Darwin’s Theory of Evolution involves the notion of a common ancestor for both man and the anthropoid apes. Both Gorilla and Chimpanzee are natives of Africa and they exist with 48 chromosomes as compared to man’s genome that consists of 46 chromosomes. Human Chromosome #2 attracted a lot of attention for the nearest ape relative bonobo has near identical DNA sequences . But, the problem is that of the separation of these DNA sequences into two chromosomes called #2 a, and #2 b giving the apes a genome with 48 chromosomes.
It would be very easy to speculate that the Human Chromosome #2 can result from an end to end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes such as the Chromosome #2 a, and Chromosome #2 b.
Man and apes exist with genomes that are almost identical and yet man cannot directly descend from the anthropoid apes. The fusion of Chromosomes #2 a, and #2 b would cause the production of a non-viable mutant or an individual who may not produce any offspring. Firstly, we need a male and a female with this fused chromosome in their gametes; the sperm and the egg to produce an offspring with a unique set of 46 chromosomes; 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of (XY or XX) of Sex Chromosomes X,Y. It requires two identical, rare, mutant, male and female to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new population. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, mutations lead to changes in a Species and eventually lead to its descent as a new Species. If fusion of two, distinct, separate chromosomes such as #2 a, and #2 b is required, the fusion event must happen in a Hominid population about 10,000 years ago and this population would have no relationship with the living apes.
THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN RACES:
The term “RACE” describes any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body and head, facial features, and blood traits. These physical traits or characteristics are transmitted by heredity. However, it must be noted that such traits are highly variable, not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. But, it is very clear that Human Races or varieties arose in response to inbreeding and not on account of interbreeding of different subspecies.
Anthropologists had initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind”(1870), had described racial varieties such as Bushman, Africoid, Negritoes, Melanochroi, Australoids, Xanthochroi, Polynesians, Mongoloids A, B, & C, and Esquimaux.
It is of no surprise to note the controversy regarding the terms used to identify the varieties of mankind. As such there is no agreement and the word ‘Species’ has no defined meaning. There are two schools of thought to account for the apparent variations among the members of the Human Species. Monogeny describes a view that all human races came from a common ancestor. Polygeny is a view that asserts the separate creation of races.
THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR HUMAN RACES:
Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” However, they stress the heterogeneity of world population. In Biology, the term ‘race’ is used to describe a subspecies, or variety, or breed. The search for a common ancestor for the entire Human Species is not yet over. In recent times, the techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced. Evolutionary geneticists are describing their findings with a degree of boldness by simply studying the DNA and using the finding to predict the behavior and nature of the Homo Species members.
To resolve the problems about finding the biological basis for human races, we may have to take the help of the Science called Immunology that deals with man’s ability to defend his own existence by recognizing Self and Non-Self marker proteins (antigens), the protein molecules that cover the surfaces of every cell in the human body.
THE LAW OF CREATION AND INDIVIDUALITY:
The many aspects of immunological recognition is more important than that of the recognition of ancestral Species from which the Human Species may have arrived or descended. The HLA antigens are very remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism; that is the variability between individuals is very great and there could be no two identical individuals as unrelated individuals have different HLA antigens. Histocompatibility is a condition of compatibility between the tissues of a graft or transplant and the tissues of the body receiving the graft or transplant. The understanding of histocompatibility is important for the success of organ transplantation and it clearly demonstrates that the Human Species has no choice other than that of existing as Specific Individuals with Individuality. The concept of descent from another Species cannot account for immunological recognition which formulates the basis for histocompatibility and Immunity from infections.
Infections are also transmitted from a variety of animals with which man comes into contact. Bovine Tuberculosis is one such important disese.
I am looking to locate the source of the image that you report as coming from Yunis and Prkash (1982). I have a copy of the original paper, but this image has enhancements that I would like to use in a publication, and I am trying to locate the owner of THIS image. Any help would be appreciated.
Dear AJ Petto,
https://bhavanajagat.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/chromosome-fusion-chromosome-2a2b.jpg” alt=”Chromosome Fusion.” />
Thanks for visiting my blog post and thanks for your inquiry. The image was published in the Science magazine.
I used the image for the benefit of my readers and the posts I publish have no commercial purpose. I am sure that you will be able to share the image in your publication giving the address of my blog post as its source. I used that illustration to present my own views on the origin of man.
Thank you for response. My question is a little more detailed, however. There are some enhancements here that are not in the original image from Yunis and Prakash. Am I correct that you made these changes yourself and did not acquire the image elsewhere? If elsewhere, I need to have THAT source for our publication. Thank you.
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