SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – IMPERISHABLE, IMMUTABLE, AND IMMORTAL PRINCIPLE OF LIVING THINGS
Living Things are made up of 1. Living Matter, and 2. Physical Form. The Form or Morphological Appearance of Living Things is used in their identification and for classification.
Theory of Evolution carefully records similarities between different living things and claims that living things are constantly changing and descend into new forms of living things that are again identified by their morphological appearance. Change is a Natural Phenomenon. Things in Nature change under influence of Time.
However, the problem of biodiversity is not resolved by Theory of Evolution. Living things change in appearance due to natural process called Growth and Development or due to aging process. Changes in Genetic Code called Mutation does not affect Chemical Composition of Living Matter while it may cause change in form or appearance.But any such observed change in appearance is possible if and only if Living Matter retains its basic chemical composition and behaves as if it is operated by Imperishable, Immutable, and Immortal Principle.
All living things exist in nature by consuming other living things or consuming products made by other living things. All living things appear to be varied and yet consist of the same kind of Chemical Compounds. To a great extent, Chemical Elements retain their attributes as if they are imperishable, immutable, and can even said to be immortal. This unchanging nature or Spiritual attribute helps formulation of Fundamental Laws of Matter described by classical Physics and Chemistry. Over billions of years, Living Matter retained its basic Chemical Composition as Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds governed or operated by imperishable, immutable, and immortal or Spiritual Principle not influenced by time or changes in climate, or other variable external conditions.
The Organic Material called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm exhibits Nature that can neither be created nor destroyed. Its Nature is not subject to ‘Evolutionary Change’.
In my analysis, Theory of Evolution is fundamentally flawed for its focus on change in morphological appearance does not take into account Unchanging Nature of Chemical Elements and Chemical Compounds. There is no evolution for there is no natural factor, or natural mechanism, or natural condition that can violate Fundamental Laws of Nature.
Biological Diversity is reflected by the number of Living Animal and Plant species which are all operated by Unchanging Spiritual Principle. I explain Biological Diversity as a creative mechanism that formulates the morphological appearance of living things while they are essentially made up of the same Living Substance. Every living thing fundamentally exists as an Individual with Individuality. There are no two perfectly identical living things. For there is such vast diversity of living things, for purposes of convenience, they may be grouped and classified using principles shared by Taxonomy. Some Forms of Life became extinct over course of time but Life has not perished for Living Matter continues to exist as before. Indeed all varied Forms of Life are Formed by the same Chemical Components.
Rudra Narasimham Rebbapragada
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-4162 USA
THIS FUNNY-LOOKING ANCIENT FISH IS ACTUALLY YOUR GREAT-GREAT-GREAT-GREAT (YOU GET THE IDEA) GRAND-UNCLE.
By SARAH KAPLAN June 3
Qingmendous, a 409 million-year-old predatory fish provides unique insights into the early evolution of modern lobe-finned fishes. (Brian Choo/Flinders University)
He’s half a foot long, 409 million years old and fierce as they come. Huge, squiggly teeth protrude from his lower lip, and powerful, muscle-bound fins allow him to sluice through the brackish water of a prehistoric lagoon. When he’s hungry, he lies in wait for creatures that are as much as half his size and ambushes them. His jagged teeth make quick work of the unsuspecting prey.
He’s also your great-great-great-great (you get the idea) grand-uncle. Pleased to make your acquaintance.
Qingmendous, scientists report in the journal Science Advances on Friday, was part of a group of “lobe finned fishes” that included the first vertebrates to crawl onto land. Analysis of his skull will give researchers insight into how our distant fishy forebears evolved, they say, and a literal glimpse into the brain of a creature of that ancient world.
This prehistoric, predatory sea creature was first identified back in 2009, after paleontologists in China uncovered fossils of his hindquarters. Jing Lu and Min Zhu, both researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and also lead authors on this report, identified Qingmendous as the oldest of a mysterious group of fish known as onychodonts.
Not much is known about the onychodonts, aside from the fact that they were predators with funny-looking faces (like Qingmendous, they all had squiggly teeth at the front of their lower jaw) and that they died out some 350 million years ago.
“We basically had two stages in the evolutionary history of the lobe finned fishes,” said You’an Zhu, a paleontologist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Uppsala University in Sweden.
“There were the very primitive ones — so primitive they didn’t even have lobed fins,” he continued. “And then we get complete sets of lineages we are quite familiar with: coelacanths, also lungfish, and of course our direct ancestors the tetrapods (every land vertebrate ever, plus birds, bats, dolphins and whales).”
But few fossils have been found from the creatures that lived in between those two stages, and many aren’t in great shape. So it was hard to figure out how Qingmendous was related to other creatures alive at the time, not to mention everything that came after.
That’s when You’an Zhu joined the team. Using CT scans, he and his colleagues digitally reconstructed the inside of Qingmendous’s skull, allowing them to get a better look at who he was and how his brain worked.
“It turned out to be a mosaic of characteristics,” he said. “It kind of filled in the gaps between the primitive and the modern lobe finned fishes, bridging the two stages together.”
Qingmendous is not a missing link, he said — evolution is not linear. But the characteristics of his body and brain can help explain how the sea creatures made the leap onto land. Like the ancestors of modern terrestrial creatures, Qingmendous dwelled in brackish waters of lagoons, bays and deltas — within spitting distance of land. He had the same muscular fins that his cousins would use to clamber gracelessly out of the water. His skull also shares some of the advanced features of still-living lobe finned fish (well, advanced for 409 million years ago), indicating that his brain was more modern as well.
The lobe finned fish had the right tools for terrestrial exploration. They also had good luck and good timing, You’an Zhu said. There are plenty of fish that can survive out of the water for short periods of time today, but they don’t stick around because there’s too much competition and too many predators.
But 390 million years ago, plants had comfortably colonized land and insects were widespread. The continents were essentially a well-stocked, all-you-can-eat buffet — with no one else to hog the food and not a single predator large enough to make you regret sticking your head out of the sea.
“So the lobe finned fish will take their chance and venture onto land and become our ancestors,” he said.
Sarah Kaplan is a reporter for Speaking of Science.
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