are synonymous with Tibetan Buddhism. The stories in this anthology have been divided under the colors of the prayer flags and have some elements of the colors woven into their background. The author has also added an insightful introduction explaining the significance of the flags and how the elements have inspired her stories. However, the associations feel somewhat tenuous and I found myself wondering whether it was necessary to divide the contents as well as feature an introduction to explain the division. The anthology opens with stories of refugees besieged by memories of home as they try to regain their lives under a foreign sky. It then transitions to the experiences of a new generation of Tibetans born and brought up in India, carving out their paths and identities in the new land. Mid-way, one learns of the tragic guerrilla wars that the Tibetans waged for their homeland from the windswept Mustang Plateau in Nepal. Towards the end, it speaks of the human ability to persevere and dream of possibilities, despite great odds. References to the Chushi Gangdruk, the guerrilla Tibetan army that waged war against the Chinese, and the 22 Establishment, a secret force of Tibetans recruited by India in the wake of its humiliating defeat in the Sino-Indian war of 1962, appear several times across the book. However, sufficient variety is provided by the stories of a Tibetan man’s pursuit of an Indian passport, of a young man who gives up monkhood to embrace his sexual identity and of a grieving old widow who finds solace in stray dogs.

Tibet with my Eyes Closed is not an unputdownable page-turner. It is a compilation of stories laced with facts and observations that compel the reader to pause. The author takes no shortcuts in her effort to build narratives that are not only immersive but also greatly illuminating. However, in places, the details seem extraneous. For instance, in the story, Tibet With My Eyes Closed, the author speaks of Tibetan poet, writer and activist Lhasang Tsering whose poem inspired the title of this anthology. She writes about how he is greatly influenced by the saint and poet Milarepa who is revered in Tibet for his songs. But she doesn’t end there. She writes of how Tsering was born exactly 900 years after Milarepa and how his songs have also been translated in English, in a book called the Shambhala. Such additions appear somewhat forced, as the story would read much the same without them. I was fascinated by the author’s journey to Mustang in pursuit of former Chushi Gangdruk warriors, as documented in the story, In the Footsteps of Buddha’s Warriors. Not only is it a testament to the author’s keen research but also to the undaunted commitment to her subject. Unlike the other stories in this anthology, In the Footsteps of Buddha’s Warriors and Amala, which is a memoir of the author’s mother, are both personal accounts. This prompted me to wonder whether it might have been better to have them as part of a longer introduction that spoke of the experiences driving the author’s writing. These, however, are minor misgivings about this much-feted collection that has been endorsed by several prominent personalities. I just wished, though, that all these endorsements had been kept on the back cover or some of them shifted inside, to leave the reader with more room to admire the striking cover painting and design by Vikram Singh Verma. With the sky and mountains in shades of red against a monastery in tones of black and white, the cover is deeply atmospheric and stirring. If the role of literature is to create empathy and build understanding, Tibet with My Eyes Closed succeeds amply. It is an important piece of literature about a people and region, that, as Shashi Tharoor puts it in his endorsement, ‘are at risk of being forgotten’.

Meghaa Aggarwal works in children’s publishing and writes features on education and the environment

Published on October 18, 2019 book review

Living Tibetan Spirits. Marginalized Existence in Exile.

I LIVE IN EXILE. I DO NOT ENJOY AMERICA’S FREEDOM

Report this

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Living Tibetan Spirits. My marginalized existence in exile.

I AM A REFUGEE. I DO NOT ENJOY AMERICA’S FREEDOM

I AM A REFUGEE. I DO NOT ENJOY AMERICA’S FREEDOM. MY FREEDOM IS STOLEN.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama had to flee from Tibet in 1959 for he sensed a threat to his life from the Chinese authority. I joined the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India on September 22, 1971. I experienced threat to my existence on three separate occasions from the Chinese authority that forces the Dalai Lama to live in Exile. The threat posed by China has stolen my freedom.

I AM A REFUGEE. I DO NOT ENJOY AMERICA’S FREEDOM.

I have chosen the profile image of my stolen Indian Army picture ID to describe my plight on account of my stolen freedom. My Indian Army picture ID was stolen in 1972 at Cuttack, near Charbatia Air Base operated by Aviation Research Centre (ARC). My Indian Army picture ID was purposefully stolen because of my association with The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW), the Intelligence Agency of India which formulated my association with The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). My stolen Indian Army ID of 1972 resurfaced in Indian Movie TE3N in 2016. It accounts for the loss of my freedom and the fear it arouses in my heart since 1972.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22

Am a refugee but I enjoy India’s freedom: Dalai Lama

By: FE Online | Published: October 14, 2019, 4:16:48 PM

I am a Refugee. I do not enjoy America’s Freedom for I have no Refuge.

Dalai Lama has been living in India since 1959. He had to flee Tibet after he sensed a threat to his life from the Chinese authority in the wake of Tibetan uprising. Former Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru offered Dalai Lama to set up the Government of Tibet in Exile in Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh. 

I am a Refugee. I do not enjoy America’s Freedom.

Tibetan spiritual leader Dalai Lama on Sunday hailed India for its freedom and said that he has been here for the last 60 years as a refugee but still enjoys the freedom that this country offers. “We already enjoy freedom in India. It’s been 60 years…one way, I am a refugee, but I enjoy India’s freedom,” he said while responding to a question on his freedom struggle for Tibet. When asked about whether he thinks that Tibetans can get freedom by living in India, Dalai Lama said that he had tried to go back to Tibet but that could not happen because there was no freedom to preserve “our own culture”. The spiritual leader said that he had also appealed to the United Nations in this regard.

“At that time Pandit (Jawahar Lal) Nehru advised me that the United Nations can not do much…sooner or later much better to approach Chinese and talk to China. I think that was realistic advice. And in 74, we decide(ed) not to take independence, (we) tried to remain within the Republic of China but we should have got certain rights (from China) for the preservation of our own culture,” he told news agency ANI.

HISTORY OF THE US-INDIA-TIBET RELATIONS. I AM A REFUGEE. I DO NOT ENJOY AMERICA’S FREEDOM.


BUDDHISM IS AN INCOMPLETE STUDY OF THE MAN

Lord Gautama Buddha has stated that the experience of sorrow or ‘DUKHA’ is unavoidable. If the experience of pain is inevitable, the experience of Compassion is also inescapable. The experience of Compassion gives us the sensation of Sweetness called ‘MADHURYA’. Photo by Noelli from the Flickr site. http://www.dalekoniedaleko.pl

Lord Gautama Buddha’s simple preachings have generated intense debate and discussion among his followers leading to the creation of different Schools of Buddhist Thought, varying traditions, apart from the production of volumes of literature in various human languages.

In my analysis, Lord Gautama Buddha and the various brands of Buddhism with established traditions have failed to formulate a complete ‘Theory of Man’. In my view, Buddhism as such is an incomplete study of the Man for it fails to comprehend the nature of the living matter, the living substance, the corporeal matter described in Biology as ‘protoplasm’ or ‘cytoplasm’ which is found in all living things.

The spiritual inquiry, the spiritual investigation, the spiritual study of the Man demands the learning process called ‘Adhyatma Vidya’, the Knowledge of Self, or the spiritual journey called Self-Discovery to answer the two fundamental questions about the Man. The questions are 1. Who am I? and 2. Why am I like this? Lord Gautama Buddha’s life journey begins with a quest to find answers for the conditioned nature of human existence but his study remains incomplete for he has not studied the human being whose existence is conditioned.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22

‘Buddhism in Tibet is a complete tradition’

Suganthy Krishnamachari. OCTOBER 10, 2019

Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche, Tibetan Buddhist monk
Buddhism is an incomplete study of the Man.

Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche, Tibetan Buddhist monk   | Photo Credit: B_JOTHI RAMALINGAM

Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche speaks of the salient features of the religion, which originated in India

Beginning his study of Buddhism in the Gadhan Dhechenling Monastery, in Tibet, Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche, came to India in 1959, at the age of 20. He headed the Central Tibetan Administration, Dharamsala, for two terms. A highly regarded scholar of Buddhism, he has held many important positions with academic and administrative responsibilities. A few of them: Member General Body Indian Council of Philosophical Research; member, Governing Council, Asiatic Society, Kolkata; member of the National Advisory Committee for Buddhist Studies; President, Association of Indian Universities; President, Coomaraswamy Centre for Traditional Studies, Lucknow; member, Association of Commonwealth Universities. Member, Governing Body, Krishnamurti Foundation of India, Chennai; member, Expert Advisory Committee, Ministry of Culture, Government of India.

Venerable Samdhong Rinpoche was in Chennai for a short visit. The following are excerpts from an interview with him:

What are the distinctive features of Tibetan Buddhism?

First of all, there is no such thing as Tibetan Buddhism. It is an expression, which Western scholars use, and I do not know why they do. Do you talk of British Christianity or American Christianity? There are different schools of philosophy in Buddhism like Mahayana, Hinayana, etc. But Buddhism is not divided by geography. If at all there is any country to which Buddhism belongs, that is India, because Buddha was born here. It is Indians who can take pride in Buddhism because it originated here.

I stand corrected. Let me rephrase the question. What is special about Buddhism in Tibet?

Buddhism in Tibet is a complete tradition. Educational centers such as Nalanda, Taxila, Bodhgaya, and Sarnath produced Buddhist canonical literature. All of this was translated into the Tibetan language.

How big is this collection of Tibetan works?

We have a compilation of 108 volumes of Buddha’s teachings. It includes 3,000 titles. Woodblock techniques have been used to preserve ancient Tibetan texts. We also have 223 volumes of commentaries of Indian scholars, which include 4,000 titles. The topics range from Mahayana and Hinayana to Ayurveda, dharma, and literature.

Prof. Hahn’s dissertation was on Vrttamalastuti, where each stanza illustrated a different Sanskrit meter. It was a text that was preserved only in a Tibetan translation. And this kindled Hahn’s interest in recovering the Sanskrit literature of Buddhism from Tibetan translations. So, would it be correct to say that Tibetan translations have helped preserve the Buddhist tradition, because of the possibility of re-translations from Tibetan to Sanskrit?

Certainly. Tibetan translations are the most accurate, and the Tibetan collection is also the largest available translation of Buddhist texts. The original texts, which were in Sanskrit were lost when Nalanda University was destroyed. Mahayana texts were in Sanskrit, whereas Hinayana texts were mostly in Prakrit. In Tibet, Mahayana school is followed. So, if we want the original Sanskrit texts about Mahayana, we can now work backward from Tibetan to Sanskrit. So, in that way, the Tibetan translations help us to get back the basic Sanskrit texts.

Hahn was a close friend of mine. But even before Hahn, there were other European scholars who took an interest in Buddhist literature which had been translated to Tibetan. The Italian scholar Tucci, for instance. Tibet enjoys an unbroken lineage of Buddhism, and before the days of Communism, Buddhists from Russia and Mongolia came to Tibet and studied Buddhist teachings preserved in the Tibetan language.

You talk about Mahayana texts in Sanskrit. What about the commentaries? Were they also in Sanskrit?

Yes, but Buddhist Sanskrit is a hybrid Sanskrit. It is a mixture of Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabrahmsa, etc. Paninian sutras were not strictly followed.

Why was it a hybrid?

Because the Buddha spoke in a simple language. He wanted his teachings to reach the masses. So, he spoke a language that was easy to understand.

And what about efforts at translation now? Are they continuing?

A lot of translation work has been going on in the Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies in Sarnath, Varanasi. It is a deemed University. I was associated with the Institute for 30 years, first as Principal and then director. One hundred Tibetan Buddhist texts have been translated to Sanskrit by the scholars in this University.

Where can we find the largest collection of Tibetan texts?

In the Library of Congress in the U.S.

And in India?

The Institute of Tibetology in Sikkim, the library in Dharamsala, in Sarnath and the Central Institute of Buddhist studies in Leh, Ladakh.

What is the Tibetan way of ordination for monks?

In the bhikshu ordination, mulsarvastivadin school is followed in Tibet.

Does Buddhism in Tibet follow Tantric traditions?

Wherever Mahayana is followed, there is a tantric tradition. So, this is not unique to Tibet.

Does Buddhist art vary according to the school of philosophy followed?

If you observe minutely, there might be some differences. But by and large, art is just an expression of imagination. So, there are only a few minor variations. But mandala constructions are found only in art based on Vajrayana, which is a part of Mahayana.

MY COMMENT ON THE ABOVE INTERVIEW BY MS.SUGANTHY KRISHNAMACHARI WAS NOT APPROVED BY THEHINDU.COM

‘Buddhism in Tibet is a complete tradition’ on thehindu.com
 My Comment:
 
Buddhism is an incomplete study of the man:
I am affiliated to a military organization called Special Frontier force-Establishment No. 22-Vikas Regiment where I medically examined hundreds of Tibetan men and women.
Lord Gautama Buddha’s preachings are essentially simple. However, they generated numerous interpretations and massive human literature in different languages. He examined the conditioned nature of human existence without fully examining the human being whose existence is conditioned.
Buddhism remains an incomplete study irrespective of its various traditions. It is incomplete for it does not study the living matter or the living substance of the man while sharing views on the human condition of the living being with a physical form that we identify as the man.
Vitruvian Man, the creation of Leonardo da Vinci – Spirituality Science. The Discovery of Bhavanajagat.org: The Self-Discovery begins with the two fundamental questions. 1. Who am I ? and Why am I like this?

A FRESH LOOK AT THE TIBETAN RESISTANCE MOVEMENT IN INDIA

A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

Ms. Madhu Gurung in her book, “Tibet With My Eyes Closed” takes a fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada

SpecialFrontierForce

Review: Tibet With My Eyes Closed by Madhu Gurung

A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

A fresh look at the experience of Tibetan refugees in India

A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

BOOKS Updated: Oct 04, 2019 19:03 IST

Thubten Samphel

Thubten Samphel
Hindustan Times

The Dalai Lama speaks at a Tibetan temple in McLeod Ganj.
The Dalai Lama speaks at a Tibetan temple in McLeod Ganj.(Shyam Sharma/Hindustan Times)
253pp, Rs 350; Speaking Tiger
A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

253pp, Rs 350; Speaking Tiger

There is a new interest in Tibet and Tibetan culture amongst the Indian public. This is because of the Dalai Lama’s tireless efforts to reach out to the Indian public to alert them to the relevance of ancient India’s wisdom in our vexing times. There is also whispered foreboding of what would happen to the Tibetan community in India and elsewhere and the fate of Tibet itself when he is no longer what us.

Tibet With My Eyes Closed is a fresh look at the experience of the Tibetan refugees in India and the pain of separation of families and being uprooted from their homeland. It is also of a story of how the community as a whole faced and still faces the challenges of adaption and survival.

In her exploration and discovery of the Tibetan refugee community in India, Madhu Gurung quotes an old Tibetan proverb. “If I tell you my dream, you might forget it. If I act on my dream, perhaps you will remember it, but if I involve you — it becomes your dream too.” Madhu Gurung’s dream of the Tibetan community in exile is a gentle paring of the community’s many layers of strength, weakness, human quirks and the need to survive as an individual and community.

The author kicks off her Tibetan story by narrating in broad contours the birth of the resistance movement in Tibet in the 1950s. This resistance relocated to Mustang in Nepal and then fought in Bangladesh’s war for independence. Some scholars call the Tibetan soldiers who fought in the war “Phantoms of Chittagong.” Sangay, the main protagonist in Gurung’s first story Zinda, was a little boy when members of his family whispered the formation of the resistance in central Tibet. He expressed his wish to join the resistance. He was told to wait till he became thirteen. Then, “You … will be of some use to them.”

Tibetan resistance grew not only because of repression and forced land distribution but also because of the implementation of the Great Leap Forward with its excessive stress on industrialization to the neglect of agriculture and production of food. This created the biggest famine in Chinese history and Tibet was caught up in this man-made disaster.

Madhu Gurung
A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.

Madhu Gurung ( Courtesy the author )

Sangay and his father, leaving with excruciating pain other family members, including his mother, behind in Tibet, were able to escape this political disaster and the great famine. In India “everything was strange – the language, the food and the people.” At school, he got a greater shock, a huge dent to his Tibetan pride and sense of self and identity. He discovered that the Tibetans were the ‘nowhere’ people. His schoolmates did not know where Tibet was.

However, during the period of ‘liberalization’ which the post-Mao leader Deng Xiaoping initiated in China and Tibet, Sangay was able to return to Tibet and bring his mother to their new home in Dehradun auspiciously named Zinda. Shakti Gurung informs the readers that Sangay’s home village in Tibet called Zinda which the author says in Hindi means “Alive.”

That Sangay survived all these ordeals is a tribute to his character and his generation of Tibetan refugees. Back in the late 1950s while on their way to Lhasa, someone in his group shouted: “Lhasa is burning.” These days rather than burning Lhasa is drowning in concrete, amazing infrastructure development and the sheer weight of the growing demographic strength of the migrant Chinese workers. Tibet With My Eyes Closed is a cautionary tale for the countries and people strung along the Himalayan belt. You might be next, maybe an exaggeration but exaggeration is not enough to describe the true intentions and scale of the People’s Republic of China’s ambitions. The book is also a cautionary tale for the coming generation of Tibetan exiles. They inherit a cohesive and productive community scattered across the globe, a legacy of the first generation of Tibetan refugees. Keeping its cohesion and productivity will be a huge challenge in the coming years of adversity.

Thubten Samphel is an independent researcher and a former director of the Tibet Policy Institute

A fresh look at the Tibetan Resistance Movement in India.