In 1965, while I was a student of Human Anatomy at Kurnool Medical College, I had the opportunity to know about Dr. J. C. B. Grant (1886-1973), the author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy. The 5th Edition of his Atlas was published in 1962 and was available in India in our Medical College Library.
Born in Loanhead (south of Edinburgh) in 1886, Grant studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh Medical School and graduated with an M.B., Ch.B. degree in 1908. While at Edinburgh, he worked under the renowned anatomist Daniel John Cunningham.
Grant became a decorated serviceman of the Royal Army Medical Corps during the First World War before moving to Canada. He established himself as an ‘anatomist extraordinary’ at the University of Toronto, publishing three textbooks that form the basis of Grant’s Anatomy. The textbooks are still used in anatomy classes today, and made unforgettable memories for those who found themselves in his classes nearly a century ago. One of Grant’s many accomplishments was establishing a division of histology within the department.
As a medical student, I used Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy, the seminal work of Scottish-born Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant, who would become the chair of Anatomy at the University of Toronto in 1930 and retired in 1965.
John Charles Boileau Grant (1886–1973)
The author of Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy (1943), Grant used to train thousands of medical students around the world. He came to University of Toronto’s Faculty of Medicine from University of Manitoba (and previously Edinburgh), and was Chair of the Department of Anatomy there from 1930 to 1965. Although he is best known for this famous atlas, his research and teaching also included biological anthropology, as evidenced by such work as Anthropometry of the Cree and Saulteaux Indians in Northeastern Manitoba (Archaeological Survey of Canada 1929). The human skeletal collection he formed, the “J.C.B. Grant Collection,” is still a core collection for human osteology in the Department of Anthropology at University of Toronto. He is also remembered in the Grant’s Museum at the Medical Sciences Building at the University of Toronto. This museum, with its displays of anatomical specimens, many of which were dissected by Grant himself, continues to be used in an active learning environment by more than 1000 students each year.
Students continue to use Grant’s textbooks today, and for the more artistic anatomist there’s even a Grant’s Anatomy Coloring Book, published in 2018.
At the University of Toronto, Dr.McMurrich, Chair of Anatomy was succeeded as chairman in 1930 by Dr. John Charles Boileau Grant. Dr. Grant wrote three text books, of which “An Atlas of Anatomy” (published in 1943) rapidly gained international prominence and is still, one of the most widely used anatomical atlases in the world. It is now known as “Grant’s Atlas of Anatomy” and is in its tenth edition. The atlas was based on a series of elegant dissections done either by Grant or by others under his supervision. Many of these dissections are currently housed in Grant’s Museum at the University of Toronto.
The Rudi-Grant Connection is about knowing the man, the building blocks and the structural units and organization of the human body. To defend the human existence, the Rudi-Grant Connection lays the emphasis on knowing the person who is at risk apart from knowing the agent posing the risk.
THE IDENTITY OF MULTICELLULAR HUMAN ORGANISM:
I learned about the human body while dissecting the body in a systematic manner. The Manual of Practical Anatomy which guides us through this entire process was published in England. The author Dr. Daniel John Cunningham prepared the Manual while dissecting cadavers of British or Irish citizens. He had never encountered cadavers of Indian citizens. At Kurnool Medical College, Kurnool, Andhra Pradesh, India, where I was a student, the Department of Anatomy obtains dead bodies from Government General Hospital Kurnool and most of the deceased are the poor, illiterate, and uneducated people of that region. None of the deceased had the chance to know this man called Cunningham and Cunningham had no knowledge about the existence of these people who arrive on our dissection tables. But, as the dissection of the human body proceeds, inch, by inch, we recognize the anatomical parts as described by Cunningham. The manual also lists some anatomical variations and we very often exchange information between various dissection tables and recognize the variations mentioned. The dissections also involve slicing the organs and studying them, both macroscopically, and microscopically. We did not miss any part of the human body. So what is the Identity of this Human person or Human subject? How does the living Human organism maintain its Identity and Individuality? Apart from the Cultural Traditions of India, several Schools of Religious Thought claim that the Human Individual and its Identity is represented by Human Soul. Where does this soul exist in the human body? What is the location if the soul is present in the living person? Does man have a soul? How does the human organism acquires Knowledge about its own structures and the functions they perform?
Defining Indian Identity – Finding Truth – Listening to the Heart
Amba Shambhavi Chandramouli abalaparna Uma Parvati,
Kali Hemavati Shiva Trinayani Katyani Bhairavi
Savitri nava yauvana Shubhakari Samrajya Lakshmi Prada,
Chidrupee Para Devata Bhagavati Sree Raja Rajeswari.
The opportunity to serve in the Indian Armed Forces works like a powerful magnet. It draws into its folds the youth of the country from a multitude of villages that dot our landscape. My service in uniform gave me a wonderful opportunity to personally know and get acquainted with a broad spectrum of the Indian population. The Indian Identity that I describe is the product of such direct and first-hand experience of the people of my land.
After a brief and exciting period of basic military training in the historical city of Lucknow, in the State of Uttar Pradesh, my tour of duty took me to the city of Ambala Cantonment in the State of Haryana.
The name Ambala is very dear to my heart. Traditionally, Indians do not desire to fight evil and dark forces. They would rather prefer to rely upon the names of the mighty Lords that they worship. It is Shiva, Vishnu, Rama and Krishna who would fight the battle on their behalf and Indians could simply sit back and relax and watch the demons getting vanquished.
But when a physical fight becomes inevitable and when pushed to confront an enemy and to take up the challenge personally, Indians derive their strength and they get infused with courage by remembering with adoration the name of BHAVANI, also known as DURGA, AMBA, KALI or simply referred to as MATA (MOTHER). That name is used as the battle cry. That name is the armor of divine protection they prefer to use on the front lines of war fields. When the confrontation is real, nothing works better than the sweet name of AMBA. Hence Ambala has represented to me the willingness and the determination of Indians to fight the battle against the enemy. On my second tour of duty in Ambala, I could proudly wear the emblem of Black Elephant on my left arm. Black Elephant is an elite fighting force and the military station of Ambala is it’s home.
I arrived in Ambala during 1970 and reported to the Military Hospital on my very first posting. My first assignment in the Hospital was that of an internship in the Surgical Division. The Senior Surgical Specialist at that time was Major Mohan Pal Dhir. The advice he gave me was that I should get acquainted with the patients and should try to know them as if they were my personal friends.
I was given the charge of two Surgical Wards, III and IV. My first priority was not learning the principles of surgery and the technique of surgical procedures. As an Officer-in-Charge of the Surgical Ward, my first duty was to learn and remember the rank, name and regimental affiliation of each patient. It sounded pretty easy but in practical terms, it was really difficult. The working hours were totally consumed with processing the medical information and preparing patients for surgical evaluation and procedures. My office staff would meticulously document all the personal information and there was no time to read that again. The patient interrogation is primarily intended to obtain the relevant medical information about their physical ailments and documenting the medical case history. It was easy to remember medical information rather than their personal details.
Since I grew up in India, I accepted the advice of my senior with earnestness. The only way I could find time to know personally all the men in my Wards was by returning to the Hospital and spend my evening hours conducting personal interviews with each one of them. We had a variety of sports and recreational facilities and a very lovely Officers’ Club right in front of our Hospital. But I had to ignore such perks of my Service. Thus my journey in uniform included a commitment to know the men at a personal level.
A SIMPLE EXPERIMENT TO KNOW THE HEART:
Soon after I assumed the charge of the Surgical Wards, during one of my evening visits, my office staff reported that one of the patients lost his expensive wristwatch. While taking a shower, the patient removed the watch and forgot to recover it. Within a short time, the watch disappeared. It was apparent that the watch got stolen by some other patient. I could have simply notified the Military Police and asked them to investigate the incident. Or, I could have used my authority and could have ordered confining all patients to their beds and directed the staff to conduct a thorough search of their personal belongings.
But, I lack the temperament of a law enforcement official. I depend upon my ability to observe things and derive answers from such observations.
What I observed was the fact that in India, people share a common concern about truth. Truth or reality cannot be concealed. Whatever a person may do, in the person’s heart, the truth is always known. When you listen to the person’s heart, the truth is revealed.
I announced to my staff that I would like to listen to the heartbeat of each of my patient and ascertain the truth for myself. They assembled and lined up all patients in front of my office and they marched in one after the other. I conducted this little experiment in absolute silence. No questions were asked. I carefully listened to their heartbeats. After having done so, I demanded that the watch be returned to the place from where it was picked up and if not, the truth would only bring humiliation to the culprit.
The purpose of the experiment was not to directly identify the culprit but it intended to give him a chance to search his own heart and reveal the truth. Next day, when I came to work, my staff cheerfully reported that the watch reappeared in the bathroom and was returned to the owner.
INDIA-THE LAND OF SATYA AND DHARMA:
India is the land where people’s psyche has a deeply embedded concern about SATYA (TRUTH). It is a fundamental belief of all of its people. They believe that TRUTH is GOD and they would define that GOD is TRUTH. The powerful effects of TIME would dissolve and destroy all things that are unreal and in the end, only TRUTH will remain and TRUTH would prevail.
The Indian National Emblem describes the Motto of the Nation as, SATYA MEVA JAYATE (TRUTH alone triumphs). Indians cherish the value of Truth and would prefer to merge into that unchanging, ETERNAL REALITY. Nothing else would save them from certain destruction. DHARMA or Right Conduct in its simplest context would mean to Indians that they should fulfill the promise they had given. They are afraid of the consequences of a false utterance.
The Story of RAMAYANA touches the hearts of Indians. It is no surprise that RAMA is their beloved Hero. He represents the values that Indians cherish to possess. The nobility of Rama lies in the fact that He had chosen to obey His father with a sincere desire that the father should fulfill the promise he had given to his wife and help him to uphold the enduring principle of adherence to Truth.
It is no surprise that Rama is a beloved Hero. He upheld the values that most Indians value and cherish.
Indians carry their identity in their hearts. The identity is simply revealed by listening to their hearts. When you listen, you would know that all of them share a concern that TRUTH alone would prevail at the end of the day.
As a member of the medical profession, I can observe a man in good health, in sickness and disease, and eventually in his death and dissolution. I also observe man’s reaction to his own condition and state of existence. I observe the physical, mental, and psychological aspects of the man’s condition.
My experiment which involved listening to the heartbeats of my patients in the Surgical Ward was not intended as a ‘Lie Detector Test’. A typical Lie Detector Test describes a ‘Polygraph’ used on persons suspected of lying; it records certain bodily changes which are assumed to occur when the subject lies in answering questions. The objective of my experiment was not that of finding any bodily response or change in a heartbeat in response to any question. I was not trying to discover a lying person. The person who had stolen the watch knows the truth, the fact that he had stolen. Through my experiment, I tried to evoke a reaction from that person. That subject emotionally reacted to my experiment in the manner that I expected. He admitted the truth by simply returning the watch. I did not question him directly or indirectly if he had taken the watch. I did not find the lying person, but I have proved that the man does have an actual psychological concern about truth.
Medicine cannot stop death and Truth cannot be delivered as a prescription.
I observed some of the funeral processions in India. People either chant “Ram Naam Satya Hai” ( The name Rama is eternal Truth ), or the “Hare Rama Mantra.”
The man whose physical body experiences death and dissolution could not be true. If the man is mortal, the Indian mind seeks comfort from an idea that is not subject to mortality.
The Madhubala Connection at Whole Foods. The Diagnosis of Good Health is better than the diagnosis of ill-health
Yes indeed, Life is Complicated. The Complexity of Life fundamentally involves the condition of the Living Thing. What is the health status of the Living Thing? To diagnose the condition of the Living Thing, Clinical Medicine offers instructions in the Art of Diagnosing ill-health. I use Clinical Medicine to practice the Art of Diagnosing Good Health. Human Face offers several clues about the health status of the person but no conclusions can be made without the conduct of a complete physical examination using the methods described in the books of Medicine. I want to specifically share the story about Madhubala who was born with a congenital heart defect. Her health status could be discovered very easily by simply listening to her heart beat at any time after her birth. Now a days, technology is available to diagnose some of the congenital defects even before birth and are amenable for surgical correction. Dr John Daniel Cunningham (b. April 15, 1850, d. July 23, 1909), Scottish physician and professor of Anatomy. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy has provided me the learning tools to know and understand Man’s External and Internal Reality and its Identity as described by Cells, Tissues, Organs,and Organ Systems.
I want to pay my respectful tribute to Sir Robert Hutchison (1871-1960) and Dr. Donald Hunter (1898-1978) who provided me with the basic tools to practice the Art of Clinical Medicine which in its essence is the Art of Diagnosis.
In 1976 while attending the Advanced Training in Pediatrics Course at the Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India, I purchased the Clinical Methods by Dr. Rustom Jal Vakil and Dr. Aspi F. Golwalla. In 1976, I did not know anything about Madhubala and had no clue about her health condition. Since 1954 and until Madhubala’s death on February 23, 1969, these two physicians were involved in her medical care. However, the news about Madhubala’s health problems and her premature death at the age of 36-years never reached me until February 2022. In 2022, I could not have conducted a complete physical examination of Madhubala. Right now, I have access to her photo images which do not reveal the signs and symptoms of a major, life-threatening health problem she had during her entire life since the time of her birth in Delhi on February 14, 1933.
I pay my respectful tribute to Dr. Rustom Jal Vakil, M.D. (London), physician, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay and to Dr. Aspi F. Golwalla, M.D., physician, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Bombay who were providing medical care to Madhubala since 1954. Her heart problem was not amenable to surgical intervention during 1960 due to the onset of medical complications like raised Pulmonary Vascular Resistance causing the Eisenmenger Syndrome.
THE ART OF DIAGNOSING GOOD HEALTH:
To diagnose ill-health is easy. The sick person may describe his ailments. In addition to a person’s subjective symptoms, ill-health shows objective manifestations. The art of clinical diagnosis in sickness and disease involves the use of signs and symptoms attributable to specific conditions that affect the state of health of an individual. However, the mere absence of ill-health does not necessarily mean that the person is positively healthy. Health, like beauty is often a matter of subjective impression. But, while beauty is in the eyes of the beholder, the diagnosis of perfect and positive health is a verdict rendered after a carefully executed medical examination.
Medicine is not merely the Art of Diagnosing ill-health and it is equally the Art of Diagnosing Good and Positive Health. I perfected this skill by meticulously repeating the task of conducting Medical Inspections thousands of times during the course of my service in the Armed Forces.
While the Art of Diagnosis interests me, I constantly remind myself that Good Health is due to the GRACE, MERCY, and Compassion of the LORD and Indians love to personify the Divine Providence as LORD Govinda. For the man exists because of MERCY, when the existence is threatened, the man may have no choice other than remembering the LORD.
The Rudi-Madhubala Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The Spiritual Law of Love. Old Flames Die Hard
Yes indeed, Life is complicated. The Complexities of Life can never be understood without knowing the truth called Past. The experiences of Future Life cannot be validated or verified. The experience of Present Life can be validated and be verified by knowing the true or real Past Experience of Life. The Past is Never Dead.
On 02-22-2022, Rudi confirms the Rudi-Madhubala Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The Connection is validated, and verified by another person who works in Whole Foods, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The Rudi-Madhubala Connection at Whole Foods: