THE NATURE OF EXISTENCE-THE CONCEPT OF ‘SUNYATA’ (EMPTINESS OR NOTHINGNESS):
Acharya Nagarjuna (A.D. 150- A.D. 250) born into a Brahmin family had lived in the present State of Andhra Pradesh, India. The emptying of the mind and the attainment of an undifferentiated unity is the theme of the ‘SUNYATA’ doctrine developed by Acharya Nagarjuna. ‘Sunyata’ can be stated as a state of “PURE CONSCIOUSNESS” in which the mind has been emptied of all particular objects and images. The emptied mind reflects or manifests the undifferentiated reality in which the world appears without distinctions and multiplicity. Nagarjuna was critical of both Buddhist and Hindu views on existence. According to Nagarjuna, the individual person is empty and lacks an eternal self. He extended the concept of ‘Sunyata’ to cover all concepts and all entities. Nagarjuna’s philosophy is also called ‘Madhyamika’ because it claims to tread the middle path. As per Nagarjuna, the nature of existence is relational. There is no eternal reality behind changing forms of existence. There is no soul, no thing, no concept independent of its context, all things are empty of an absolute reality and exist only in relation to conditions. The knowledge, perceiving the emptiness of all things and hence becoming detached from them, would help us to practice “nonattachment” in our engagement with people. If “EMPTINESS” is the highest Wisdom, it would help us to develop a sense of detachment and enable us to act with Compassion.
H.H. DALAI LAMA’S PRESENTATION-“ENGAGING WISDOM AND COMPASSION”:
“At the root of all our suffering lies a form of ignorance, a form of unknowing”. The origin of suffering is attachment. “Self-grasping( or self-focus) gives rise to suffering. It is the root of all afflictions.” “Self-grasping” leads to attachment to impermanent things or thoughts which gives rise to suffering. Emptiness is created by casting aside the attachment to everyday things and worries. “The ultimate awakening mind is the Wisdom that directly realizes emptiness.”
H.H. Dalai Lama advised practicing loving kindness to eliminate the afflictions caused by attachment. The ultimate goal, he said is “cultivating the Wisdom of no self”, a sense of grand emptiness that leaves behind everyday pollutants that can take both physical or emotional form.