Yes indeed, Life is complicated. The phenomenon of Life demands the interdependence, interconnectedness, and interrelatedness of a varied range of immutable species.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – THE HUMAN SPECIES:
Carolus Linnaeus also known as Carl Linnaeus, (b. May 23, 1707, d. January 10, 1778) Swedish botanist, a doctor of medicine, and explorer was the first to frame principles for defining genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them. The static concept of species or the morphological concept of species was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus. As per Linnaeus, species are fixed and immutable entities, there is no change in the species and do not vary in form, size or shape.
Linnaeus published his Systema Naturae in 1735 and Genera Plantarum in 1737. He presented and explained his classification system that was based mainly on flower parts which tend to remain unchanged from generation to generation.
Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae gives a very precise description of man, placing him among the Class – Mammals, in the Order of Primates which includes the apes. Further, Linnaeus describes the varieties of man such as The Asian, The African, and The European. He depends only on external characteristics to place objects into a rational set of categories. Thus Linnaeus formulates a Static Taxonomy in which Species of living things appear to be immutable in type throughout the ages. The Species, the fundamental unit of Classification, consists of populations of morphologically similar individuals that share the similar collection of characteristics whose combination is unique to the Species. In other words, Species is distinguished by its ability to maintain its stability from generation to generation. Since Species is self-perpetuating, they maintain the stability of all other groupings like the genera, phyla, and families which remain fixed from generation to generation. Apart from the observed stability of all recognized Species, the chemical molecules that are essential to compose the Living Matter, Material, or Substance called Protoplasm have always maintained their stability. For example, water molecule is the most important of all the biomolecules of Life and its chemical composition and properties are held stable over billions of years.
THE NATURAL LAW OF PROPAGATION:
The French naturalist Buffon in his monumental compendium on Natural History (44 Volumes), Histoire Naturelle General et Particuliere – 1749-1804, describes man as a zoological species. Buffon determined species not by their physical appearances but by their reproductive history. Two individual animals or plants are of the same Species if they can produce fertile offspring. Species are known only through the history of its natural propagation. By the law of natural propagation, offspring will always be of the same species as the parent organism. A Species always breeds true. Its members always generate organisms which can be classified as belonging to the same Species, however much they vary among themselves as individuals within the group. The sub-groups, the races or varieties of Species are able to breed with one another, but diverse Species cannot interbreed. Organisms different in Species cannot reproduce productively and if crossbred, like the horse and the ass, they produce a sterile hybrid like the mule. The Natural Law of Propagation can be described as “The Law of Creation and Individuality.” Each kind of living thing always arrives as an original, distinctive, unique, and one of its own kind of object. No living thing has an independent choice of its own and there is no choice other than that of existing as a created object that can be identified as a specific individual thing with Individuality. Even with the use of the latest reproductive technology such as cloning, man cannot use the reproductive process to cause the existence of two identical living things. The term ‘Species’ must be used for purposes of ease and convenience as they are trillions of Individual living things with Individuality. In my view, the French naturalist Buffon had defined the term ‘Species’ correctly using the Natural Law of Propagation.
THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MAN:
When man is viewed as the subject of scientific investigation, the empirical knowledge of man is provided by observations of his structure (ANATOMY), functions (PHYSIOLOGY), his behavior (PSYCHOLOGY), his culture (ANTHROPOLOGY), and his past (ARCHAEOLOGY).
The study of the Natural History of Man was stimulated by the encounters with the great anthropoid Apes of Africa and Asia at the beginning of the 16th century. The discovery of the Chimpanzee and the Orangutan(meaning “Man of the Woods” in Malay language) raised questions about the status of Apes and their relation to Man. Dr. Edward Tyson, M.D., conducted studies(1699) sponsored by the Royal Society of London to analyze in great detail the similarities and the dissimilarities between a Chimpanzee and a man. For Tyson, the Chimpanzee was the missing link between animal and Man. But, Tyson and Darwin have no evidence to show that Chimpanzee or any other intermediate Species can actually transform its genome by gradual modification and appear in the physical world as a brand new Human Species.
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach is recognized as the Father of Physical Anthropology for his work De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1775-76). His research in the measurement of human skulls led him to divide mankind into five great families; Caucasian, Mongolian, Malayan, Ethiopian, and American. Human Species may include varieties that can be grouped into Races by using some common morphological traits.
At the same time the present Identification Technology such as the Fingerprints, Iris Scans, Facial Recognition Technology, Skin Surface Texture Recognition Technology allows the recognition of each member of the Human Species as a specific Individual with Individuality.
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES – THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION:
Charles Darwin had no particular problem with the term ‘Species’ and in his view, Species is the term used to signify “a set of individuals closely resembling each other” – a class of plants or animals having certain characteristics. However, he wanted to seek a genealogical relationship among the various forms of life. His ideas demand a dynamic or genealogical classification of living things. While holding that new Species originate in the course of time, Darwin formulated a view about the Origin of Species and their differentiation, and the factors or circumstances under which some life forms cease to have the status of species or become extinct. But, Darwin fails to fully account for the reality called existence. There is no Natural Law or Principle that can fully account for the existence of Life on planet Earth.
Evolutionary Biology describes Man as a direct descendant of nonhuman Primates. From the interpretation of fossils have arisen concepts of mutation (the process by which the genetic material of a cell is altered), transformism (the theory that one Species is changed into another) and Evolution through mechanistic, unguided, purposeless and random events.
At a fundamental level, The Great Chain of Living Beings has to be explained as a Continuity while the individual Species of Living Beings arrive as a sequence of discrete, creative steps. The precise physical form of Man as a special form or as a Human Species has to be explained by describing the role of natural factors and natural conditions of climate or environment that may determine the actual characteristics of a given Species. The morphological variations among the various members of the Homo Genus have to be related to the variations in diet, physical activity, and physical climatic conditions and the observed variations must explain the reproductive success or failure of the Species.
In my view, the substance or material called the Living Matter always exists with the same chemical composition resisting any influence of changing Time. Because of this Unchanging Principle, the Principle of Unity, the observed phenomenon of Biodiversity is manifested in the natural world.The forms assumed by the Living Matter have always varied to demonstrate the operation of a creative mechanism that maintains the stability of each Species while generating variations among members of the same Species and between different Species.
I would further seek to explain the arrival of the Human Species as a Creative Event as other member Species of the Genus Homo disappeared simultaneously without any specific contribution made by the Nature or the natural living conditions that prevail on planet Earth.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection is not supported by the Cell Theory
Yes indeed, Life is complicated. If Life is a discussion about the Living Things, the conversation pertains to the two basic principles about the constitution of the Living Things. The principles are, 1. Form, and 2. Matter. The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection tries to account for the phenomenon of biodiversity without giving attention to the Unchanging Nature, Composition, and Functions of the Living Matter described by Science as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, a gelatinous Substance common to all Living Things. Rudolf-Rudi refute the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection for there is no evolutionary change in the building blocks of Life.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – HUMAN EVOLUTION:
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution involves the notion of a common ancestor for both man and the anthropoid apes. The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. Rudolf-Rudi refute the Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. “IN THE DESCENT OF MAN”(1871), CHARLES DARWIN SHARED A VIEW OF MAN’S ORIGIN BY A PROCESS OF NATURAL VARIATION FROM AN ANCESTRAL TYPE. WE HAVE YET TO DISCOVER A COMMON ANCESTOR FOR BOTH THE ANTHROPOID APES SUCH AS THE GORILLA AND THE MAN. Both Gorilla and Chimpanzee are natives of Africa and they exist with 48 chromosomes as compared to man’s genome that consists of 46 chromosomes.
Evolution by Natural Selection
Virchow believed the idea that humans were the descendants of apes was an attack on society’s moral foundations. In 1858, Darwin and Wallace’s theory of evolution by natural selection was unleashed on an unsuspecting world.
In its early years the theory was highly controversial and was fiercely debated. Virchow opposed the theory from the beginning and never relented in his opposition.
When Charles Darwin published his On the Origin of Species in 1858, Virchow was already publicly speaking out against the naturalist’s views on evolution.
In fact, in 1877, he said the idea that man had descended from apes was an attack on society’s moral foundations. He voiced his opinion that teaching the theory of evolution should not be permitted in Germany’s public schools.
Even after Darwin published his groundbreaking report, Virchow continued to speak against him and insisted that evolution was simply a hypothesis and subject to change. He was so adamant in his decision that he succeeded in getting natural history removed from school curriculum in favor of alternate hypotheses. Until he died, he insisted evolution was merely one of the multiple theories to explain human existence and required further evidence.
Virchow continued to research and write about the human body as a microcosm for society at large. Perhaps the most well-known contribution Rudolf Virchow made to the medical field was his research on cell theory. Virchow asserted that living cells do not spontaneously occur, but instead come from another living cell by way of cell division. He referred to the body as a “cell state in which each cell is a citizen.” Diseases, therefore, were just “conflict[s] between the citizens of the state, caused by outer forces.”
Human Chromosome #2 attracted a lot of attention for the nearest ape relative bonobo has near identical DNA sequences . But, the problem is that of the separation of these DNA sequences into two chromosomes called #2 a, and #2 b giving the apes a genome with 48 chromosomes.
It would be very easy to speculate that the Human Chromosome #2 can result from an end to end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes such as the Chromosome #2 a, and Chromosome #2 b.
Man and apes exist with genomes that are almost identical and yet man cannot directly descend from the anthropoid apes. The fusion of Chromosomes #2 a, and #2 b would cause the production of a non-viable mutant or an individual who may not produce any offspring. Firstly, we need a male and a female with this fused chromosome in their gametes; the sperm and the egg to produce an offspring with a unique set of 46 chromosomes; 22 pairs of autosomes and a pair of (XY or XX) of Sex Chromosomes X,Y. It requires two identical, rare, mutant, male and female to produce offspring and to establish an entirely new population. The Theory of Evolution proposes that random, unguided, mutations lead to changes in a Species and eventually lead to its descent as a new Species. If fusion of two, distinct, separate chromosomes such as #2 a, and #2 b is required, the fusion event must happen in a Hominid population about 10,000 years ago and this population would have no relationship with the living apes.
THE ORIGIN OF HUMAN RACES:
The term “RACE” describes any of the different varieties or populations of human beings distinguished by physical traits such as hair, eyes, skin color, shape of body and head, facial features, and blood traits. These physical traits or characteristics are transmitted by heredity. However, it must be noted that such traits are highly variable, not every member of a race will exhibit all distinguishing traits. But, it is very clear that Human Races or varieties arose in response to inbreeding and not on account of interbreeding of different subspecies.
Anthropologists had initially described three primary divisions of people, 1. Caucasoid, 2. Mongoloid, and 3. Negroid. Thomas Huxley in his paper titled “On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind” (1870), had described racial varieties such as Bushman, Africoid, Negritoes, Melanochroi, Australoids, Xanthochroi, Polynesians, Mongoloids A, B, & C, and Esquimaux.
It is of no surprise to note the controversy regarding the terms used to identify the varieties of mankind. As such there is no agreement and the word ‘Species’ has no defined meaning. There are two schools of thought to account for the apparent variations among the members of the Human Species. Monogeny describes a view that all human races came from a common ancestor. Polygeny is a view that asserts the separate creation of races.
THE BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR HUMAN RACES:
Today, some anthropologists entirely reject the concept of “RACE.” However, they stress the heterogeneity of world population. In Biology, the term ‘race’ is used to describe a subspecies, or variety, or breed. The search for a common ancestor for the entire Human Species is not yet over. In recent times, the techniques of DNA extraction and genomic sequencing have advanced. Evolutionary geneticists are describing their findings with a degree of boldness by simply studying the DNA and using the finding to predict the behavior and nature of the Homo Species members.
To resolve the problems about finding the biological basis for human races, we may have to take the help of the Science called Immunology that deals with man’s ability to defend his own existence by recognizing Self and Non-Self marker proteins (antigens), the protein molecules that cover the surfaces of every cell in the human body.
THE LAW OF CREATION AND INDIVIDUALITY:
The many aspects of immunological recognition is more important than that of the recognition of ancestral Species from which the Human Species may have arrived or descended. The HLA antigens are very remarkable for the extensive degree of genetic polymorphism; that is the variability between individuals is very great and there could be no two identical individuals as unrelated individuals have different HLA antigens. Histocompatibility is a condition of compatibility between the tissues of a graft or transplant and the tissues of the body receiving the graft or transplant. The understanding of histocompatibility is important for the success of organ transplantation and it clearly demonstrates that the Human Species has no choice other than that of existing as Specific Individuals with Individuality. The concept of descent from another Species cannot account for immunological recognition which formulates the basis for histocompatibility and Immunity from infections.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. Life always comes from previously existing Life
Yes indeed, Life is complicated. Our understanding of the term Life must reflect the nature of the Living Matter, Living Material, Living Substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm which is always present since the time of origin of Life on planet Earth.
During the life span of multicellular organisms like humans, individual blocks of life called cells experience individual life spans of their own.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – AGING AND LONGEVITY:
I would like to pay my tribute to Blaise Pascal who shared his views about man and human nature; “Man is a nothing in comparison with the Infinite, an All in comparison with the Nothing, a mean between Nothing and Everything. Since he is infinitely removed from comprehending the extremes, the end of things and their beginning are helplessly hidden from him in an impenetrable secret; he is equally incapable of seeing the Nothing from which he was made, and the Infinite in which he swallowed up.” Since man exists as a Mortal Being, man has a natural tendency to investigate the Beginning of Life and the End of Life and seek a better understanding of the natural processes liking Aging that propels man to travel and reach the destination termed ‘Death’ without any choice. Aging is a widespread biological phenomenon and all living things display a natural tendency towards a decline of biological functions and a time-related disability to adapt to metabolic stress. At the same time, I ask my readers to note that the ‘Protoplasm’, the living substance that makes up both the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm appears to be potentially immortal. The term ‘Longevity’, the length or duration of a life or lives, must be interpreted in the context of the potential ability of Protoplasm to survive while individual members of species take birth, live, and die after a period of time. The term Life-Span describes the longest period of time that a typical individual can be expected to live. Similarly, Lifetime is the period of time that someone lives, or that something lasts, functions, or is in effect. Human beings have the unique ability to use their Lifetime to create a legacy that can endure giving an aura of immortality to that specific human individual who may have finished his or her mortal existence.
THE PHENOMENON OF LONGEVITY:
The concept of Life-Span implies that there is an individual whose existence has a definite beginning and end. Within the Phylum Protozoa, organisms that consist of a single cell, are numerous species that reproduce by fission which is a form of asexual reproduction in which the parent organism divides into two or more approximately equal parts, each becoming an independent individual. In such organisms where it is not easy to establish the beginning and end of an individual organism, the growth seems to continue indefinitely and a potential immortality can be observed. In organisms that use sexual reproduction, the limits of the life-span of each species appear to be determined by ‘Heredity’ which refers to the transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring by means of genes in the chromosomes. Each individual member of any given species has a life-span during which something of that individual lasts when transmitted to offspring as heritable information. The term heredity and the Laws of Inheritance and the Science called Genetics will have validity if, and only if some biological characteristics survive in spite of the death of any individual member of a species. It is very interesting to observe that there are several species of living things which have continuously lived for exceptionally long periods of time retaining their species-specific identity. Such organisms can be claimed to be immortal as they appear to be fully capable of surviving indefinitely. This faculty has been attributed to some insects, some simpler forms of invertebrate marine life (such as Tube Worms, Jellyfish, Clams, and Lobsters), certain fishes and reptiles which appear to be capable of unlimited growth. As the complexity of an organism increases, the internal changes associated with the aging process contribute to senescence and death of the organism. Even under the most favorable external conditions, there is a predetermined age beyond which a given individual of a species may not be able to survive. The Maximum Life-Span is often an estimate based on the longest lived organism of its species that is known to date. The Average Life-Span is a statistical concept that is derived by the analysis of mortality data for populations of each species. The Average Life-Span is related to Life Expectancy, the statistically probable length of time that a typical individual of any given species can be expected to live. Life Expectancy varies as it depends on the changing death rate over a period of time. Even species that have very slow-growing rates can experience higher than natural death rates due to external factors and may even face the threat of total extinction.
The issue of Life-Span of plants and trees and of Human Life-Span need special consideration. In all animals, where the organism is formed by sexual reproduction, the beginning of life is defined by the formation of the fertilized egg cell or zygote. Very often, physical birth is considered to be the beginning of the Life-Span. The end or death of an organism is reflected in its inability to support its structural and functional organization that gives it a distinctive physical identity. This generation of Life by the union of an egg and sperm is a most remarkable event. In the entire Animal and Plant Kingdom where the organisms achieve reproduction sexually, the Generative Mechanism remains the same and is unchanged over millions of years. This Generative Potential of Sexual Reproduction is unaltered and it describes a most creative process that is involved in the beginning of all living creatures. In my view, the immutability of Life’s beginning is dependent upon the Unchanging Operating Principle called Soul or Spirit.
What is inheritance?
Inheritance is the process by which genetic information is passed on from parent to child. This is why members of the same family tend to have similar characteristics.
- We actually have two genomes each
- We get one copy of our genome from each of our parents
- Inheritance describes how genetic material is passed on from parent to child.
How is genetic material inherited?
- Most of our cells contain two sets of 23 chromosomes (they are diploid).
- An exception to this rule are the sex cells (egg and sperm), also known as gametes, which only have one set of chromosomes each (they are haploid).
- However, in sexual reproduction the sperm cell combines with the egg cell to form the first cell of the new organism in a process called fertilization.
- This cell (the fertilized egg) has two sets of 23 chromosomes (diploid) and the complete set of instructions needed to make more cells, and eventually a whole person.
- Each of the cells in the new person contains genetic material from the two parents.
- This passing down of genetic material is evident if you examine the characteristics of members of the same family, from average height to hair and eye colour to nose and ear shape, as they are usually similar.
What is Cytoplasmic Inheritance?
Cytoplasmic inheritance is a type of inheritance which involves DNA of cytoplasmic organelles. In this inheritance, the offspring receives genes from the cytoplasmic organelles (plasma genes or extranuclear genes). Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain genomes composed of DNA. This organelle DNA travels from the mother egg cell to zygote. However, compared to nuclear inheritance, a small number of genes are inherited by the cytoplasmic inheritance. Moreover, it does not follow the Mendelian inheritance pattern, unlike nuclear inheritance.
What is Nuclear Inheritance?
Nuclear inheritance occurs due to the genes present on the chromosomes. Therefore, the mother nucleus and father nucleus equally contribute to nuclear inheritance. Moreover, the offspring inherits millions of genes from parents via nuclear inheritance.
I coined the phrase ‘Whole Mendelism’ to interpret the information about Biogeneration and Propagation using the mechanism of reproduction. Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance describe the transmission of hereditary traits from parent species to offspring. However, the story of Inheritance as described in Biology is not ‘Whole’ or complete for it fails to include other important aspects of ‘Inheritance’.
Cells are the building blocks of life. Each living Cell has three basic components, 1. Nucleus or genetic material, 2. Corporeal substance, living matter called protoplasm, cytoplasm, or cytosol which has several kinds of intracellular organelles with membranes, and 3. Limiting Membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane with which a living Cell separates itself from its surrounding environment including other living cells.
Modern Evolutionary Biologists interpret Theory of Evolution chiefly as that of transmission of genetic traits giving attention to genes and alterations of genetic information or mutation. They do not give attention to the Maternal Cytoplasmic Inheritance and Inheritance of Biological Membrane when a Mother Cell reproduces to develop Daughter Cells.
I account for my human existence coining the phrase Whole Inheritance which includes the contributions of the Divine Providence, the Father or Paternal Inheritance, and the Mother or Maternal Inheritance. The term inheritance must include the inheritance of Matter and Knowledge apart from the genes which are involved in the inheritance of genetic traits as the fact of existence needs the support from an external environment at any given time and place.
The Divine Providence ensures the creation of the newborn who arrives in a physical and social environment to exist as an Individual with Individuality, an original, one of its own kind of object even if the birth involves the use of reproductive technology such as the production of genetically identical clones.
The Concept of Whole Inheritance
The establishment of the human existence primarily involves three kinds of inheritance. 1. The Inheritance of the Human Genome, 2. The Cytoplasmic Inheritance which includes the inheritance of the Cell, Plasma, or Biological Membrane apart from cytoplasmic organelles containing DNA such as the mitochondria, and 3. The Inheritance of Physical and Social Environment that supports the existence
The Inheritance of Cell or Plasma Membrane:
The Functions of Cell Membrane or Biological Membrane:
1. Protection: It protects the cell from its surroundings or extracellular environment. Plant cell possess wall over the plasma membrane for extra protection and support.
2. Holding cell contents: Plasma membranes hold the semi fluid protoplasmic contents of the cell intact; thus keeping the individuality of the cell.
3. Selective Permeability: Cell membrane allows only selected or specific substances to enter into the cell and are impermeable to others.
- Gases like O2 and CO2 can diffuse rapidly in solution through membranes.
- Small compounds like H2O and methane can easily pass through where as sugars, amino acids and charged ions are transported with the help of transport proteins.
- The size of the molecules which can pass through the plasma membrane is 1-15 A0. This property is responsible for keeping a cell ‘as a cell’, an individual unit.
4. Shape: It maintains form and shape of the cell. It serves as site of anchorage or attachment of the cytoskeleton; thus providing shape to the cell (especially in animal cells without cell wall).
5. Organelles: Cell membrane delimits or covers all sub-cellular structures or organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies etc. thus protecting them form the surroundings and also helps in maintaining a constant internal environment.
6. Compartmentalization: Cell membrane separate the cells from their external environment and cell organelle from cytosol. It help the cells and their organelles to have their own microenvironments, structural and functional individuality.
7. Cell Recognition: With the help of glycolipids and glycoproteins on its surface, cell membranes are able to differentiate similar cells from dissimilar ones, foreign substances and cells own materials. Cell recognition is useful for tissue formation and defence against microbes.
8. Antigens: Cell membranes possess antigens which determine blood grouping, immune response, acceptance or rejection of a transplant (graft rejection by MHC’s on plasma membrane).
9. Microvilli: They are microscopic finger like projections of plasma membrane present on some cells like intestinal epithelial cells, which are involved in a wide variety of functions, including increasing surface area for absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion etc.
10. Sheaths of cilia and flagella: Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell; made up of microtubules which are covered by an extension of the plasma membrane.
11. Cytoplasmic bridges in plasmodesmata and gap junctions: Plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells; meant for intercellular transport and communication, form cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells through plasma membrane.
12. Endocytosis and Exocytosis: Bulk intake of materials or endocytosis occurs through development of membrane vesicles or invagination and engulfing by plasma membrane.
Exocytosis: It is reverse of endocytosis that provides for releasing waste products and secretory materials ot of the cells with the help of plasma membrane.
13. Impulse transmission in neurons: The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the plasma membrane of the neuron
14. Cell metabolism: Cell membranes control cell metabolism through selective permeability and retentivity of substances in a cell.
15. Electron transport chain in bacteria: In bacteria; Electron transport chain is located in cell membrane.
16. Osmosis through cell membrane: It is movement of solvent molecules (generally water) from the region of less concentrated solution to the region of high concentrated solution through a semi permeable membrane. Here the semi permeable membrane that helps in osmosis is the cell membrane. Eg: Root cells take up water from the soil by osmosis
17. Carrier proteins for active transport: They occur in the cell membranes and control active transport of substances. Example, GLUT1 is a named carrier protein found in almost all animal cell membranes that transports glucose across the bilayer or plasma membrane.
18. Plasma Membrane enzymes: Many enzymes are present on the plasma membrane with wide variety of catalytic activity. Example: Red blood cell plasma membranes contain a number of enzymes such as ATPases, anion transport protein, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, acetylcholinesterase.
19. Cell Membrane Receptors: Receptor on the plasma membrane performs signal transduction, converting an extracellular signal into an intra-cellular signal. Membrane possess receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies and several other biochemicals.
20. Plasma membrane assisted Cell movements: Undulation and pseudopodia are cell membrane phenomenon involved in cell movement. Amoeba, macrophages and WBCs move with the helps of temporary organelles like pseudopodia. Pseudopods are temporary cytoplasmic projections of the cell membrane in certain unicellular protists such as Amoeba. Some mammalian cells such as fibroblasts can move over a solid surface by wave like undulations of the plasma membrane.
The Divine Principle has to be both male and female and in this article, I present the feminine aspect of Divine Principle as “Whole Angel”, the harmonious blending or coming together of Angel of Beauty, Angel of Mercy, and Angel of Knowledge. My understanding of Mother and Motherhood comes from the study of the building blocks of Life. The most important building block of human life is the fertilized Egg Cell.
The Father and the Mother – The Principles governing Life:
Father is described as the male parent, an ancestor, an originator, and as a Controller. Very often, God is considered as both the Father and the Mother of all life forms. Mother is described as the female parent and something that is regarded as a ‘Source’. Father may be viewed as the ‘Prime Cause’ and Mother is the Source of ‘Prime Energy’. Mother is the source of energy in performance of all kinds of actions and in accomplishment of all kinds of work. The Mother Principle represents the Endeavor/Work/Effort that makes action possible. If Life is defined as function at the level of biological molecules, Mother represents the Source or the Origin of these organic molecules; Mother is the Source of Energy for the synthesis of these organic molecules; and Mother is the Source of Knowledge that provides the ability of recognition and the ability to use the molecules in a sequential manner to manage the biochemical reactions of these organic molecules to function as Life.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF LIFE:
The complex, multicellular human organism begins as a single cell. That single cell is the source of life, energy, and knowledge.
I, as a human organism exist in this world as I arrived from a previously existing ‘Mother Cell’. By repeated cell growth and cell division or replication known as ‘Mitosis’, the human organism grows and develops into a form containing thousands of billions of cells. This process of development is called ‘Morphogenesis’ which involves not only cell growth but differentiation into specialized types of cells. All the tissues and organs of which the human body is composed have originally developed from a microscopic cell known as ‘Ovum’ or the ‘Egg Cell’. This Ovum or Egg Cell may be regarded as a perfect cell and could be described as ‘Mother Cell’. All the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; it is true that they may differ, but they are essentially similar to an Ovum. The Ovum is a reproductive cell that is adapted to meet the nutritional requirements of the early developmental stages of the embryo. It is always a large cell because it contains sufficient cytoplasmic substance for the development of a self-sufficient embryo. Some of the substance which is packaged in yolk particles contains cell components; typically an Ovum contains sufficient quantities of components for many cells. Thus the Ovum need not grow as it divides; as the nuclei divide, the cytoplasm subdivides until the Ovum consists of a large number of normal-sized cells. By contrast, the male reproductive cells known as ‘Spermatozoa’ contain very little cytoplasm and they cannot further divide into new cells.
THE SOURCE OF LIFE – PROTOPLASM:
The most significant feature of the similarity between the cells of a man and that of the ‘Mother Cell’ from which he had arrived is presence of a soft gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as ‘Protoplasm’ is similar to that found in the Ovum. The Ovum consists of this viscous, translucent, colloidal substance enclosed in a membrane called Plasma Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the protoplasm. The protoplasm could also be differentiated into cytoplasm and nucleoplasm based upon its location. Cytoplasm refers to protoplasm located outside the nucleus. Nucleoplasm refers to protoplasm located inside the nucleus. The two essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of presence of protoplasm and the nucleus.
The most striking characteristics of protoplasm are its vital properties of “Motion” and “Nutrition”. Protoplasm has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position. Motion of protoplasm is called ‘amoeboid movement’ as it resembles the movements observed in the Amoeba proteus animalcule. Nutrition is the power which protoplasm has of attracting itself the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter and environment. The Egg Cell or the Ovum is the Source or the Mother of Life. This living matter, living substance, or corporeal material has divine attributes. It is conscious, it is aware, and it performs cognitive functions to sustain its own living condition.
THE LAW OF INDIVIDUALITY- HEREDITY AND VARIATION:
Heredity is the sum of all biological processes by which particular characteristics are transmitted from parents to their offspring. A child inherits a genetic constitution from its biological parents. This hereditary endowment, the total of the genes that the child has received from both parents is called the genotype. The genotype of an individual is formed from the constituents of the genotypes of his parents. The genotype in a fertilized Egg Cell influences the developmental pattern of the child. Progeny is not exact duplicates of their parents and usually vary in many traits. Heredity and Variation are two sides of the same coin. The outward appearance of an organism is called the phenotype. The same individual shows different phenotypes in childhood, in adulthood, and in old age. The genotype, on the other hand, does not change during an individual’s life. Each cell in the human body contains the same total genetic information that was present in the fertilized Egg. However, the cells are not identical. In different types of cells, groups of genes are controlled (in effect switched on and off) by various biochemical processes, so that each cell manufactures the proteins and structures needed for it to function. Cells are regulated by the DNA in the nucleus and by the transfer of selected portions of the DNA information to the cytoplasm through the intermediate molecules of ‘Messenger RNA’. It is estimated that, on average, only about 10 percent of the genes of any cell are functional; selection of functional genes varies with the type of cell. This biological phenomenon of selective gene functioning may contribute to what I term as ‘The Law of Individuality’. Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA accounts for the ability of all living matter to replicate itself exactly and to transmit genetic information from parent to offspring. The child maintains its individuality by selectively switching the inherited DNA on and off. The Law of Individuality applies to all living organisms. Despite the basic biological, chemical, and physical similarities found in all living things, diversity of life exists not only among and between species but also within every natural population.
The Mother Cell is the Source of Life for its child and yet the child comes into existence as a brand new and original product with its own Identity and Individuality. The Mother Cell does not manufacture the new multicellular organism called child. A child is always a created object even when it derives its life from a Mother Cell.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF ENERGY:
To maintain life an organism not only repairs or replaces (or both) its structures by a constant supply of the materials of which it is composed but also keeps its life processes in operation by a steady supply of energy.
Living systems must be supplied energy for continual synthesis of new organic molecules and to replace or to repair broken organic molecules. This functional activity; the processes of synthesis and breakdown of organic molecules by a living cell, is known as metabolism. Metabolism involves a living system’s continual exchange of some of its materials with its surroundings, principally in the process of building up or destroying its protoplasm. growth involves a higher rate of synthesis of protoplasm than a rate of breakdown of that matter.
ACQUISITION OF ENERGY:
Organisms acquire energy for their metabolism by two general methods and could be classified as autotrophs or self feeders and heterotrophs or feeders of other organisms. Plants are known as Photoautotrophs as they acquire useful free energy from the energy of Sunlight. In a process known as Photosynthesis, plants use Sunlight to break water into Oxygen and Hydrogen. Hydrogen is then combined with Carbon dioxide to produce such energy-rich molecules as Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and carbohydrates and the Oxygen is released back into the atmosphere. Humans and most other animals are known as heterotrophs – these organisms acquire energy by the controlled breakdown of pre-existing organic molecules ( food ) supplied by other organisms. Humans utilize the atmospheric Oxygen ( released by plant life ) to combine chemically with organic matter ( food ) they have eaten and release Carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Metabolic processes do not occur in one step. It is not similar to burning sugar in air.
KREB’S TRICARBOXYLIC ACID CYCLE:
The glucose, a simple sugar is broken down by a series of successive and coordinated steps, each mediated by a particular and specific enzyme. The human organism extracts useful energy by a metabolic process described as Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. The glucose is broken down in a series of about 71 enzymatically catalyzed steps. The first 11 of these biochemical reactions do not involve the use of Oxygen. These Oxidation-Reduction Reactions occur in intracellular organelles known as Mitochondria in the cytoplasm of cells.
MITOCHONDRIA – THE POWERHOUSE OF CELLS:
Mitochondria are typically sausage-shaped particles about 0.5 to one micron wide and about 5 to 10 microns long. They are surrounded by an outer unit membrane which controls the passage of material into and out of the mitochondria and govern their internal environment. The inner membrane is the site of the respiratory functions that make the mitochondria the so-called Powerhouse of the Cell. The inner membrane is folded repeatedly into shelf like folds called cristae which contain the enzymes that play an essential role in conversion of the energy of foodstuffs into the energy used for cellular activities.
MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS – A DIVINE SOURCE FOR ENERGY ACQUISITION:
Mitochondria and Chloroplasts found in the green plant cells perform the same fundamental processes. The Chloroplasts contain the green colored pigment known as Chlorophyll. The Chloroplasts convert the energy of Sunlight into energy-rich ATP and use ATP to convert Carbon into specific organic substances. The most important equations for living things are mutually inverse. Respiration of human organisms represents the reverse of Photosynthesis of Green Plants. Both Mitochondria and the Chloroplasts are semi-independent and self-reproducing parts of the living cells. They have a degree of autonomy and they are unlike the other components of cells. Mitochondria contain DNA in the form of a Chromosome arranged in a ring. The DNA of Mitochondria has different distribution of bases from that of the DNA found in the Chromosomes present in the nucleus. Mitochondria carry the genes for their own replication and for the enzymes found in them. They can synthesize some of their own proteins and reproduce by themselves. In one respect the mitochondria function as the parts of the cells and in another respect, they behave like independent organisms that reproduce on their own.
The Mother Cell is the source of Mitochondria found in all the cells of my human body. During the Growth and Development of Human Embryo and Fetus, all the newly formed cells contain Mitochondria derived from the Egg Cell. Hence, mother as a biological parent represents the Source of Energy for all the Living Functions and activities of her children. I cannot move a muscle in my body without drawing energy supplied by the maternal Mitochondria which continue to live and replicate establishing my mother as the Source of Energy for my existence during my entire Life’s Journey.
MOTHER – SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE:
Life is the state of an individual characterized by the capacity to perform certain functional activities including the ability of responsiveness. Life is further characterized by presence of complex transformation of organic molecules and by organization of such molecules into the successively larger units of protoplasm, cells, organs, and tissues. Hence, I have defined Life as “Knowledge in Action.”
Responsiveness represents the ability of an organism to change in response to alteration in its environment. Responsiveness, alertness, awareness, and consciousness separates living from nonliving matter and defines life’s underlying principle. Living cells are aware or conscious of the environment in which they exist as well as the state of their own internal environment. The one very important part of environment of a cell is other cells. The ability called awareness and responsiveness is important for recognition, association, and cooperation between cells. Cells function together by exchanging chemical signals.
THE BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANE – AN ORGAN OF SENSE PERCEPTION:
Cell is the most elementary unit of Life. Cell is bounded by a Plasma Membrane which is more correctly described as a Biological Membrane. It separates the cell from the environment and from other cells. It helps to maintain a constant milieu in which intracellular reactions occur. The Biological Membrane allows a highly controlled exchange of matter across the barrier it poses, some compounds are able to pass through the membrane easily, others are blocked. Cells contain various internal structures such as the nucleus, and mitochondria, each of which is enclosed by a Membrane. Both the Biological Membrane and some of the intracellular membranes are parts of a continuous Membrane System that extends through much of the body of the cell. It serves two purposes. A compartmentalization of cell is required for many cellular activities, including uptake and conversion of nutrients, synthesis of new molecules, production of energy, transportation, and release of cell products, and regulation and coordination of metabolic sequences. The cellular organelles are protected from one another’s enzymatic activities, and those of the cytoplasm. The Biological Membrane System functions like an Organ of Sense Perception and maintains the responsiveness of the cell.
THE CYTOPLASMIC OR MATERNAL INHERITANCE:
Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA accounts for the ability of all living matter to replicate itself exactly and to transmit genetic information from parent to offspring. While offspring inherit a genetic constitution and hereditary traits from both parents, some characteristics are inherited through the maternal line only. For example, there are no Chlorophyll containing Chloroplasts in pollen grains of (male) flowers. The act of Pollination does not contribute this most important characteristic known as Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are found only in the Egg Cells of (female) flowers. Similarly, humans inherit the Powerhouses called Mitochondria only from Maternal cytoplasm. A Cytoplasmic Inheritance is entirely Maternal. Human functions that involve Sensory Perception, Mental Cognition, Learning, and the functions of Memory and Consciousness should be viewed as functions of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm represents the Seat of Knowledge. Man begins Life as a single cell with its cytoplasm and cell membrane. The cell grows and divides while building more of its cytoplasm. Knowledge is the Fact of Knowing, the State of Knowing, and the Act of Knowing a range of information. The Mother or the Source of Knowledge is the Maternal Cytoplasm and the Cell Membrane inherited from the Egg Cell, Ovum, or the Mother Cell.
Rudi acknowledges his German heritage at Whole Foods when he discovered the spiritual connection between man, food, and Providence. Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet are connected by a material substance called Protoplasm, a divine plan to provide nourishment to Life.
The Rudolf and Rudi Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor can be best described as the concept of Whole Spirituality, the three dimensional spiritual relationship between the multicellular human organism, food, and the Divine Providence.
SPIRITUALISM – THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:
In Biology, cell is the basic or fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things or it is the building block of life. Let me begin with my respectful tribute to some of the people who contributed to ‘The Cell Theory’, one of the foundations of Biological Sciences. Cells were first observed in the 17th century shortly after the discovery of the microscope. Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London, during 1665 coined the word cell. Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made over 247 microscopes and examined microorganisms and tissue samples. He gave the first complete descriptions of bacteria, protozoa (which he called animalcules), spermatozoa, and striped muscle. He also studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.
Improvements in microscopy during early 19th century permitted closer observation and the significance of cells had received better understanding. Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1838), german botanist, Theodor Schwann (1839), german physiologist, and Rudolf Virchow (1855), german pathologist, and others made important contributions to the Cell Theory that describes cell as the building block of all Life.
The Cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of carrying on the essential life processes of sustaining metabolism for producing energy and reproducing. Many simple, small, single-celled organisms like Protozoa perform all life functions. In higher, complex, bigger, multicellular organisms, groups of cells are structurally and functionally differentiated into specialized tissues and organ systems. Thus, the Cell Theory includes the following foundational principles of the Biological Sciences:
1. All living things are made up of cells. Cell is the most elementary or basic unit of Life.
2. Cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things including plants and animals.
3. Cells only rise from division of previously existing cells.
4. All cells are similar in composition, form, and function. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition (in spite of variations) in organisms of similar species. For example, all the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; differing it is true, but that are essentially similar to an Ovum.
5. The cells exhibit functional autonomy. The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of ‘INDEPENDENT’ cells.
6. Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.
7. Cells contain hereditary, biological information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.
THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:
The basic or fundamental unit of life in the human organism is derived from the fertilized egg cell that eventually develops into a complete organism. The most significant feature of similarity between the cells of the human body is the presence of a soft, gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, or Cytosol is similar to the ground substance found in the Ovum or the Egg Cell.
This viscous, translucent, colloidal substance is enclosed in a membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the Protoplasm of the cell. The three essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of the presence of protoplasm, the nucleus, and the cell membrane.
PROTOPLASM – THE GROUND SUBSTANCE OF SPIRITUALISM AND SPIRITUALITY:
I seek the existence of Soul or Spirit in a substance that is basic to life activities, and in a material that is responsible for all living processes. I, therefore, propose that the understanding of the true or real nature of this ground substance of all living matter will help man to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in all of his internal and external relationships while man exists in a physical environment as a member of a social group, social community, and Society. In this blog post, I would like to pay my respectful tribute to Jan Evangelista Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl for their great contribution to the scientific understanding of the living substance, living material, and living matter.
Purkinje conducted his research on human vision at the University of Prague and later on, he served there as a Professor of Physiology (1850-69). He went to Germany and was appointed the Chair of Physiology and Pathology (1823-50) at the University of Breslau, Prussia. There Purkinje created the world’s first independent Department of Physiology (1839) and the first Physiological Laboratory (Physiological Institute, 1842). He is best known for his discovery of large nerve cells with many branching extensions found in the cortex of Cerebellum of the brain (Purkinje Cells, 1837). He discovered the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the ‘pacemaker’ called Atrioventricular node or A-V node along the inside walls of the ventricles to all parts of the heart to help in Cardiac contractile function (Purkinje Fibers, 1839). In 1835, he invented and introduced the scientific term ‘Protoplasm’ to describe the ground substance found inside young animal embryo cells. He discovered the sweat glands of the skin (1833); he discovered the nine configuration groups of Fingerprints used in biometric identification of man (1823); he described the germinal vesicle or nucleus of the unripe ovum that now bears his name (1825), and he noted the protein digesting power of pancreatic extracts (1836).
Hugo Von Mohl named the granular, colloidal material that made up the main substance of the plant cell as “Protoplasm” in 1846. Purkinje invented the word, but Hugo gave more clarity, understanding, and knowing the nature of this ground substance. He viewed cell as an “elementary organ” and in Physiology he explained Protoplasm as an organ of Motion or Movement, Nutrition, and Reproduction. It is the preliminary material in cellular generation. He was the first to propose that new cells are formed by division of preexisting cells and he had observed this process of Cell Division in the algal cells of Conferva glomerata. His observations are very important to understand the Cell Theory that explains cells as the basic building blocks of Life. He was the first to investigate the phenomenon of the stomatal openings in leaves.
Protoplasm is a complex, viscous, translucent solution of such materials as salts and simple sugars with other molecules, mostly proteins and fats, in a colloidal state, that is dispersed but not dissolved in one another. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen constitute more than 90 percent of Protoplasm. It exhibits properties such as Protoplasmic Streaming or Cytoplasmic Streaming or Motion that is called “Amoeboid Movement.” It has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position. It has the power of Nutrition by which it can attract and obtain the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter/environment. These functions involve acquiring, processing, retaining, and using information to perform tasks in a sequential manner for a predetermined purpose and hence describe Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence. The terms Soul and Spirit belong to the materialistic realm where the Physical Reality of man’s biological existence is established. I have not yet discovered any good reason to use the terms Soul and Spirit as a metaphysical or transcendental Reality.
The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence as spiritual attributes of Life as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.
THE SPIRITUALITY OF SUBSTANCE, FUNCTION, ORGANIZATION, ACTION, AND INTERACTIONS:
To establish the biological existence of the human organism, I add the concept of Spiritualism and Spirituality to the Cell Theory. The Single Fertilized Egg Cell has ground substance that is of Spiritual nature and the Spiritualism and Spirituality consists of the following functional, and organizational characteristics:
1. The Cell is Conscious of its own existence and knows its internal condition and knows it external environment.
2. The Cell is intelligent and it has the cognitive abilities like perception and memory to acquire information, to retain information, to recall information, and to use information in the performance of its complex tasks in a sequential manner.
3. The Cell has the ability to show characteristics such as mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and display functional subordination and subservience while being independent.
4. The Cell grows, divides, and develops into a complete organism while it acquires substances and energy from an external environment. The power of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm to attract matter found in its external environment is called Nutrition. The Cell continuously transforms matter to build matter of its own kind for its own benefit to sustain its existence with its own identity and individuality. The Organism represents a social group or a biological community of Cells. The Spiritual nature of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm brings this functional harmony and unity in the Social Group or Biotic Community of Cells by bringing together its Essence and Existence.
5. The Cell Theory is incomplete for it does not describe the conditioned nature of the Cell’s existence. The Cell represents a Living System that is thermodynamically unstable. It requires a constant supply of matter and energy from its external environment to sustain its living functions. The concept of Whole Spirituality formulates the connection between the Cell and its external source of matter and energy.
The theoretical claims about Spirit and Soul, the religious and philosophical doctrines of Spiritualism and Spirituality must be verified using the Cell Theory that defines the human organism. To describe Soul or Spirit as nonmaterial or immaterial Self will not help man to know the real or true man.
Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet come together in a Wholesome Relationship as God is the Energy Provider, the Original Source of Matter and Energy for Life.