Spiritualism and Fundamental Dualism: Madhvacharya(c. 1199 - c. 1278) is the exponent of "DVAITA", the Indian School of Philosophy that claims a basic difference in kind between God and individual souls.
Spiritualism and Fundamental Dualism: Madhvacharya(c. 1199 – c. 1278) is the exponent of “DVAITA”, the Indian School of Philosophy that claims a basic difference in kind between God and individual souls.

Madhva of India had glorified difference between things. He traced back his dualistic thought to the Hindu scriptures known as the ‘Upanishads’. His main works are his commentaries on the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedanta-Sutras, and the Indian epic poem of Mahabharata. Five types of distinctions, or differences are central to Madhva’s system of “DVAITA” philosophy: 1. distinction between soul and God, 2. distinction between soul, and soul, 3. distinction between soul, and matter, 4. distinction between God and matter, and 5. distinction between matter, and matter. Madhva refuted the “ADVAITA”, or Non-dualistic philosophy of Shankara(A.D. 788 – A.D. 820) who believed that the individual soul and the absolute Spirit(Brahman) are totally identical in all aspects and cannot be differentiated into two separate categories. Madhva rejected the Shankara theory of “MAYA” or ‘illusion’ which taught that only spirituality is eternal and the material world is illusory and deceptive. Madhva maintained that the simple fact that things are transient and ever-changing does not mean that they are not real. Madhva while rejecting the Advaita concepts of falsity and indescribability of world, did not oppose the distinction between the human body and the individual human soul. It appears that the various Schools of Indian philosophy to a large extent agree to a view that separates the individual human soul from its human body. However, it is interesting to note that Madhva thinks that the human individual is “Free” and is dependent only upon God. Madhva shared the Hindu belief in endless transmigration of souls through cycles of birth, death, and rebirth and stated that the “Release” is obtained by devotion to God. He promoted a view, ultimately it is God’s grace that saves man and that man must receive God’s grace through worship.


SPIRITUALISM AND THE BASIS FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE: The structure and function of human ovum or the egg cell must be clearly understood to know the Spiritual Basis for Human Existence.
SPIRITUALISM AND THE BASIS FOR HUMAN EXISTENCE: The structure and function of human ovum or the egg cell must be clearly understood to know the Spiritual Basis for Human Existence. This egg cell is capable of immanent actions, displays cognitive abilities, and performs intelligent functions. It is conscious and is fundamentally distinct from non-living, inanimate, insentient, inorganic matter.

My view about human soul and spirit differs from the views shared by the three major Indian Schools of philosophy. In my opinion, the ground substance that is called ‘cytoplasm’ is a spiritual substance(the substance that I recognize as the substance associated with Soul/Spirit) and this corporeal substance or living matter is fundamentally distinct from non-living matter. The entire human organism is derived from the single, fertilized egg cell; therefore, the individual human soul cannot be separated from the human body it constitutes and develops to establish a human individual that lives or exists as a real, physical being that has objective identity apart from subjective living experience. To interpret the term ‘spirituality’, or ‘spiritualism’, I make a fundamental distinction between life, and non-life, between organic, and inorganic matter, between animate, and inanimate, between sentient, and insentient, between intelligent and mechanical functions, and between immanent actions, and transitive actions.

Rudra N. Rebbapragada/R. Rudra Narasimham, B.Sc., M.B.B.S.,

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A.

Organization: The Spirits of Special Frontier Force.


Published by WholeDude

I seek harmony between doctrines of Idealism and Realism to account for human existence. I welcome thoughts from all directions to understand the nature of Human Identity and Individuality. The multicellular human organism exists as Physical, Mental, Social, Moral, Spiritual being with a Creative Form that cannot be duplicated. For purposes of brevity and simplicity, I divide the human being into two categories; 1. The first is 'SELF' and it represents man as Physical, Mental, and Social Being and 2. The second is, the 'KNOWING-SELF' which represents man as Moral, Rational and Spiritual Being."I am Consciousness, therefore I am", is the proposition that I use to understand the nature of man's Identity and Individuality. Man is a Mortal Being whose Life and Death are operated by Oxidation-Reduction Chemical Reactions. The Physical Being is dissolved by the powerful influence of Time which seem to operate Natural Law of Aging. Things in Nature change with Time but the Identity and Individuality of Man remains the same during his Life Journey. The genotype remains unchanged while the phenotype appears to be changing all the time. In the multicellular human organism, the Consciousness functions to establish Identity of the organism and to defend its Individuality. Consciousness also establishes the Connection, Partnership, Relationship, Yoking, Joining, and Association between the energy dependent man and his energy provider. Man exists in Nature because of his ability to acquire energy from external environmental source. Consciousness in its essence refers to this awareness of energy dependence. I describe the Connection between energy seeker and energy provider as 'God Connection'. Man during all the stages of his existence, and under any given circumstance, either in good health, or ill-health exists on the basis of this 'God Connection' which is an attribute of biological or living function called Consciousness. This conditioned nature of human existence is supported by Power/Energy/Force which can be experienced as Compassion/Mercy/Grace of the Creator who created man as an Individual with unique genome that has never existed in the past and also will never exist in the future. I seek the Unity of Man in Body, Mind, and Soul unlike other common Indian traditions that seek to verify Identity between Human Soul and Divine Soul. My doctrine can be described as Unity Theory of Non-Dualism.

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  1. Hi Namaskar. Soul is a JYOTHI light . Soul cannot be proved or discussed by any logic reasoning or scientific ideas. So to understand Soul get help of a realised Hindu Yogi ( rare to find) . Philosophy is limited to some basic ideas. Practice of philosophy ( realising Soul or The Supreme Universal God ) is a special subject which is available only to the students of Yogis. Sorry to say that i am not a right person to write about this subject . But i am having practical live experience with 7 yogis who are at present in LIVE JEEVA SAMATHI & living under earth . Thanks to God. SHUBHAMASTHU.


    1. NAMASKAR. Thanks for sharing your view about ‘soul’. I would not like to oppose the meaning or definition that you have attached to the term called ‘soul’. Using the meaning, or definition attached, kindly describe as to how it helps human existence and state as to why man is a living being. How do we make the distinction between life, and non-life?


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