MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION


MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  Vs  HUMAN EVOLUTION WHOLE MENDELISM  #WholeMendelism  Vs  DARWINISM:

The origin of Man, or the Beginning of Man as a new form of Life may have a basis that lies outside  operation of natural causes. Mendelism, ‘The Theory of Heredity’ formulated by Gregor Mendel provides insights to the problem of man’s origin. on the basis of Mendelism, it can be said that man did not descend from Primates and is not truly related to other members of Hominid Family. Man’s relationship with other zoological species has to be explained on the basis of reproductive history and inheritance of  biological traits. I coined the phrase “Whole Mendelism” #WholeMendelism to claim that man had arrived on planet Earth due to a special act of creation.  There are no natural conditions, no natural factors, no natural mechanisms, no natural processes and no natural causes to transform any of previously existing members of Hominid Family to establish the reality of anatomically modern man. To make  transition from an old species to a new species which is often called ‘EVOLUTION’ or ‘DARWINISM’, the breeding interactions of species involved must operate according to the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Gregor Johann Mendel, the Father of Genetics. In this article, I would like to describe the Laws of Inheritance and the problems that I encounter to verify Darwinism while using the Mendelian Principles of Heredity and Variation. For example, if evolutionary biologists or anthropologists claim that anatomically modern human species or its immediate ancestral species had reproduced with archaic hominids such as Neanderthals, the human genome has to include one complete ‘Haploid’ set of chromosomes normally occurring in the mature germ cell called egg or sperm  which means 22 chromosomes(Autosomes), and 1  X or Y chromosome(Sex chromosome) derived exclusively from Neanderthal genome. Secondly, human population must include a few members that can be clearly identified as Neanderthal.

THE ORIGIN AND EXTINCTION OF SPECIES:

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : AFTER  THE  ORIGIN  OF  LIFE  ON  EARTH  FOR  A  VERY,  VERY  LONG  TIME( ABOUT  3.5  BILLION  YEARS)  IT  COMPRISED  OF  SIMPLER  FORMS  OF  LIFE .  SUDDENLY,  ABOUT  600  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  NUMEROUS  MARINE  CREATURES  ARRIVED  TO  CAUSE  AN  "EXPLOSION  OF  LIFE."
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : AFTER THE ORIGIN OF LIFE ON EARTH FOR A VERY, VERY LONG TIME( ABOUT 3.5 BILLION YEARS) IT COMPRISED OF SIMPLER FORMS OF LIFE . SUDDENLY, ABOUT 600 MILLION YEARS AGO NUMEROUS MARINE CREATURES ARRIVED TO CAUSE AN “EXPLOSION OF LIFE.”

It will be interesting to note that a vast majority of species found on Earth have emerged suddenly and have disappeared suddenly. For example, Cambrian, first geologic Period in the Paleozoic Era witnessed  sudden emergence of a great variety of marine animals especially trilobites and brachiopods about 600 million years ago. This “Explosion of Life” is aptly named ‘Cambrian Explosion’. Similarly, towards the end of Cretaceous Period, third geologic Period of the Mesozoic Era and the beginning of Tertiary Period of the Cenozoic Era, about 65 million years ago, a global extinction event called K-T Event was responsible for eliminating approximately 80 percent of all species of animals. Dinosaurs which reached maximum development became extinct while new forms of life appeared with new hereditary traits.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   THESE  DEEP  SEA  CREATURES  OF  ATLANTIC  OCEAN,  LAMELLIBRACHIA  LUYMESI,  TUBE  WORMS,  INVERTEBRATES  BELONG  TO  PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON  VENTS.  TUBE  WORMS  TAKE  170  TO  250  YEARS  TO  GROW  AND  HAVE  SURVIVED  AS  A  SPECIES  WITHOUT  CONCERN  FOR  CHANGING  TIMES.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THESE DEEP SEA CREATURES OF ATLANTIC OCEAN, LAMELLIBRACHIA LUYMESI, TUBE WORMS, INVERTEBRATES BELONG TO PHYLUM  ANNELIDA  LIVE  ON  THE  OCEAN  FLOOR  ALONG  HYDROCARBON VENTS. TUBE WORMS TAKE 170 TO 250 YEARS TO GROW AND HAVE SURVIVED AS A SPECIES WITHOUT CONCERN FOR CHANGING TIMES SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  ERA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  SUDDEN  APPEARANCE  OF  A  VARIETY  OF  MARINE  LIFE  FORMS IN  AN  EVENT  CALLED 'CAMBRIAN  EXPLOSION'  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  GEODUCK,  BIVALVE  CLAMS ARE  AMONG  THE  OLDEST  ANIMALS  IN  THE  WORLD  WITH  LIFESPANS  OF  ABOUT  146  TO  160  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR SUDDEN APPEARANCE OF A VARIETY OF MARINE LIFE FORMS IN AN EVENT CALLED ‘CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION’ ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . PANOPEA  GENEROSA, GEODUCK(NATIVE  AMERICAN CHINOOK  NAME), BIVALVE,  WORLD’S  LARGEST  BURROWING  SALT  WATER  CLAMS  FOUND  IN  THE  US  PUGET  SOUND  ARE AMONG THE OLDEST ANIMALS IN THE WORLD WITH LIFESPANS OF ABOUT 146 TO 160 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY  EXTINCTION  EVENT  ABOUT  65  MILLION  YEARS  AGO  WIPED  OUT  APPROXIMATELY  80  PERCENT  OF  ALL  SPECIES  OF  ANIMALS  INCLUDING  A  GREAT  VARIETY  OF  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY EXTINCTION EVENT ABOUT 65 MILLION YEARS AGO WIPED OUT APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPECIES OF ANIMALS INCLUDING A GREAT VARIETY OF DINOSAURS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  DARWINISM  CANNOT  EXPLAIN  EITHER  THE  EMERGENCE  OF  NEW  SPECIES  OR  EXTINCTION  OF  OLD  SPECIES.  NATURAL  FACTORS,  NATURAL  CONDITIONS,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  AND  NATURAL  CAUSES  CANNOT  FULLY  ACCOUNT  FOR  EXTINCTION  OF  THE  LARGE-BODIED  ICE  AGE  MAMMALS  SUCH  AS  WOOLLY  RHINOCEROS,  WOOLY  MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND  SABERTOOTH  CARNIVORES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DARWINISM CANNOT EXPLAIN EITHER THE EMERGENCE OF NEW SPECIES OR EXTINCTION OF OLD SPECIES. NATURAL FACTORS, NATURAL CONDITIONS, NATURAL MECHANISMS , AND NATURAL CAUSES CANNOT FULLY ACCOUNT FOR EXTINCTION OF THE LARGE-BODIED ICE AGE MAMMALS SUCH AS WOOLLY RHINOCEROS, WOOLY MAMMOTHS, MASTODONS, AND SABERTOOTH CARNIVORES .

In Darwinism, new species arise when, among the varieties of an existing species, certain intermediate forms become extinct, and the other circumstances are such that the surviving varieties now become more sharply separated from one another in type, and are able to reproduce their kind, and , in the course of many generations of interbreeding, also tend to breed true. This ‘Theory of Evolution’ is not consistent with Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance and Variation. The Unit Character called ‘GENE’ conserves its identity during the process of reproduction which could be either ‘Inbreeding’, or ‘Interbreeding’. A species is always known by its reproductive history for the Unit Characters or Genes get propagated to the next generation during both inbreeding and interbreeding process.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  JOHANN  MENDEL(1822-1884),  THE  FATHER  OF  GENETICS .  AT  THE  AUGUSTINIAN  MONASTERY  IN  BRNO(1843-1868),  HE  CONDUCTED OVER 29,000 BREEDING  EXPERIMENTS  CHIEFLY  ON  GARDEN PEAS(PISUM  SATIVUM).

Gregor Johann Mendel(1822-1884), Austrian monk noted for his experimental work on Heredity. At the Augustinian monastery in Brno(1843-1868) he conducted experiments chiefly on Garden Peas(Pisum sativum) using a controlled pollination technique and a careful statistical analysis of his results. He produced the first accurate and scientific explanation of ‘Hybridization’. Some evolutionary geneticists and evolutionary anthropology scholars have shared opinions claiming that the ‘hybridization’ of unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens with other species of the genus Homo such as Neanderthals, and Denisova hominids may have resulted in  production of anatomically modern humans(Homo sapiens sapiens). Their views on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. The hypothesis of  Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans is fundamentally inconsistent with the Laws of Inheritance discovered by Mendel. If modern man is a product of Hybridization, the present, surviving human population would include a few surviving members of Neanderthals, Denisova, and other ancestral hominids who successfully reproduced with an unknown, ancestral Homo sapiens species which got transformed into ‘HAM’ humans.

THE LAW OF BIOGENESIS AND THE LAW OF NATURAL GENERATION :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY .  MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER  PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF  BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : DIPLOID  SET  OF  HUMAN CHROMOSOMES  AND  HUMAN  GENOTYPE  . MAN  REPRODUCES  AND  FURTHER PROPAGATES  HIS  CHROMOSOMAL  INHERITANCE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  LAW  OF BIOGENESIS  AND  THE  LAW  OF  NATURAL  GENERATION . HUMAN  OFFSPRING  WILL  ALWAYS  BE  OF  THE  SAME  SPECIES  AS  THE  PARENT  ORGANISM . THE  TERM  GENOME  DESCRIBES  THE  SET  OF  GENES  CHARACTERISTIC  OF  EACH  SPECIES .

The term ‘Generation’ means to produce offspring. The term ‘Propagation’ means to transmit hereditary characteristics by reproduction. The Law of Biogenesis states the Principle that living organisms originate only from other living organisms closely similar to themselves. It is  ‘The Law of Like Generating Like’. A species always breeds true to its own species. Its members always generate organisms which are classified as belonging to the same species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races, or varieties of species are able to breed with one another, but diverse species cannot interbreed. By the Law of Natural Generation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. Hence, species is self-perpetuating and maintain  stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain as fixed from generation to generation. In Plant and Animal Kingdom, a species distinguishes itself by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. The Mendelian System of Heredity states that an inherited characteristic is determined by the combination of two hereditary units(now called genes), one from each of the parental reproductive cells or gametes(Sperm and Egg Cell). The term genome describes the complete haploid set of chromosomes of a sexually reproducing organism normally occurring in mature germ cell called egg or sperm. This number of chromosomes is characteristic of each species. Every human being arrives on planet Earth with an original, unique, distinctive, and one of its own kind of  genome that has never, ever existed in the past, and would never exist again in the future. Sexual reproduction is a creative process which involves a type of cell division called ‘MEIOSIS’ that results in production of Sperm or Egg Cell. Fertilization of egg cell by sperm always creates a new kind of genome while the number of chromosomes(Diploid set) that is the chief attribute of species is held constant.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  HUMAN  BIRTH  REQUIRES  THE  UNION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS,  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES (SPERM  AND  EGG  CELL) .  MEIOSIS  OR  HAPLOID  DIVISION  IS  A  HIGHLY  CREATIVE  PROCESS  AS  IT  GENERATES  A UNIQUE ,  ORIGINAL,   DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF  GENOME, A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES  WHILE  THE  DIPLOID SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES AFTER FERTILIZATION  OR  CONCEPTION  IS  CONSTANT .

THE ORIGIN OR THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN HUMANS:

To explain the Origin of Man, The Beginning of Man on the basis of Darwinism, demands  presence of two, identical, rare, mutant individuals(a male, and a female) to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new, modern human population in all geographical regions of the Old World. About 10, 000 years ago, modern humans may have shared the planet with a few surviving members of Neanderthals and other hominid species. Techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced and find application in the understanding of the genus Homo. The claims about Hybridization of archaic humans such as Neanderthals with Homo sapiens  finds support from DNA studies of the current,  members of human population as compared to DNA sequences extracted from Neanderthal fossils. But those shared genetic traits are not of major significance and do not account for the morphological appearance of either Neanderthal or modern man. At the same time, it may be noted that 30 – 35, 000 years ago, Neanderthals disappeared from the fossil record. Similarly, Hominid Denisova, discovered in Altai Mountains, Southern Siberia lived 41, 000 years ago. Homo sapiens floresiensis(Flores Man) of Indonesia  suddenly disappeared 12, 000 years ago. Hominid Red Deer discovered in China lived 14.5 to 11.5 thousand years ago. To make a credible claim about interbreeding between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, we need to demonstrate  presence of traits characteristic of Homo sapiens in the DNA extracted from Neanderthal fossil specimens. It will be correct to claim that from Holocene Epoch or Series, approximately for the last 10, 000 years, modern humans constitute the only surviving members of the Hominid Family found on planet Earth.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  CAN  EASILY  ESTABLISH  THE  FACT  THAT  THIS  HUMAN  BABY  HAS  TWO ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  PARENTS . EVERY  BABY   ARRIVES  WITH  ORIGINAL,  UNIQUE,  DISTINCTIVE,  AND  ONE  OF  ITS  OWN  KIND  OF   GENOME( A  COMPLETE  HAPLOID  SET  OF  CHROMOSOMES, OR  23 CHROMOSOMES  FROM  EACH  PARENT) THAT  NEVER  EXISTED  IN  THE  PAST  AND  WILL  NEVER  EXIST  AGAIN  IN  FUTURE  WHILE  ALL  HUMANS  ARE  BORN  WITH  A  DIPLOID  SET   THAT  HAS  46  CHROMOSOMES .

Charles Darwin uses the term species to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon(1707-1788) in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere, 44 Volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same species if they can produce fertile offspring. According to Buffon, a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon opened the way to  development of Paleontology to discover lost species. The status of Anatomically Modern Humans as a distinct species is verified as human populations consist of members that are genetically similar, interbreeding or potentially interbreeding individuals that share the same collection of inherited characteristics, whose combination is unique to our species. Diverse species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. Hybrid is the term for the offspring of a cross between two different subspecies or species. In Genetics, hybrid is the term for the offspring of parents differing in any genetic characteristic.Interbreeding or Hybridization means to produce offspring by crossing two individuals of unlike genetic constitution. The offspring of different races, varieties, species, etc., are called ‘hybrids’. If Neanderthal is one of the parents of Anatomically Modern Humans, identity of the second Hominid parent has to be ascertained, and the characteristics of that parent are accounted for using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. The social and cultural behavior of anatomically modern man consistently displays a tendency that prefers and encourages ‘inbreeding’. The prevailing social and cultural norms of human society in general tend to oppose sexual behavior that may be identified as ‘interbreeding’. In selection of a mate for breeding, anatomically modern man prefers an individual who closely resembles the members of his/her own stock.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  A  SPECIES  IS  RECOGNIZED  BY  ITS  HISTORY  OF  PROPAGATION . MULE,  A   PRODUCT  OF  CROSSBREEDING , OR  HYBRIDIZATION  CANNOT FURTHER  REPRODUCE  PRODUCTIVELY  WITH  OTHER  MULES,  OR  WITH  HORSE , OR   ASS FOR  IT  IS  BORN  STERILE .  HYBRIDIZATION  WILL  NOT  HELP  TO  TRANSFORM  A  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW  SPECIES  IF  ITS  PARENTS  BELONG  TO  DIFFERENT  SPECIES .

The concept of Hybridized Anatomically Modern(HAM) humans cannot be verified in  absence of any surviving members of Neanderthal, Denisova, or other Hominid population with whom modern man may have reproduced about 10, 000 years ago.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : IT  WILL  BE  IMPORTANT  TO  NOTE  THAT  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS  ARE  NOT  HEREDITARY  AND  THERE  IS  NO  INHERITANCE  OF  ACQUIRED  CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : IT WILL BE IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS ARE NOT HEREDITARY AND THERE IS NO INHERITANCE OF ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MENDEL  DEMONSTRATED  INHERITANCE  PATTERNS  THROUGH  BREEDING  EXPERIMENTATION. THE  IMAGE  SHOWS  SOME  OF  THE  HEREDITARY  TRAITS  OR  CHARACTERS  INVESTIGATED  BY  MENDEL  WHILE  EXPERIMENTING  ON  GARDEN  PEA  PLANTS  WITH  WHITE  OR  VIOLET  FLOWERS.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   FOR  UNIT  CHARACTERS  NAMED  R(DOMINANT),  r(RECESSIVE),  Y(DOMINANT),  AND   y(RECESSIVE),  THE  DIAGRAM  ILLUSTRATES  THE OPERATION  OF  MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY  STATES  THAN  AN  INHERITED  CHARACTERISTIC  IS  DETERMINED  BY  THE  COMBINATION  OF  TWO  HEREDITARY  UNITS( NOW  CALLED  GENES ),  ONE  FROM  EACH  OF  THE  PARENTAL  REPRODUCTIVE  CELLS  OR  GAMETES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AS  PER  THE  MENDELIAN  SYSTEM  OF  HEREDITY ,  IF  MODERN  HUMANS  INTERBREED  WITH  NEANDERTHALS , IN  EACH  GENERATION  OF  OFFSPRING  PRODUCED ,  THREE  INDIVIDUALS  COULD  BE  MODERN  HUMANS ( DOMINANT  TRAIT )  AND  ONE  INDIVIDUAL WOULD  BE  NEANDERTHAL ( RECESSIVE  TRAIT ).  SUCH  INTERBREEDING  WOULD  IN  REALITY  SAVE  NEANDERTHAL  POPULATION  FROM  TOTAL  EXTINCTION .

Mendel demonstrated the inheritance patterns through breeding experimentations. He discovered in 1866 hereditary factors or “genes” whose existence he deduced without seeing them. Mendel’s statistical analysis of his data provided the mathematical basis for modern Genetics. There are four principles of hereditary phenomenon discovered and formulated by Mendel :

1. The Law of Independent Unit Characters which states that characters such as height, color, etc., are inherited separately as  Units,

2. The Law of Segregation which states that body cells and primordial germ cells contain pairs of such Unit Characters and that when gametes(Sperm or Egg Cell) are produced, each gamete receives only one member of each such pair,

3. The Law of Dominance which states that in every individual there is a pair of determining factors for each Unit Character, one from each parent, if these factors are different(heterozygous), one Character( the Dominant) appears in the organism, the other(  Recessive) being latent; the Recessive Character can appear in the organism only when the Dominant is absent; hence in all crossbred generations, Unit Characters are shown in varying combinations, each appearing in a definite proportion of the total number of offspring, and 

4. The Law of Independent Assortment which states that any one pair of Characters is inherited independently, not withstanding the simultaneous transmission of other traits. This Law is modified by the discovery of Linkage and Pleiotropy. Linkage describes the tendency of some genes to remain together and act as a Unit or Linkage Group. In Inheritance, the Linkage Group of genes are generally found in the same chromosome. Pleiotropy is the condition in which a single gene exerts simultaneous effects on more than one character in the offspring.

ABOUT GENETICS  AND THE CONSTANCY OF GENETIC CODE :

Genetics is an important aspect of many areas of Biology. Genetics helps in the study and identification of specific types of organisms; research in Molecular Genetics involves studies on chemical structure and functions of genes at molecular level; Cyto Genetics studies  location of genetic material in cells and the role of genes in cell division; Developmental Genetics studies the genetic function in embryological phenomena; Behavior Genetics studies the role of gene in regulating behavior; Population Genetics studies genetics in relation to the “evolutionary” process. Medical Genetics involves  application of genetic principles to the practice of Medicine such as the study of inheritance of diseases in families. Genetic factors cause many health disorders affecting man. Some human diseases are entirely genetic in origin and environmental factors play little if any part. This group of genetic disorders includes chromosomal abnormalities, and so-called “Unifactorial Disorders” which are due to single gene defects or Mendelian factors. There are over 3 thousand of such unifactorial disorders. The mode of inheritance of such disorders is straight forward and follows Mendelian Principles. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance have their practical applications in Medical Genetics. However, the use of Mendel’s Principles in Population Genetics to verify The Theory of Evolution is highly controversial because of the speculative postulates about transformation of old species into a new species .  Several single-celled Blue-Green algae, plankton, microbes, viruses, protozoans, insects, crocodiles, turtles, sharks and other organisms are known to be existing upon Earth from billions to several millions of years. The unchanging  genetic code in all past and present members of these long-lived species permit the genes to have the same effects on their carriers from generation to generation. Because of  constancy of the genetic code, we can  identify  existence of individual species which maintain their species-specific traits as per Mendelian Principles. There are numerous kinds of longest living species on Earth and their identification is possible because of their genetic codes have essentially remained unchanged.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE .  BLUE-GREEN  ALGAE,  CYANOBACTERIA  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS  FOR  BILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE . BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS  SINCE  PRECAMBRIAN  TIME,  3,800  TO  700 MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  SPONGES  ARE  INVERTEBRATE  ANIMALS  OF  THE  PHYLUM  PORIFERA .  SPONGES  ARE  AMONG  THE  LONGEST  LIVING  ANIMAL  SPECIES  OF  EARTH .  THEY  APPEARED  IN  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD  ABOUT  570  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .  ANTARCTIC  SPONGE  CAN  LIVE  FOR  CENTURIES .  OLDEST  KNOWN  SPONGE  ESTIMATED  AGE  1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPONGES ARE INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF THE PHYLUM PORIFERA . SPONGES ARE AMONG THE LONGEST LIVING ANIMAL SPECIES OF EARTH . THEY APPEARED IN CAMBRIAN PERIOD ABOUT 570 MILLION YEARS AGO . ANTARCTIC SPONGE CAN LIVE FOR CENTURIES . OLDEST KNOWN SPONGE ESTIMATED AGE 1, 550 YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  PERMIT  THE  GENES  TO  HAVE  THE  SAME  EFFECTS  ON  THEIR  CARRIERS  FROM  GENERATION  TO  GENERATION . AMERICAN  COCKROACH  IS  EXISTING  ON  EARTH  FOR  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE PERMIT THE GENES TO HAVE THE SAME EFFECTS ON THEIR CARRIERS FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION . AMERICAN COCKROACH IS EXISTING ON EARTH BASICALLY  UNCHANGED  FOR  300   MILLION   YEARS . MOST  ABUNDANT  DURING  THE  CARBONIFEROUS  PERIOD  DURING  WHICH  A  VARIETY  OF  INSECTS  APPEARED .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARCTICA  ISLANDICA .  OCEAN  QUAHOG  OR  CLAM  .  MOLLUSKS  ARE  ORGANISMS  WITH  SHELLS  DATE  BACK  TO  THE  CAMBRIAN  PERIOD,  500  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  GIVES  THE  ABILITY  TO  IDENTIFY  THE  EXISTENCE  OF  INDIVIDUAL  SPECIES  WHICH  MAINTAIN  THEIR  SPECIES-SPECIFIC  TRAITS .  OVER  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS,  SHARKS  HAVE  MAINTAINED  THEIR  MORPHOLOGICAL  APPEARANCE .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE CONSTANCY OF THE GENETIC CODE GIVES THE ABILITY TO IDENTIFY THE EXISTENCE OF INDIVIDUAL SPECIES WHICH MAINTAIN THEIR SPECIES-SPECIFIC TRAITS . OVER 350  MILLION   YEARS,  SINCE  THE  END  OF  DEVONIAN  PERIOD  SHARKS HAVE MAINTAINED THEIR MORPHOLOGICAL APPEARANCE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SPHENODON  TUATARA  .  THIS  LIZARDLIKE  REPTILE  OF  NEW  ZEALAND  IS  KNOWN  AS  A  LIVING  FOSSIL .  THIS  SPECIES  IS  IN  EXISTENCE  FOR  ABOUT  200-225  MILLION  YEARS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : SPHENODON TUATARA . THIS LIZARDLIKE REPTILE OF NEW ZEALAND IS KNOWN AS A LIVING FOSSIL . THIS SPECIES IS IN EXISTENCE FOR ABOUT 200-225 MILLION YEARS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : BASED  UPON  THEIR  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES,  ORGANISMS  ARE  KNOWN  TO  BE  EXISTING  UPON  EARTH  FOR  SEVERAL  MILLIONS  OF  YEARS .  CROCODILES  LIVED  ALONG  WITH  DINOSAURS .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : BASED UPON THEIR UNIQUE GENETIC CODES, ORGANISMS ARE KNOWN TO BE EXISTING UPON EARTH FOR SEVERAL MILLIONS OF YEARS . CROCODILES LIVED ALONG WITH DINOSAURS . ORIGINATED  DURING  THE  LATE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  OF  THE  GENETIC  CODE  IS  UNKNOWN .  THE  VAST  MAJORITY  OF  ORGANISMS  BREED  WITH  OTHER  MEMBERS  OF  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES  PROPAGATING  THEIR  OWN  UNIQUE  GENETIC  CODES .  WE  KNOW  ABOUT  LONG-LIVED  ORGANISMS  LIKE  SEA  TURTLES  BECAUSE  OF  THE  CONSTANCY  OF  THEIR  GENETIC  CODES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ORIGIN OF THE GENETIC CODE IS UNKNOWN . THE VAST MAJORITY OF ORGANISMS BREED WITH OTHER MEMBERS OF THEIR OWN SPECIES PROPAGATING THEIR OWN UNIQUE GENETIC CODES . WE KNOW ABOUT LONG-LIVED ORGANISMS LIKE SEA TURTLES BECAUSE OF THE CONSTANCY OF THEIR GENETIC CODES . TURTLES  ARE  IN  EXISTENCE  FROM  THE  TRIASSIC  PERIOD,  200  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ALASKA  BOWHEAD  WHALE .  WHALES  ORIGINATED  IN  THE  EARLY  TERTIARY  OR  UPPER  CRETACEOUS  ABOUT  70  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : ALASKA BOWHEAD WHALE . WHALES ORIGINATED IN THE EARLY TERTIARY OR UPPER CRETACEOUS ABOUT 70 MILLION YEARS AGO.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MONOTREMES .  DUCK-BILLED  PLATYPUS  ORNITHO  RHYNCHUS  ANATINUS  IS  A  SPECIES  SURVIVING  SINCE  AUSTRALIAN  PLEISTOCENE  ABOUT  2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MONOTREMES . DUCK-BILLED PLATYPUS ORNITHO RHYNCHUS ANATINUS IS A SPECIES SURVIVING SINCE AUSTRALIAN PLEISTOCENE ABOUT 2 MILLION YEARS AGO.

While describing Genetics as the area of Biology concerned with the study of inheritance, the process by which certain characteristics or traits of organisms are handed down from parent to offspring, I would like to suggest that a creative mechanism, a creative process or a creative operation could be at work when Genetics accounts for variations in similar or related animals and plants. I would like to emphasize the fact of all organisms existing as Individuals with Individuality. In Nature, living things have no choice other than that of existence as Individuals with Individuality. Even a mob of genetically identical(“CLONES”) colony of bacteria of E. coli are experimentally proved to behave as Individuals with Individuality.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :
MENDEL’S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION  : DOUBLE –  HELIX DEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC  ACID  OR  DNA  IS  FOUND  IN  CHROMOSOMES,  THE  STRUCTURES  FOUND  INSIDE   THE   NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS.  THE  DNA  MOLECULE  ALWAYS  EXHIBITS  INDIVIDUALISTIC  VARIATION  IN   ITS   BEHAVIOR .

In higher organisms with cells that contain a Nucleus, the genetic material called DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) is carried by structures known as Chromosomes in the Nucleus, and the cytoplasmic structures known as Mitochondria. The genetic material called RNA(ribonucleic acid) is found in the Nucleolus(present inside the Nucleus) and structures called Ribosomes found in the Cytoplasm.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE  KNOWN  AS  GENES.  THE  GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES  THAT  ARE  PRESENT  IN  THE  NUCLEUS  OF  CELLS  OF  HIGHER  ORGANISMS .  DNA  IS  FOUND IN  CHROMOSOMES,  MITOCHONDRIA,  AND  RIBOSOMES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION :  CELL  IS  THE   BASIC  BUILDING  BLOCK  OF  LIVING  THINGS . THE UNITS  OF  INHERITANCE  ARE KNOWN  AS GENES. THE GENES  ARE  FOUND  INSIDE  CHROMOSOMES THAT ARE PRESENT IN THE NUCLEUS OF CELLS OF HIGHER ORGANISMS . DNA,  IS FOUND IN CHROMOSOMES, MITOCHONDRIA, AND  RNA  IS  FOUND  IN THE NUCLEOLUS AND  RIBOSOMES .

The Ribosomes are the sites of protein synthesis present in the Cytoplasm. DNA interacts with ‘transfer RNA'(t-RNA), ‘Messenger RNA'(m-RNA), and Ribosomal RNA in the process of protein synthesis. The Chromosome is divided into Units called Genes. Each Gene is responsible for a particular trait  and hence Gene is the Unit of inheritance. The term ‘allele’ describes either of a pair of genes at the same position on both members of a pair of chromosomes and conveying traits that are inherited by Mendelian Laws.There could be small chemical differences in genes that are expressed as different versions of the same trait (‘alleles’). Each gene is responsible for the manufacture of a particular protein which is involved in  development of a trait associated with it. Each chromosome of each species of higher organisms has a definite number and arrangement of genes which govern the structure and functions of the cells.  It is important to note that, while genes are located inside the Nucleus of the cell, the actual protein synthesis occurs in structures called Ribosomes present in the Cytoplasm outside the Nucleus. While we appreciate the role of genes as Units of Inheritance, we should give equal importance to the Living Substance, the Living Material, or the Living Matter called Cytoplasm that is found inside the living cells, outside the Nucleus of the cell. There are basically three classes of Genes: 1. Structural genes which determine the sequences of amino acids that go to makeup proteins or the smaller chain of molecules known as polypeptides, 2. Coding genes which specify molecules that function in the processes involved in protein synthesis, and 3. Regulatory genes which are called Noncoding genes for they act solely as “Recognition” sites for enzymes and other proteins involved in controlling protein synthesis.

THE  GENETIC CODE AND THE ROLE OF MUTATIONS:    

 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :

MENDEL’S LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION   :  GENETIC  CODE  DESCRIBES  THE  RELATIONSHIP  BETWEEN  THE  COMPOSITION  OF  DNA  AND  THAT  OF  PROTEINS  PRODUCED  BY  GENES .

The Genetic Code describes the relationship between composition of DNA and that of proteins produced by genes. Genetic Code is the chemical equation by which hereditary information is translated from genes into proteins. Changes in the genetic code are called Mutations. Mutations can cause a change in protein synthesis. In higher organisms, when mutation involves the germ-line cells that eventually develop into sperm or egg cells, the mutation and its consequence of altered protein synthesis is inherited by offspring. A mutation can be minor and relatively insignificant, or it can cause serious deformity or metabolic deficiency in the organism. Most mutations tend to be harmful. Fortunately, a typical gene in higher organisms is segmented and the entire genetic information of a gene is not contained in a single, unbroken strand of DNA molecule. The value of having the genetic code in segments is to reduce the chances of mutations causing harmful changes in protein synthesis. Certain self-repair mechanisms also exist to deal with the damage done to DNA. Very often, the damaged DNA is repaired or the cell carrying the damaged DNA is killed and destroyed. For this reason, it is important to recognize the simple fact of DNA damage associated with mutations irrespective of its cause. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, and apparently purposeless mutations lead to gradual changes in a species and eventually lead to its descent as a new species. As per the Theory of Evolution, mutations may bring about three kinds of changes; 1. Changes in the morphological appearance of an organism, 2. Changes in the skeletal and other anatomical structures of an organism, and 3. Changes in the behavior displayed by an organism.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  MUSCLE  TWITCH  IN  FROG  MUSCLE  EXPERIMENT .  MUTATIONS  CANNOT  ACCOUNT  FOR  GUIDED,  SEQUENTIAL,  AND  PURPOSEFUL  NATURE  OF  MUSCLE  CONTRACTIONS  WHICH  HAVE  SEVERAL  CREATIVE  APPLICATIONS  IN  THE  NATURAL  WORLD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MUSCLE TWITCH IN FROG MUSCLE EXPERIMENT . MUTATIONS CANNOT ACCOUNT FOR GUIDED, SEQUENTIAL, AND PURPOSEFUL NATURE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS WHICH HAVE SEVERAL CREATIVE APPLICATIONS IN THE NATURAL WORLD .

In higher organisms, the cells are differentiated to perform special functions. For example, muscle cells have ability of contraction. This physiological function of contraction is easily demonstrated by applying an electrical stimulus to muscle as done in Muscle Twitch in Frog Experiment. Animals have different abilities of locomotion; some crawl or creep, or slide on a surface, some swim, or move in water, some fly or glide in air, and others walk, run, climb, and swing in a variety of amazing manners. Whatever may be the mode of locomotion, all animal muscle cells display the same physiological function of contraction. While the physiology remains the same, the muscles of each animal species display individualistic functional characteristics. For mutations are random, unguided, and purposeless, they cannot account for guided, sequential and purposeful nature of muscle contractions which have several creative applications in the natural world.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :   CHIMPANZEE  AND  OTHER  APES HAVE  48  CHROMOSOMES  WHEREAS  MAN  HAS  ONLY  46  CHROMOSOMES .  CHROMOSOMES 2a  AND  2b  FOUND  IN  APES  IS  OF  PARTICULAR  INTEREST .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE AND OTHER APES HAVE 48 CHROMOSOMES WHEREAS MAN HAS ONLY 46 CHROMOSOMES . CHROMOSOMES 2 a AND 2 b FOUND IN APES ARE  OF PARTICULAR INTEREST .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM  OF   SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  THAT  CAN  FUSE  CHROMOSOME  2 a  AND  2 b  TO  ASSEMBLE   CHROMOSOME  #  2   FOUND  IN   MAN .  MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  WHAT  IS  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????   CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE  ARRIVAL  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS  ???   CAN  WE  EXPLAIN   MAN  AS  A  PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION  AND  THE  PHENOMENON  CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT  ????

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : WHAT IS GENETIC DRIFT ????  CAN  IT  ACCOUNT  FOR  THE ARRIVAL OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS ??? CAN  WE EXPLAIN  MAN  AS  A PRODUCT  OF  HYBRIDIZATION AND  THE PHENOMENON CALLED  GENETIC  DRIFT ????

In ‘Evolution’ the term ‘Genetic Drift is used to describe a random change in gene frequency within a small population, resulting in mutations which regardless of their adaptive value, become fixed within the group. Variations in diet, variations in physical activity, variations in reproductive behavior, and variations in external environmental conditions may contribute to minor variations in ‘allele’ frequencies without transforming an old species into a new species.

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  AND  THE  MISSING  LINK :

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY  IS  A  BRANCH  OF  BIOLOGY  THAT  FORMULATES  THE  BASIS  FOR  SYSTEMATIC  CATEGORIZATION  OF  ORGANISMS  INTO  CATEGORIES  SUCH  AS  PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS,  ORDER,  FAMILY,  SUB-FAMILY,  GENUS,  AND  SPECIES .  WITHIN  THE  GENUS  HOMO  SAPIENS,  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN  IS  UNIQUE,  AND  DISTINCT  FOR  HUMAN  NATURE  STANDS  BY  ITSELF .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : TAXONOMY IS A BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT FORMULATES THE BASIS FOR SYSTEMATIC CATEGORIZATION OF ORGANISMS INTO CATEGORIES SUCH AS PHYLUM(OR DIVISION), CLASS, ORDER, FAMILY, SUB-FAMILY, GENUS, AND SPECIES . WITHIN THE GENUS HOMO SAPIENS, ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN IS UNIQUE, AND DISTINCT FOR HUMAN NATURE STANDS BY ITSELF .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CHIMPANZEE IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  CHIMPANZEES  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MOUNTAIN  GORILLA  IS  NOT  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMAL .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MOUNTAIN GORILLA IS NOT THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN MAN AND ANIMAL .  GORILLAS  ARE  NATIVE  TO  AFRICA .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NO   EXTINCT  OR  LIVING  SPECIES  IS  ABLE  TO  BRIDGE  THE  GAP  BETWEEN  MODERN  MAN(HOMO  SAPIENS  SAPIENS)  AND  HIS  NEAREST  ALLIES  AMONG  HOMINID  FAMILY .  WHO  IS  THE  MISSING  LINK  BETWEEN  MAN  AND  ANIMALS  LIKE  CHIMPANZEE  AND  GORILLA ????

The above image reveals a fundamental problem  faced by Darwinism when it attempts to account for Human Evolution.  No extinct or living species is able to bridge the gap between modern man(Homo sapiens sapiens) and his nearest allies among Hominid Family and other Primates such as Chimpanzee and Gorilla.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  SOME  EVOLUTIONARY  GENTICISTS  CLAIM  THAT  MODERN  HUMANS HAVE  DESCENDED  BY  INTERBREEDING  AND  REPRODUCING  WITH  OTHER  SPECIES  OF  THE  GENUS  HOMO . INTERBREEDING  OR  INBREEDING  CANNOT  TRANSFORM  AN  OLD  SPECIES  INTO  A  NEW   SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  MECHANISM,  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS,  NO  NATURAL  CONDITION,  OR  NATURAL  CAUSE  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  NEANDERTHAL  SPECIES  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS. ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  PECULIAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  WILL  NOT  BE  WIPED  OUT  BY  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION,  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING .
MENDEL'S   LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  DENISOVA  HOMINIDS  DISCOVERED  IN  DENISOVA  CAVE ,  ALTAI  MOUNTAINS ,  SOUTHERN  SIBERIA,  RUSSIA .  DENISOVA  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHALS  AS  COMPARED  TO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  THEY   LIVED  41, 000 YEARS  AGO . CAN  ONLY  BREED  TRUE  TO  THEIR  OWN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  ARTISTIC  RENDITION  OF  DENISOVA  CHILD .  DNA  EXTRACTED  FROM  A  FRAGMENT  OF  PHALANX  OF  HAND  AND  A  MOLAR (TOOTH).  THIS  DENISOVA  GIRL IN  APPEARANCE  IS  MORE  SIMILAR  TO  NEANDERTHAL  THAN  TO  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHALS  LIVED  FOR  ABOUT  300, 000  YEARS .  NEANDERTHAL  BELONGS  TO  MIDDLE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  A  PRECISION  GRIP  SIMILAR  TO  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS  BUT  DID  NOT  DISPLAY  WRITING  SKILLS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  POWER  GRIP  AND  PRECISION  GRIP  LIKE  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .  BUT  HIS  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  WERE  NOT  ENOUGH  FOR  HIM  TO  ADVANCE  INTO  MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OF  OLD  STONE  AGE .  THIS  SPECIES  LIVED  FOR  A  LONG  TIME  WITHOUT  THE  POTENTIAL  TO  DEVELOP  WRITING  SKILLS .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   SAHELANTHROPUS  TCHADENSIS  NICKNAMED  “TOUMAI.”

NATURAL HISTORY OF HOMINID FAMILY :

Senckenberg Natural History Museum, Frankfurt, Germany prepared replicas of Hominid species using the fossils  discovered at different geographical locations. Sahelanthropus tchadensis lived 6.8 million years ago. It is one of the oldest Hominid specimens, found in 2003 in Djurab desert in Chad, Africa. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFARENSIS, AFRICAN  HOMINID  LIVED  3.2  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Australopithecus afarensis discovered in Afar region of Ethiopia, Africa in 1975. This Hominid lived 3.2 million years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMINID  AUSTRALOPITHECUS  AFRICANUS   LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

 Australopithecus africanus ,this Hominid replica nicknamed “Mrs Ples” lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered in 1947, at Sterfontein, South Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS AETHIOPICUS  LIVED  2.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus aethiopicus lived 2.5 million years ago. Discovered near Lake Turkana in Kenya, Africa, in 1985.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PARANTHROPUS  BOISEI  LIVED  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Paranthropus boisei, nicknamed “Zinz” lived 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  RUDOLFENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  1.8  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .

Homo Rudolfensis lived about 1.8 million years ago. Discovered in 1972 in Koobi Fora, Kenya, Africa.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER . LIVED  ABOUT  1.5  MILLION  YEARS  AGO.  NICKNAMED  “TURKANA  BOY.”

“TURKANA BOY” Homo ergaster lived about 1.5 million years ago. Initially thought to be an important “missing link” in Human Evolution.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERGASTER  IS  RELATED  TO  HOMO  ERECTUS  SPECIES  THAT  LIVED  IN  EASTERN  AND  SOUTHERN  AFRICA  FROM  ABOUT 1.89  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HOMO ERGASTER IS RELATED TO HOMO ERECTUS SPECIES THAT LIVED IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA FROM ABOUT 1.89 MILLION YEARS AGO .

In Africa, Homo ergaster and Homo erectus are viewed as relatives and thought to be the ancestral forms of later Hominids such as Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens. But, African Homo erectus is not related to Asian species of Homo erectus like Java Man, and Peking Man.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION : REPLICA  OF  HOMO  ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT  MAN,  VERTICAL  GAIT,  LIVED  ABOUT 1.8  TO  0.3  MILLION  YEARS  AGO .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : REPLICA OF HOMO ERECTUS(AFRICA), ERECT MAN, VERTICAL GAIT, LIVED ABOUT 1.8 TO 0.3 MILLION YEARS AGO .

Homo erectus of Africa had prominent brow ridges, projecting face, and a brain volume of about a litre as compared to modern man’s average brain volume of about 1,360 cubic centimetres. Some evolutionary biologists suggested that Homo erectus migrated to Asia, and Southern Europe.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO HEIDELBERGENSIS  ALSO  NAMED  HOMO  RHODESIENSIS  LIVED  ABOUT  500, 000  TO  350, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo heidelbergensis or Homo rhodesiensis. This replica is made from the fossils found in Sima de los Huesos, Spain in 1993. He lived about 500,000 to 350,000 years ago. Fossils also found in other places like Italy, France, and Greece. Homo sapiens may have appeared 300,000 years ago. Heidelbergensis could be the ancestor of Neanderthals which is often described as  a subspecies of Sapiens species.

Mendel's Laws-Human Evolution-Homo erectus
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE    VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  REPLICA   OF  HOMO  ERECTUS,  HOMINID  THAT  LIVED  1.5 MILLION  TO  300, 000  YEARS  AGO.

Homo erectus lived 1, 500, 000 to 300, 000 years ago. Homo erectus discovered in Republic of Georgia, China, and Indonesia lived until about 70,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  PILTDOWN  MAN  OF  SUSSEX,  ENGLAND.  HOMINID  SPECIES  OF  THE  PALEOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  OLD  STONE  AGE .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : PITHECANTHROPUS  ERECTUS ,  HOMO  ERECTUS .  THE  REPLICA  OF   “JAVA  MAN.”

Pithecanthropus, “JAVA MAN” discovered in 1891 could be the first to use fire. He used stone tools and belongs to the Lower Pleistocene Period.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  RHODESIAN  MAN  HAD  A  BRAIN  LARGER  THAN  THAT  OF  MODERN  HUMANS.

It could be of interest to note that Rhodesian Man( Heidelberg Man – Germany) had a large, thick skull, a sloping forehead, a chinless jaw, a brain larger than that of modern  man. The height was about five feet(152 cm) or slightly over.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  ERECTUS  PEKINENSIS . SINANTHROPUS  OR  PEKING  MAN .

Sinanthropus, Homo erectus pekinensis, or PEKING MAN belonged to the Middle Pleistocene.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  NEANDERTHALENSIS . THIS  REPLICA  IS  NICKNAMED “OLD MAN  OF  LA  CHAPELLE .”  HE  LIVED  56, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens neanderthalensis lived 56,000 years ago. The above is the replica nicknamed “OLD MAN OF LA CHAPELLE” found near La Chapelle aux-Saints in France in 1908.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS .  NICKNAMED  “HOBBIT. ”  LIVED  ABOUT  18, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens floresiensis, the FLORES MAN discovered in Liang Bua Cave, Flores, Indonesia in 2003. Lived about 18,000 years ago.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS FLORESIENSIS  –  FLORES  MAN  OF  INDONESIA  .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  FLORES  MAN  .  HOMO  SAPIENS  FLORESIENSIS. IT  COULD  BE  OF  INTEREST  TO  NOTE  THAT  FLORES  MAN  WAS ONLY  ABOUT  3  FEET  IN   HEIGHT. Initially thought to be a subspecies of Sapiens and now considered as a separate species. This Hominid species disappeared without any trace for unknown reasons.
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS.  LIVED  BETWEEN  100,  000  TO  90,  000  YEARS  AGO  BUT  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .

The above is a replica of Homo sapiens found in a cave in Israel in 1969. He lived between 100,000 to 90, 000 years ago. It is important to note that it is not representative of true, modern humans called Homo sapiens sapiens.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU . IDALTU  MAN   LIVED  ABOUT  160, 000  YEARS  AGO .  NOT  A  TRUE  REPRESENTATIVE  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMAN  SPECIES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  : HOMO  SAPIENS  IDALTU  OR  “HERTO  MAN ”  DISCOVERED  IN  1997  AT  HERTO, ETHIOPIA ,  AFRICA  .

Homo sapiens idaltu lived about 160, 000 years ago in Pleistocene Period(Middle Paleolithic), in Ethiopia, Africa, may mark the origin of anatomically modern Homo sapiens, making  distinction between Homo erectus species and Homo sapiens species. They were at the threshold of modern anatomy but not fully modern humans.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :   HOMO  SAPIENS  RED  DEER ,  SOUTHERN  CHINA   LIVED  11, 500  TO  14, 500  YEARS  AGO .

Homo sapiens Red Deer represents “Red Deer Cave” people who lived 11, 500 to 14, 500 years ago in Maludong, Yunnan Province, Southern China. Red Deer Man had high domed braincase, small eyebrow ridges, lower jaw ended in a prominent chin, with a body less muscular than those of earlier Hominids.

THE  ORIGIN  OF  MAN –  MONOGENISM  VS  POLYGENISM :

The term “RACE” is used to describe any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body, head, facial features, and blood groups. These characteristics are transmitted by heredity but they are highly variable; not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. It is apparent to claim that races arose in response to inbreeding. Across  majority of human cultures prevalent in Old World, inbreeding is the established cultural norm. In his ‘Systema Naturae'(1735) Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, gave a very precise description of man placing him among the Mammals in the order of Primates along the apes and the bat. Linnaeus presented a summary of the diverse varieties of human species. He described varieties such as The Asian, The African, and The European. Linnaeus created a system of classification that depended only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  VARIETIES  OR  RACES  AROSE  IN  RESPONSE  TO  INBREEDING . CAROLUS  LINNAEUS  DESCRIBED  HUMAN  VARIETIES  SUCH  AS  THE  ASIAN,  THE  AFRICAN,  AND  THE  EUROPEAN .

The French naturalist George Louis Leclerc comte de Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History(Histoire Naturelle general et particuliere, 44 volumes, 1749-1804) described man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. He held the view that a species is known only through the history of its propagation. Buffon claimed that it is absurd to use the same principles for classifying living and nonliving things. Most important, apes and other animals lack the ability to speak. Buffon saw the rise of human intelligence as a product of development of an articulated language. For animals may lack the ability to attach meaning to their articulated sounds, human language can be used as a basis to define human species and its varieties. Monogenism is the theory that all human beings are descended from a single pair of ancestors. Polygenism is the theory that each race of people has descended from distinct, ultimate ancestors and hence asserts that races are created separately. If anatomically modern humans are products of interbreeding between different Hominid Family members, it would be difficult to suggest that hybridized humans stopped interbreeding and preferred inbreeding to establish the races or varieties that can be observed today. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach(1752-1840), Father of Physical Anthropology known for his work ‘De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa(1775-76), did his research in measurement of craniums. He divided mankind into five great families – Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, and Ethiopian. Physical anthropologists initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind” (1870) described racial varieties such as 1. Bushmen, 2. Africoid, 3. Negritoes, 4. Melanochroi, 5. Australoids, 6. Xanthochroi, 7. Polynesians, 8. Mongoloids A, B, & C, and 9. Esquimaux. Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” The apparent variations among members of human population have to be explained using Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance which alone can account for breeding behavioral patterns. 

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THE  ORIGIN  AND  THE  EXTINCTION  OF DIFFERENT  MEMBERS  OF  HOMINID  SPECIES  CANNOT  BE  ACCOUNTED  ON  THE  BASIS  OF  NATURAL  CAUSES,  NATURAL  MECHANISMS ,  OR  NATURAL  CONDITIONS  THAT  INFLUENCE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OF  LIVING  ORGANISMS .MENDEL'S  LAWS

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :

MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE :  JOHANN FRIEDRICH BLUMENBACH(1752-1840), FATHER OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY DIVIDED MANKIND INTO FIVE GREAT FAMILIES  – CAUCASIAN, MONGOLIAN, MALAYAN, AND ETHIOPIAN .

CHARLES DARWIN – DARWINISM –  THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES(1859):

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  CHARLES  DARWIN(1809-1892) .  HIS  IMPORTANT  CONTRIBUTIONS  INCLUDE  THE  ORIGIN  OF  SPECIES(1859),  AND  THE  DESCENT  OF  MAN(1871).

Charles Darwin claimed that new species originate in the course of time. In his view, one species is transformed into another as a product of ‘Natural Selection’ of randomly produced genetic mutations. He formulated an opinion about the factors or circumstances under which some forms of life cease to have the status of species or become extinct. Darwin states, “The Origin of Species, like their extinction, is entirely a natural process which requires no factors other than those at work everyday in the life, death, and breeding of plants and animals.” To make  transition from an old species to a new species, certain intermediate forms become extinct combined with the survival of one or more of the extreme varieties. Darwin further attests, “If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking closely together all the species of the same group, must assuredly have existed, but the very process of natural selection constantly tends as has been so often remarked to exterminate the parent forms and the intermediate links.” As per Darwin’s analysis, anatomically modern human species may have to be viewed as a variety of one of the Hominid species that simply survived while this ancestral species and all other Hominid species perished towards the end of Pleistocene(Ice Age).

Darwin’s theory of ‘The Origin of Species’ depends on causes that can be divided into two sets of factors:

1. Mechanism of Survival that includes causes or factors which determine the extinction or survival of organisms, and with their survival, their opportunities for mating and reproduction, and 

2. Mechanism of Heredity that includes causes or factors which determine transmission of characteristics from one generation to another and  variation of offspring from their ancestors and from each other.

In Darwin’s estimate, the factors of ‘Natural Selection’ operate on genetic variations that cause a range of differences within a group. At the same time it may be noted that the variations generated in the breeding process are never enough to change the basic criteria applied in  identification of any given species. For  perpetuation of group characteristics in organisms which manage to survive and reproduce,  inheritance of ancestral traits is of utmost importance. Darwin’s view on blending of hereditary factors is not supported by Mendel’s classic experiments in Hybridization. According to Mendel, inheritance is particulate. Distinct genetic factors combine to produce a certain somatic result without losing their separate identities. They can therefore be reassorted and enter into new genetic combinations in the next generation. If anatomically modern human species appeared suddenly due to abrupt mutations in a single generation of as yet unknown Hominid species, it will not validate Darwin’s view that new forms of life arise gradually as the result of a continuous accumulation of slight and imperceptible variations. According to Darwin, environment acts as a selective agency and it acts upon variations produced entirely by causes operating in the breeding process. During the period of the Great Ice Age, Pleistocene Series or Epoch, 1.8 million to 10, 000 years ago, 28 percent of Earth’s land area was covered by ice. Continental glaciers covered much of N. North America and NW Europe. Holocene Epoch or Series that began 10, 000 years ago witnessed a dramatic change in land area that is covered by ice. Now, about 10 percent of land area is covered by ice and continental glaciers are restricted to Antarctica and Greenland. In other words, areas of Earth’s surface have become more hospitable for all kinds of Hominid population. There was no geographical catastrophe and there was no environmental change of cataclysmic proportion with serious consequences for the survival of any variety of Hominid species. To adapt to changed environment was easy, food supply became abundant and there is nothing to suggest that Hominid Family members were preying upon one another in a bitter struggle of existence. 

COMPARATIVE ANATOMY  WILL  DEMOLISH  DARWINISM :

According to Geologic Time Chart which records the physical nature and history of planet Earth, we are living in the Cenozoic Era the beginning of which was marked by the K-T extinction. Most of the major and minor extinction events were the result of causes that are not natural to Earth or terrestrial factors. The exposure of living things to consequences such as collisions with asteroids, comets, or exposure to ionizing radiation  do not belong to a category of circumstances that can be called ‘natural’. I would prefer to use the term ‘supernatural’ to describe extinction events initiated by extraterrestrial factors. The origin, the beginning, appearance of anatomically modern man during Holocene Epoch or Series has no natural cause. No natural condition, no natural factor, no natural mechanism, no natural process and no natural event can alter the shape and size of man’s cranium. Inbreeding, or interbreeding do not change genes, the Units of Inheritance. The sudden, and abrupt change in man’s form and morphological appearance is not due to imperceptible changes and genetic variations that accumulated over a prolonged period of time. If skeletal structures undergo a change due to mutations caused by external factors like climate, physical activity, diet, and opportunities for breeding or reproductive behavior, the skeletal structures of all members of the diverse Hominid Family living at that time have to register a change that affects the germ cells and gets propagated to their offspring as stated by Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance. If a natural condition, a natural factor, or a natural cause can account for a mutation in anatomically modern human, I would like to examine the evidence for its operation in other members of Hominid Family such as Neanderthal who lived at the same time.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  LIVING  FORMS  EMERGED  AND  DIVERSIFIED  IN  SUDDEN  SPURTS  AND  WERE  ELIMINATED  ABRUPTLY  IN  MAJOR  AND  MINOR  EXTINCTION  EVENTS  DURING  GEOLOGIC  PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  THERE  IS  NO  NATURAL  PROCESS  OF  SEXUAL  REPRODUCTION  EITHER  INBREEDING  OR  INTERBREEDING  THAT  CAN  TRANSFORM  ANATOMICAL  TRAITS  OF  NEANDERTHAL  INTO  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  HUMANS .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  SKULL  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON SKULL .  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  IS  NOT  CONSIDERED  AS  A  SEPARATE  SPECIES  OR  SUBSPECIES  . LIVED  40, 000  TO  35, 000  YEARS  AGO .

Cro-Magnon Man lived 40, 000 to 35, 000 years ago. He was discovered in southwestern France in 1868. His height was about 6 feet(180 Cms), had high forehead, short and wide face, developed prominent chin, and large brain. His brain capacity of 1600 cubic centimetres is larger than the average 1,360 cubic centimetres for anatomically modern human species.  He belonged to upper paleolithic culture of Old Stone Age whereas anatomically modern human species had established its presence in the Mesolithic Period or Middle Stone Age at the end of the last glacial era about 10, 000 years ago. Anatomically modern human species developed a culture that included gradual domestication of plants and animals, formation of settled communities, use of the bow, development of delicate stone ‘Microliths’, and pottery.

THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN LANGUAGE:

In my view, Human Speech(spoken and written) is the criteria by which the difference between anatomically modern man and other members of Hominid Family is made. Human Language is one of the principal characteristics of the specifically human world. Language is the peculiar possession of human beings. While Neanderthal, and Cro-Magnon Man share certain anatomical and physiological traits possessed by the zoological species identified as human beings, they were not true representatives of Homo sapiens sapiens. In the use of ‘Precision Grip’, both Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon Man fall short of the status called ‘human’. Paleolithic art, paintings, and drawings are not the same as human writing.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  CRO-MAGNON  MAN  AND  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : CRO-MAGNON MAN AND PRECISION GRIP . PALEOLITHIC  ART  IS  NOT  EQUIVALENT  TO  HUMAN  ARTISTIC  EXPRESSION .  DRAWINGS  AND  PAINTINGS  ARE  NOT  THE  SAME  AS  HUMAN  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  THE  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  INVOLVED  IN  PRECISION  GRIP .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : THE ANATOMICAL STRUCTURES INVOLVED IN PRECISION GRIP .  HOMINIDS  LIKE  NEANDERTHAL  HAD  ANATOMICAL  STRUCTURES  THAT  GIVE  FUNCTIONAL  ABILITIES  CALLED 1. PRESSURE  GRIP,  AND  2.  PRECISION  GRIP .  NEUROMUSCULAR  COORDINATION  BETWEEN  BRAIN  AND  FINGERS  CONTRIBUTES  TO  A  CREATIVE  ABILITY  CALLED  WRITING .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION .  PALEOLITHIC  ART  .  CAVE  PAINTINGS  IN  N  SPAIN  AND  SW  FRANCE  . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C.  LASCAUX  CAVE  PAINTINGS  -  THE  AURIGNACIO - PERIGORDIAN  PERIOD .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION . PALEOLITHIC ART . CAVE PAINTINGS IN N SPAIN AND SW FRANCE . c. 14,000- c. 13,500 B.C. LASCAUX CAVE PAINTINGS – THE AURIGNACIO – PERIGORDIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  PALEOLITHIC  ART .  MURALS  AT  ROUFFIGNAC,  NIAUX,  AND  CAVE  PAINTINGS  OF  ALTAMIRA ,  SPAIN . c. 14,000 -c. 9500 B.C. THE  SOLUTREO - MAGDALENIAN  PERIOD  .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : PALEOLITHIC ART . MURALS AT ROUFFIGNAC, NIAUX, AND CAVE PAINTINGS OF ALTAMIRA , SPAIN . c. 14,000 – c. 9500 B.C. THE SOLUTREO – MAGDALENIAN PERIOD .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  KUNDA  TOOLS ,  MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC  PERIOD  OR  MIDDLE  STONE  AGE .  THE  BEGINNING  OF  ANATOMICALLY  MODERN  MAN .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : KUNDA TOOLS , MICROLITHS, c. 10,000 -c.8000 B.C. MESOLITHIC PERIOD OR MIDDLE STONE AGE . THE BEGINNING OF ANATOMICALLY MODERN MAN . HUMANS  ARE  KNOWN  BY  THEIR  CULTURE .

The reproductive history of modern man does not support Darwinism and its assumptions about breeding . To identify and to recognize man as a zoological species, the yardstick has to be defined as morphological appearances are inadequate. I coined the phrase ‘Whole Linguistics’ to use Human Language as the chief characteristic of human species. Whole Linguistics involves three entities, namely 1. A Language User, 2. A Language Interpreter and 3. A Language Creator. It introduces a concept about the Creative Beginning of Man and his Language.

HUMAN IDENTITY, INDIVIDUALITY, AND THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX:

All said and done, man has no choice about the nature of his physical existence in natural world. Each man without any choice exists as an Individual with Individuality. Man deploys protein molecules called antigens to identify ‘self’ and ‘non-self’. The antigens causing the immune response that results in  rejection of a tissue allograft are known as ‘Major Histocompatibility Antigens'(HLA). In man, the Major Histocompatibility Complex(MHC) is the HLA cluster on Chromosome 6. As MHC antigens were originally described on human Leukocytes(White Blood Cells), they are still referred to as Human leukocyte Antigens(HLA). The role of MHC is not limited to transplantation rejection as the proteins encoded in this region are involved in many aspects of immunological recognition and immunity  response. The HLA antigens are remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism which makes  variability between individuals very great . Even among members of human population, most unrelated persons possess different HLA . This antigenic specificity established at molecular level is the evidence for a creative process, a creative mechanism, and a creative principle which determines the Subjective and Objective Physical Reality of Man’s Status in Nature.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  HUMAN  LEUKOCYTE  ANTIGEN .  MAN  DEPLOYS  UNIQUE  PROTEIN  MOLECULES  TO  IDENTIFY  SELF  AND  NON-SELF .  HUMAN  EXISTENCE  AND  HUMAN  IDENTITY  IS  DEFINED  BY  MOLECULES .
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN . MAN DEPLOYS UNIQUE PROTEIN MOLECULES TO IDENTIFY SELF AND NON-SELF . HUMAN EXISTENCE AND HUMAN IDENTITY IS DEFINED BY MOLECULES .
MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION :  MAN  IS  ABLE  TO  EXIST  IN  NATURE  FOR  HE  IS  ABLE  TO  DEFEND  HIS  EXISTENCE  BY  DEPLOYING  MOLECULES  THAT  CAN  MAKE  THE  RECOGNITION  AND  DISTINCTION  BETWEEN  SELF  AND  NON-SELF.
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE VS HUMAN EVOLUTION : MAN IS ABLE TO EXIST IN NATURE FOR HE IS ABLE TO DEFEND HIS EXISTENCE BY DEPLOYING MOLECULES THAT CAN MAKE THE RECOGNITION AND DISTINCTION BETWEEN SELF AND NON-SELF.

THE PROOF OF PUDDING IS IN THE EATING :

Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle introduced  notion of Form, Nature, or Essence. Plants and animals are derived from seeds that already contain within them the Form, Nature, or Essence of the species from which they were derived and into which they would subsequently develop. To exist as a thing of a given kind, there could be an innate tendency to strive to develop into a perfect example of itself to fulfill its nature and to realize its full potential. In a purposive or teological view of the natural world, each natural thing by its intrinsic nature strives to realize its own ideal Form or Essence. Darwinism proposes a view that explains  development of a natural thing in a “mechanistic” and nonpurposive manner. If a new form of life is a product of unguided, random, and purposeless genetic mutations, it will be hard to explain and account for its Form, Nature, and Essence.

MENDEL'S  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  :
MENDEL’S LAWS OF INHERITANCE   VS  HUMAN  EVOLUTION  :  GREGOR  MENDEL  CONDUCTED  EXPERIMENTS  ON  GARDEN  PEA(PISUM  SATIVUM)  PLANTS  TO  DISCOVER  THE   NATURAL  LAWS  OF  INHERITANCE  AND  VARIATION  .  I  DISCOVER   THE  ‘MAGIC  OF  CREATION’  BY   SIMPLY   TASTING   A  FEW   SWEET   PEAS  .

All living things define their existence using about 20 Amino Acids. Protein Synthesis involves unique and creative ways of arranging these amino acids into chains called polypeptides. Protein Synthesis is a creative process for the product created by one species has ability to impart unique sensory experience in an unrelated species.  Man can distinguish plant and animal proteins by using his organs of sense perception. The creative aspect of protein synthesis is in the taste, smell, flavor, color, texture, and palatability of plant and animal proteins. Man further improves palatability of proteins he consumes by refining his culinary skills.To refute the concept called ‘DARWINISM’, the Proof or Verification is in Eating Sweet Garden Peas and recognizing them from their color, taste, smell, flavor, texture, and palatability. Plants and animals do not use sensory functions like vision, olfaction, and taste in protein synthesis. The sensory experience of man is possible for living things exist with an innate tendency to express their Form, Nature, and Essence. I am asking my readers to contemplate upon supernatural circumstances that may define Form, Nature, and Essence of living things that are not explained by a study of their genes and genetic code.

Related Articles:

1SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – MAN IS A SPIRITUAL BEING

2. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES

3. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN SPECIES

 

 

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s