The Sanskrit word ‘guru’ translates to ‘dispeller of darkness’. Guru Purnima, marks the appearance day of Srila Vyasadeva. It falls every year on the day of Ashadha Shukla Purnima. It is also known as Vyasa Purnima because Veda Vyasa, the sage who wrote the Mahabharata and assembled the Vedas, celebrates his birthday on this day.
BHARAT DARSHAN – BHAGAVAN VED VYAS – AUTHOR OF GEETOPANISHAD
In Indian tradition, Ved Vyas is the legendary author of epic poem Mahabharat, Bhagavata Purana, and several other Puranas , son of Sage Parashara, and Satyavati. He is father of Sage Shuka, King Pandu, and Minister Vidura. He is great-grandson of Maharishi Vasishta, and grandson of Sage Shakti. Ved Vyas is a historical person, a contemporary of another legendary person known as Lord Krishna whom Indians worship. As per Indian tradition, Lord Krishna belongs to a time period or “YUG” called ‘DWAPAR YUG.” Apart from being a great poet, Ved Vyas is recognized as a great teacher, a spiritual guide, and a divine personality with exceptional creative writing abilities. He is often recognized as author of ‘GEETOPANISHAD’ for the divine song, ‘BHAGAVAD GITA’ distills the essence of Vedic Wisdom and presents it as useful guide to live daily life experiencing Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility.
In India, there was a suggestion or speculation about some unknown author, who may have inserted into epic poem Mahabharat, his/her poetical work (700 verses) that most Indians recognize as “Bhagavad Gita” and may have given credit to Ved Vyas, original author of Mahabharat. It raises issues about identity of author and the methods that people use to know identity of any given person. In both Biology, and Medical Science, identification of individuals or individual entities is very important. Forensic Medicine deals with the identification of unknown dead bodies. In common practice, man is recognized by his occupation or actions. A poet is identified by his/her poetical composition, the literary contents of work published.
I took time to study the concepts shared in Bhagavad Gita, and Bhagavata Purana and I could easily identify the similarities of views. In Bhagavad Gita, Lord Sri Krishna spoke to Prince Arjuna. In Bhagavata Purana, in a story popularly known as ‘PRAHLAD CHARITRA’ Demon King Hiranyakashipu spoke to grieving family members following death of his brother. Both of them use the same words and share same Vedic knowledge about life and death.
The poet who composed Bhagavad Gita knows concepts shared by Vedas and Upanishads. For example, we can compare ‘Parable of the Chariot’ or “Ratha Kalpana” of Katha Upanishad, Part III, verses 3 to 11 with Bhagavad Gita, Chapter III, verses 39 to 43. The author of Bhagavad Gita reconstructed Ratha Kalpana and presented his own version and there is subtle difference between those two concepts. I recognize Veda Vyas as author of Bhagavad Gita through literary analysis and by comparing views and concepts that appear in different works in different contexts. We can easily know the identity of the author by examining his work. To describe identity there is no requirement that I have to be a material witness by being physically present at the time of birth when biological mother delivers that person.
COMPARISON OF AMRITA BINDU UPANISHAD (KRISHNA YAJUR VEDA) AND BHAGAVAD GITA:
“Eka eva hi bhutatma bhute bhute vyavasthitah
ekadha bahudha caiva drsyate jala Chandravat.”(Verse # 12)
Being the One, the universal Soul is present in all beings, present in each individual living entity, and this One entity is viewed as several, different entities, just like reflection of (same) Moon seen in several pots of water.
“Sarva-bhutesu yenaikam bhavam avyayam iksate,
avibhaktam vibhaktesu taj jnanam viddhi sattvikam.”(Bhagavad Gita, Chapter XVIII, Verse #20)
The knowledge of one who sees in every living entity, though divided into innumerable forms, one undivided spiritual nature, that knowledge is to be understood as being in the mode of Goodness. Just like the verse from Amrita Bindu Upanishad, this verse speaks about one single reality pervading all existence.
COMPARISON OF KATHA UPANISHAD (RATHA KALPANA) AND BHAGAVAD GITA:
“atmanam rathinam viddhi,
sariram ratham eva tu,
buddhim tu Saradhim viddhi
manah pragraham eva ca;
indriyani hayan ahur
visayams tesu gocaran
bhoktety ahur manisinah.” (Katha Upanishad, Part III, Sadhana, Verses# 3 &4)
Know the Atman(Self) as the Master or Lord of the chariot, and the body as the chariot, know also the intellect to be the driver and mind as reins. The senses are called the horses, the sense objects are the roads; when the Atman is united with body, senses and mind, then the Wise call Him the Enjoyer.
These describe hierarchy, various levels of functional control in a complex system that has different parts like body, organs of sense perception, mind, intellect, and a Master who enjoys because of functional Unity and Harmony of organizational units. In a chariot driven by horses, reins are used as a means of guiding, controlling, checking, or restraining horses. The driver uses reins to control horses to slow them down or stop or to allow them to run at full speed without restraint if required.
“Indriyani mano buddhir asyadhisthanam ucyate
etair vimohayaty esa jnanam avrtya dehinam.”(Bhagavad Gita, Chapter III, Verse #40)
It is declared that the senses, the mind, and the intelligence are the stronghold of this sensual desire(‘Kama’), covering one’s discrimination this enemy called sensual desire deludes the living entities.
“tasmat tvam indriyany adau niyama bharatarsabha
papmanam prajahi hy enam jnana-vijnana nasanam.”(Bhagavad Gita, Chapter III, Verse#41)
Therefore O’ Arjuna, first you must bring the senses under control and directly destroy this sensual desire(‘Kama’), which is embodiment of sin and the destroyer of knowledge and self-realization.
“indriyani parany ahur indriyebhyah param manah,
manasas tu para buddhir yo buddheh paratas tu sah.”(Bhagavad Gita, Chapter III, Verse#42)
It is declared, the senses are superior(than insensible matter) but more than the senses, the mind is superior, but more than the mind the intelligence is superior, and more than the intelligence that which is superior is the individual consciousness(Atma).
“evam buddheh param buddhva samstabhyatmanam atmana
jahi satrum maha-baho kama-rupam durasadam.”(Bhagavad Gita, Chapter III, Verse#43)
Thus knowing the individual consciousness (Atma) to be superior to the intelligence, O’ mighty armed one, steady the mind by self-realization and conquer this insatiable enemy which presents in the form of sensual desire (Kama).
Bhagavad Gita distills wisdom of Upanishads and conveys knowledge that is of practical value and can be used as daily living guide. While Bhagavad Gita avoids analogy of chariot, the author uses the same concept to guide readers to learn The Art of Self-Discipline, a training that develops self-restraint, self-control to shape character and personal conduct that promote orderliness and efficiency in any given field of human activity or work performance.
If I have the intellectual capacity to compose 700 poems and insert them into work done by another person, I will not stop writing. I will be driven by the same creative zeal to compose more poems and keep publishing my works using my name or another name. Bhagavad Gita exposes identity of a literary genius at work, and very few people have such creative writing ability. If any of my readers have doubts about identity of Ved Vyas; you may have to support your view citing literary works of comparable merit and make claim that a different author made insertion of his/her work giving credit to Ved Vyas.
Bhagavad Gita refers to Kurukshetra battlefield as “DHARMA KSHETRA” and the concern of its author is about values, the battle between good and evil. Secondly, the conversation on the battlefield begins with Prince Duryodhana speaking to his guru Dronacharya. Here, the author is carefully suggesting that battle is not decided by relative strengths of parties engaged in war. Prince Duryodhana made an estimate of strength of Pandava Camp and was impressed by strength of Kaurava Camp. But, the author’s concern is about ‘DHARMA’ or right actions and the ultimate success of right over might. Sanjaya was a disciple of author Veda Vyas and the author used his poetic imagination and freedom to confer a special ability to his student to know his thoughts as reflected in battlefield dialogue.
HYMNS IN PRAISE OF MAHARISHI VED VYAS:
Krishna Dwaipayanam Vyasam, sarva loka hite ratam,
Vedabja Bhaskaram Vande Shamdadi nilayam munim.
Vyasaya Vishnu rupaya, Vyasa rupaya Vishnave
Namo vai Brahmanidhaye, Vasishtaya Namo NamaH.
Vyasam Vasishta naptaram, ShakteH poutra makalmasham
Parasaratmajam, Vande Shuka taponidhim.