The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explores Newtonian Mechanics in the Study of Life in Motion

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explores the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium

Yes indeed, Life is complicated. The complexities of Life do not perplex me for I am totally unaware of the realities of motion. 1. I exist on the surface of Whole Planet without experiencing the speed of Earth, and 2. I may think that I am at a perfect rest, lying in the comfort of my bed while the living matter or the living substance of my body never ceases its motion. Protoplasm or Cytoplasm is the organ of motion or movement and Life ceases to happen if the motion or movement of Protoplasm or Cytoplasm stops.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explores the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium.

The concept of Equilibrium explained by Physics must be reconciled with the information provided by Biological Science which describes the Life in Motion.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explores the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium.

I ask my readers to learn about the importance of the motion or movement of Cytoplasm often described as Cytoplasmic Streaming. I am sharing the information from a Text Book of Medical Physiology that explains the role of Cytoplasmic Streaming in the transportation of Neuropeptides in the Nervous System.

Organization of the Nervous System, Basic Functions of Synapses, and Neurotransmitters

John E. Hall PhD, in Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology, 2021

Neuropeptides

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. Life in Motion. The Role of Cytoplasmic Streaming in the Functions of the Nervous System.

Neuropeptides are synthesized differently and have actions that are usually slow and in other ways different from those of the small-molecule transmitters. The neuropeptides are not synthesized in the cytosol of the presynaptic terminals. Instead, they are synthesized as integral parts of large-protein molecules by ribosomes in the neuronal cell body.

The protein molecules then enter the spaces inside the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell body and subsequently inside the Golgi apparatus, where two changes occur. First, the neuropeptide-forming protein is enzymatically split into smaller fragments, some of which are either the neuropeptide itself or a precursor of it. Second, the Golgi apparatus packages the neuropeptide into minute transmitter vesicles that are released into the cytoplasm. Then, the transmitter vesicles are transported all the way to the tips of the nerve fibers byaxonal streaming of the axon cytoplasm, traveling at the slow rate of only a few centimeters per day. Finally, these vesicles release their transmitter at the neuronal terminals in response to action potentials in the same manner as for small-molecule transmitters. However, the vesicle is autolyzed and is not reused.

Because of this laborious method of forming the neuropeptides, much smaller quantities of neuropeptides than the small-molecule transmitters are usually released. This difference is partly compensated for by the fact that the neuropeptides are generally a thousand or more times as potent as the small-molecule transmitters. Another important characteristic of the neuropeptides is that they often cause much more prolonged actions. Some of these actions include prolonged closure of calcium channels, prolonged changes in the metabolic machinery of cells, prolonged changes in activation or deactivation of specific genes in the cell nucleus, and/or prolonged alterations in numbers of excitatory or inhibitory receptors. Some of these effects last for days, but others last perhaps for months or years. Our knowledge of the functions of the neuropeptides is only beginning to develop.

Neuropeptide and Small-Molecule Transmitters May Coexist in the Same Neurons

Slowly acting neuropeptide transmitters and rapidly acting, small-moleculetransmitters are often stored and released from the same neurons. In some cases, two or more of these transmitters areco-localized in the same synaptic vesicles and areco-released when an action potential reaches the presynaptic terminal. In other cases, these transmitters may be localized in different populations of synaptic vesicles of the same neuron and contribute toco-transmission of signals to a postsynaptic neuron. Moreover, their release may be differentially regulated because of different calcium ion sensitivities or spatial segregation of the vesicles on different boutons.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM:

The view called “Laplacian Determinism” may not determine the basis for peace, harmony, tranquility, and equilibrium that plays a central role in sustaining the human existence. Laplace proposed his theory without making the distinction between animate, and inanimate material bodies.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM. FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE(1749-1827) PROPOSED A VIEW THAT THE UNIVERSE CAN RUN LIKE A MACHINE WITH NO CAPACITY FOR FREE CHOICE IN ANY OF ITS BEHAVIOR.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM. FRENCH MATHEMATICIAN PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE (1749-1827) PROPOSED A VIEW THAT THE UNIVERSE CAN RUN LIKE A MACHINE WITH NO CAPACITY FOR FREE CHOICE IN ANY OF ITS BEHAVIOR.

The French astronomer and mathematician, Pierre Simon De Laplace (b. March 28, 1749, d. March 5, 1827) confirms the long-term stability of the Solar System by mathematically demonstrating the long-term periodicity of three sets of irregularities in the motions of Solar System bodies; 1. the acceleration of the mean motions of the mutually perturbing planets Jupiter and Saturn, 2. the acceleration of the mean motions of the mutually perturbing inner three Galilean satellites of Jupiter, and 3. the acceleration of the mean motion of the Moon. He published a monumental 5-volume work, “Traite de Mecanique Celeste” Treatise on Celestial Mechanics during 1799 to 1825. He applies Newtonian Gravitation to the entire Solar System. Issac Newton believed that divine intervention was periodically required to preserve the Solar System in equilibrium. Laplace demonstrates the invariability of planetary mean motions, Jupiter’s orbit appeared to be continuously shrinking while Saturn’s continually expanded. Laplace offers a complete mechanical interpretation of the Solar System by devising methods for calculating the motions of the planets and their satellites and their perturbations. Laplace proposes a view that is called “Laplacian Determinism.” He claims the attribute of universe to run on like a machine with no capacity for caprice or free choice in any of its behavior, including that of the living beings who are also subject to Newtonian Mechanics. Laplace describes that Classical Mechanics has a fully deterministic character; given the masses, and the forces, and the initial positions and velocities exactly, exact predictions of future and past behavior can be found.

Laplace supports his theory on the basis of valid, mathematical calculations but his view cannot be applied to the living beings. In my view, no exact, or precise predictions can be made about the past or future behavior of living beings. Human existence is conditioned, and at any given instant, the fact of existence demands the operation of a Fundamental Force that I would call ‘Love’. While Newton’s Classical Mechanics is useful for all practical applications to large-scale systems, it cannot account for the ‘Equilibrium’ that is the basis for human existence; the Equilibrium in which any number of forces balance each other and thereby cancel giving rise to the experience of peace, harmony, and tranquility in the living condition. I prefer the term “Whole Equilibrium” to account for human existence as it demands a study of equilibrium that goes beyond Mechanics, Statics, and Dynamics.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: HUMAN EXISTENCE DEMANDS A BALANCE OR HARMONY TO MAINTAIN A STEADY STATE CALLED DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM OR "WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM."
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: HUMAN EXISTENCE DEMANDS A BALANCE OR HARMONY TO MAINTAIN A STEADY STATE CALLED DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM OR “WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM.” IN WHICH THE LIVING BEING HAS THE EXPERIENCE CALLED PEACE, HARMONY, AND TRANQUILITY. I PREFER THE TERM “WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM” FOR IT GOES BEYOND THE STUDY OF MECHANICS, STATICS, AND DYNAMICS.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE MEANING OF WORDS USED IN THE CONVERSATION TO DISCUSS ABOUT LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: IT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW THE MEANING OF WORDS USED IN THE CONVERSATION TO DISCUSS ABOUT LAPLACIAN DETERMINISM.

Mechanics is the branch of Physics that deals with the motion of material bodies and the phenomena of the action of forces on bodies in motion. Dynamics is the branch of Mechanics dealing with the motions of material bodies under the action of given, or applied forces. Dynamics includes Kinematics which is the study of motion without regard to the forces producing it, and Kinetics which is the study of the forces that produce or change motion. The branch of Mechanics called Statics deals with bodies at rest or in equilibrium. The maintenance of equilibrium in bodies depends upon the interaction of forces acting upon them. In a state of equilibrium the resultant of all outside forces acting on a body is zero, thus keeping the body at rest.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: IT WILL BE INCORRECT TO ASSUME THAT A STATIONARY PERSON IS IN A STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM. LIFE IS A DYNAMIC EVENT. THE LIVING BEING IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING. THE THING OR BODY CALLED LIVING BEING IS ALWAYS IN MOTION AND THE FACT OF MOTION BRINGS CHANGES EVEN WHEN THE OBJECT IS NOT MOVING IN ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: THE NORMAL FORCE ‘N’ TO MAINTAIN VERTICAL GAIT IN STATIONARY POSITION IS COUNTERACTED BY ‘W’ THE WEIGHT OF THE PERSON. IT WILL BE INCORRECT TO ASSUME THAT A STATIONARY PERSON IS IN A STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM. LIFE IS A DYNAMIC EVENT. THE LIVING BEING IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING. THE THING OR BODY CALLED LIVING BEING IS ALWAYS IN MOTION AND THE FACT OF MOTION BRINGS CHANGES EVEN WHEN THE OBJECT IS NOT MOVING IN ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

The term ‘Equilibrium’ refers to a state of balance or equality between opposing forces. When applied to living things, equilibrium refers to the ability of the animal body to keep itself properly oriented or positioned; bodily stability or bodily balance. However, the term ‘Equilibrium’ when applied to man, it may refer to a state of balance or adjustment of conflicting desires, interests, etc., Very often, equilibrium is used to describe a mental state of equanimity which demands mental or emotional stability or balance, or poise. In Physics, a motionless person is in Static Equilibrium because the forces acting on the person add up to zero. In the above image, both forces acting on the stationary person are vertical. However, the fact of Static Equilibrium may not describe the presence or absence of Mental Equilibrium. IT WILL BE INCORRECT TO ASSUME THAT A STATIONARY PERSON IS IN A STATE OF EQUILIBRIUM. LIFE IS A DYNAMIC EVENT. THE LIVING BEING IS CONSTANTLY CHANGING. THE THING OR BODY CALLED LIVING BEING IS ALWAYS IN MOTION AND THE FACT OF MOTION BRINGS CHANGES EVEN WHEN THE OBJECT IS NOT MOVING IN ITS EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM:  THE CAR IS IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM BECAUSE IT IS MOVING AT CONSTANT VELOCITY. THERE ARE HORIZONTAL, AND VERTICAL FORCES, BUT THE NET EXTERNAL FORCE IN ANY DIRECTION IS ZERO.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: THE CAR IS IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM BECAUSE IT IS MOVING AT CONSTANT VELOCITY. THERE ARE HORIZONTAL, AND VERTICAL FORCES, BUT THE NET EXTERNAL FORCE IN ANY DIRECTION IS ZERO.

Static Equilibrium is a state of equilibrium in which the net external force and torque acting on a system is zero. Dynamic Equilibrium is a state of equilibrium in which the net external force and torque on a system moving with constant velocity are zero. In the above image, the car is in Dynamic Equilibrium because it is moving at constant velocity. There are horizontal, and vertical forces, but the net external force in any direction is zero. The weight of the car is supported by the normal forces shown to be equal for all four tires. The applied force F app between the tires and the road is balanced by air friction, and ‘w’ the weight of the car. Dynamic Equilibrium is applied in Thermodynamics for systems involving reversible reactions. In a dynamic equilibrium, the rate of loss is equal to the rate of gain.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: IN MAN, HEALTH IS RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM OF BODY FORM AND FUNCTION WHICH RESULTS FROM ITS SUCCESSFUL DYNAMIC ADJUSTMENT TO FORCES TENDING TO DISTURB IT.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: IN MAN, HEALTH IS RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM OF BODY FORM AND FUNCTION WHICH RESULTS FROM ITS SUCCESSFUL DYNAMIC ADJUSTMENT TO FORCES TENDING TO DISTURB IT.

Man is a living system that demands a condition called ‘Whole Equilibrium’ to maintain its existence as a living being. Health is relative equilibrium of body form and function which results from its successful dynamic adjustment to forces tending to disturb it.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: TO DESCRIBE EQUILIBRIUM AS APPLIED TO MAN, THE FACT OF BEING AT PHYSICAL REST OR IN A STATE OF MOTION IN THE GIVEN EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ARE LESS RELEVANT COMPARED TO THE REQUIREMENT OF "HOMEOSTASIS" AS DEFINED BY FRENCH PHYSICIAN CLAUDE BERNARD.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium .SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: TO DESCRIBE EQUILIBRIUM AS APPLIED TO MAN, THE FACT OF BEING AT PHYSICAL REST OR IN A STATE OF MOTION IN THE GIVEN EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ARE LESS RELEVANT COMPARED TO THE REQUIREMENT OF “HOMEOSTASIS” AS DEFINED BY FRENCH PHYSICIAN CLAUDE BERNARD.

To describe equilibrium as applied to man, the concept of homeostasis as defined by the French physician Claude Bernard is very important. Bernard (1813-78) is recognized as the founder of experimental medicine. He states, “All the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of life.” All living things maintain a constant internal environment and try to make adjustments to gross changes in the external environmental conditions. Dr Bernard developed the concept of “Milieu Interieur”, the theory of “Inner Environment”; blood, and body fluids constitute the “internal environment” in which cells carry out their activities. The term “Homeostasis” in Physiology refers to the tendency to maintain, or the maintenance of, normal, internal stability in an organism by coordinated responses of the organ systems that automatically compensate for environmental changes. At any given instant, man’s existence as a material body depends on conditions like Fluid and Electrolyte Balance, Acid-Base Regulation that is concerned  with Hydrogen ion (H+) concentration and Bicarbonate concentration in blood. Life is possible only if  the Hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids is kept within a narrow range; pH value of 7.37 to 7.45 is maintained by several closely integrated but widely differing mechanisms. The chemical events collectively called metabolism require the concentration of Hydrogen ions and electrolytes to remain within narrow limits in the tissue cells and in the fluids which bathes them. This concept of “Homeostasis” is also applicable to any analogous maintenance of stability or equilibrium in any given social group.

Man fundamentally exists as a Social Being and Social Equilibrium as a factor governing living bodies must be given due recognition. Gravitation, Electricity, and Magnetism are different kinds of physical forces, and Mechanics as a Physical Science  can explain the manner in which bodies move under the action of physical forces. In Physics, the simplest mechanical system is the ‘Particle’, a small body and its internal structure and its dimensions are of no consequence in the given problem. Planet Earth may be considered as a rigid-body in which each point is always at a fixed distance from every other. Earth behaves like a Particle as it moves around the Sun and can be treated as a rigid-body in its rotation about its axis. In Classical Mechanics, the bodies are stiff and their deformations have no effect on their motions. Newton’s Laws of Motion assume that the body is a Particle for it covers only the overall motion of a body i.e., the motion of its center of mass and not any rigid-body motion such as rotation. These concepts of ‘Particle’, ‘Rigid-Body’, and ‘Motion’ that are used in Physics and Celestial Mechanics cannot be easily applied in the study of living bodies.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explores the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: THE CONCEPTS OF PARTICLE, RIGID-BODY, AND MOTION USED IN CELESTIAL MECHANICS CANNOT BE APPLIED TO LIVING BODIES. MAN NEEDS THE OPERATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCE CALLED LOVE TO COUNTERACT ALL OTHER FORCES THAT ACT ON MAN TO PROVIDE HIM THE SENSE OF EQUILIBRIUM.

I agree that the Laws of Mechanics, with Time, Space, and Mass as their fundamental variables have a universality that is adequate for describing a variety of natural phenomena. All changes in material non-living things are either the local motions of bodies or the result of the local motions of their parts. Motions are determined in their magnitude and direction by the impressed force which one body exerts upon another and the resistance of that other body. Can Life be explained in terms of the Laws of Mechanics, that is, the “PUSH” or “PULL” of one body upon another?  I agree that Mechanics signifies a whole philosophy of Nature, a set of fundamental principles under which all the physical sciences can be unified. The principles of Mechanics are applied in Statics, Dynamics, Acoustics, Optics, Thermodynamics, Magnetism, and Electricity. It covers a variety of phenomena from Celestial Mechanics to motions of indivisible particles or Quantum Mechanics. I have no particular concern for Quantum Mechanics, for the operation of the Living Systems is concerned with the structural, and functional organization that mostly involves chemical molecules. The realities of Celestial Mechanics do not operate the Living Systems as Life demands the intervention called illusion and the blocking of the ability to experience the real motions of planets, satellites, and stars.For man to experience the condition called ‘rest’, or ‘equilibrium’, or ‘static equilibrium’, or ‘dynamic equilibrium’ needs the operation of a Fundamental Force called ‘LOVE’ that counteracts all the forces acting upon human body at any given instant.

SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE - WHOLE DYNAMICS - WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: PLANET EARTH IS MOVING ALL THE TIME AT AN AMAZING SPEED. HUMAN BODY HAS A BUILT IN TIMING MECHANISM THAT OPERATES ON A 24 HOUR CYCLE THAT OPERATES A DAILY ROUTINE FROM REST TO ACTIVITY. THE TIME-KEEPING PROCESSES ARE AT WORK ALL THE TIME AND FORCE MAN TO MARK HIS TIME ON EARTH BY SUBMITTING TO THE ETERNAL LAW OF AGING. THE PHOTO IMAGE SHOWS ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK IN PRAGUE.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection explains the Dynamics of Whole Equilibrium. SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – WHOLE DYNAMICS – WHOLE EQUILIBRIUM: PLANET EARTH IS MOVING ALL THE TIME AT AN AMAZING SPEED. HUMAN BODY HAS A BUILT IN TIMING MECHANISM THAT OPERATES ON A 24 HOUR CYCLE THAT OPERATES A DAILY ROUTINE FROM REST TO ACTIVITY. THE TIME-KEEPING PROCESSES ARE AT WORK ALL THE TIME AND FORCE MAN TO MARK HIS TIME ON EARTH BY SUBMITTING TO THE ETERNAL LAW OF AGING. THE PHOTO IMAGE SHOWS ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK IN PRAGUE.

PLANET EARTH IS MOVING ALL THE TIME AT AN AMAZING SPEED. HUMAN BODY HAS A BUILT IN TIMING MECHANISM THAT OPERATES ON A 24 HOUR CYCLE THAT OPERATES A DAILY ROUTINE FROM REST TO ACTIVITY. THE TIME-KEEPING PROCESSES ARE AT WORK ALL THE TIME AND FORCE MAN TO MARK HIS TIME ON EARTH BY SUBMITTING TO THE ETERNAL LAW OF AGING.

In my view, the terms rest, equilibrium, static equilibrium, and dynamic equilibrium cannot be applied to living bodies, and living systems. If the term Love is used to describe the Fundamental Force that acts upon living bodies, and living systems, the study of Life in Motion must be described as ‘Whole Dynamics’, and ‘Whole Equilibrium.

 

Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider

Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between Cell and its Energy Provider.

Rudi acknowledges his German heritage at Whole Foods when he discovered the spiritual connection between man, food, and Providence. Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet are connected by a material substance called Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, a divine plan to provide nourishment to Life.

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor can be best described as the concept of Whole Spirituality, the three dimensional spiritual relationship between the multicellular human organism, food, and the Divine Providence.

Rudolf is reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between Cell and its Energy Provider. The 3-Dimensional Spiritual Relationship between Man, Food, and God.

SPIRITUALISM – THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

In Biology, cell is the basic or fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things or it is the building block of life. Let me begin with my respectful tribute to some of the people who contributed to ‘The Cell Theory’, one of the foundations of Biological Sciences. Cells were first observed in the 17th century shortly after the discovery of the microscope. Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London, during 1665 coined the word cell. Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made over 247 microscopes and examined microorganisms and tissue samples. He gave the first complete descriptions of bacteria, protozoa (which he called animalcules), spermatozoa, and striped muscle. He also studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.

Robert Hooke, british curator of instruments at The Royal Society of London coined the term cell during 1665.
Dutch microscopist Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1668-80) studied capillary circulation and observed Red Blood Cells.

Improvements in microscopy during early 19th century permitted closer observation and the significance of cells had received better understanding. Matthias Jakob Schleiden (1838), german botanist, Theodor Schwann (1839), german physiologist, and Rudolf Virchow (1855), german pathologist, and others made important contributions to the Cell Theory that describes cell as the building block of all Life.

Schleiden, Professor of Botany, The University of Jena studied plant structure under the microscope, published “Contibutions to Phytogenesis”(1838). He had also published the two-volume text of ‘Principles of Scientific Botany’.
Schwann founder of modern Histology extended the Cell Theory of Plants to animals in his ‘Microscopic Researches into Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Animals and Plants(1839).
Schwann discovered Myelin Sheath covering peripheral axons, now termed Schwann Cells. He coined the term ‘Metabolism’ for the chemical changes that take place in living tissues.
Rudolf Virchow,german pathologist in 1855 coined the biological dictum “OMNIS CELLULA E CELLULA” – All living cells arise only from pre-existing living cells.

The Cell is the smallest unit in the living organism that is capable of carrying on the essential life processes of sustaining metabolism for producing energy and reproducing. Many simple, small, single-celled organisms like Protozoa perform all life functions. In higher, complex, bigger, multicellular organisms, groups of cells are structurally and functionally differentiated into specialized tissues and organ systems. Thus, the Cell Theory includes the following foundational principles of the Biological Sciences:

1. All living things are made up of cells. Cell is the most elementary or basic unit of Life. 

2. Cell is a fundamental unit of structure, function, and organization in all living things including plants and animals.

3. Cells only rise from division of previously existing cells.

4. All cells are similar in composition, form, and function. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition (in spite of variations) in organisms of similar species. For example, all the solid tissues in the human body can be shown to consist largely of similar cells; differing it is true, but that are essentially similar to an Ovum.

5. The cells exhibit functional autonomy. The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of ‘INDEPENDENT’ cells.

6. Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.

7. Cells contain hereditary, biological information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division.

THE CELL THEORY OF SPIRITUALITY:

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

The basic or fundamental unit of life in the human organism is derived from the fertilized egg cell that eventually develops into a complete organism. The most significant feature of similarity between the cells of the human body is the presence of a soft, gelatinous, semi-fluid, granular material inside the cell. This substance known as Protoplasm or Cytoplasm, or Cytosol is similar to the ground substance found in the Ovum or the Egg Cell.

Human Ovum Structure – The Cell Theory of Spirituality is based upon the Substance, Structure, Form, Organization, Function, Action and Interactions of this Single Fertilized Egg Cell that eventually develops into a complete human organism.

This viscous, translucent, colloidal substance is enclosed in a membrane called Cell Membrane, Plasma Membrane or Biological Membrane. A small spherical body called nucleus is embedded in the Protoplasm of the cell. The three essential features of any living cell in the human body are that of the presence of protoplasm, the nucleus, and the cell membrane.

PROTOPLASM – THE GROUND SUBSTANCE OF SPIRITUALISM AND SPIRITUALITY:

I seek the existence of Soul or Spirit in a substance that is basic to life activities, and in a material that is responsible for all living processes. I, therefore, propose that the understanding of the true or real nature of this ground substance of all living matter will help man to discover peace, harmony, and tranquility in all of his internal and external relationships while man exists in a physical environment as a member of a social group, social community, and Society. In this blog post, I would like to pay my respectful tribute to Jan Evangelista Purkinje and Hugo Von Mohl for their great contribution to the scientific understanding of the living substance, living material, and living matter.

Jan Evangelista Purkyne(Czech name), Jan Evangelista Purkinje(German name)also known as Johannes Evangelist Purkinje, b. December 17, 1787, d. July 28, 1869. The pioneer Czech experimental Physiologist whose investigations in the fields of Histology, Embryology,and Pharmacology helped create a modern understanding of the eye and vision, brain and heart function, mammalian reproduction, and the composition of cells.

Purkinje conducted his research on human vision at the University of Prague and later on, he served there as a Professor of Physiology (1850-69). He went to Germany and was appointed the Chair of Physiology and Pathology (1823-50) at the University of Breslau, Prussia. There Purkinje created the world’s first independent Department of Physiology (1839) and the first Physiological Laboratory (Physiological Institute, 1842). He is best known for his discovery of large nerve cells with many branching extensions found in the cortex of Cerebellum of the brain (Purkinje Cells, 1837). He discovered the fibrous tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the ‘pacemaker’ called Atrioventricular node or A-V node along the inside walls of the ventricles to all parts of the heart to help in Cardiac contractile function (Purkinje Fibers, 1839). In 1835, he invented and introduced the scientific term ‘Protoplasm’ to describe the ground substance found inside young animal embryo cells. He discovered the sweat glands of the skin (1833); he discovered the nine configuration groups of Fingerprints used in biometric identification of man (1823); he described the germinal vesicle or nucleus of the unripe ovum that now bears his name (1825), and he noted the protein digesting power of pancreatic extracts (1836).

Hugo Von Mohl, b. April 08, 1805, d. April 01, 1872, German Botanist noted for his research on the anatomy and physiology of plant cells.

Hugo Von Mohl named the granular, colloidal material that made up the main substance of the plant cell as “Protoplasm” in 1846. Purkinje invented the word, but Hugo gave more clarity, understanding, and knowing the nature of this ground substance. He viewed cell as an “elementary organ” and in Physiology he explained Protoplasm as an organ of Motion or Movement, Nutrition, and Reproduction. It is the preliminary material in cellular generation. He was the first to propose that new cells are formed by division of preexisting cells and he had observed this process of Cell Division in the algal cells of Conferva glomerata. His observations are very important to understand the Cell Theory that explains cells as the basic building blocks of Life. He was the first to investigate the phenomenon of the stomatal openings in leaves.

The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence which have a Spiritual role as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.

Protoplasm is a complex, viscous, translucent solution of such materials as salts and simple sugars with other molecules, mostly proteins and fats, in a colloidal state, that is dispersed but not dissolved in one another. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen constitute more than 90 percent of Protoplasm.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

It exhibits properties such as Protoplasmic Streaming or Cytoplasmic Streaming or Motion that is called “Amoeboid Movement.” It has the intrinsic power to change its shape and position. It has the power of Nutrition by which it can attract and obtain the materials necessary for its growth and maintenance from surrounding matter/environment.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The living functions such as Nutrition, Cellular Respiration, and Reproduction performed by Cytoplasm involve acquiring, processing, retaining, and using information to perform tasks in a sequential manner for a predetermined purpose and hence describe Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The terms Soul and Spirit belong to the materialistic realm where the Physical Reality of man’s biological existence is established. I have not yet discovered any good reason to use the terms Soul and Spirit as a metaphysical or transcendental Reality.

The Inheritance of Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell or Plasma Membrane:

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Living cells have a corporeal substance called Protoplasm that has the ability of Spiritual Biotic Interactions. The Biological Membrane or Cell Membrane separates the cell from its environment and other living cells present in the environment. Cells use unique proteins, biological molecules and receptor sites to recognize the other living cells and use chemical signals to facilitate the interactions. Such interactions between living cells have the characteristics of consciousness or awareness.
The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality. Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell Membrane is an integral feature of Cytoplasm, a limiting membrane devised by Cytoplasm to create boundaries to perform its numerous living functions.

The Functions of Cytoplasmic Membrane or Cell Membrane or Biological Membrane:

1. Protection: It protects the cell from its surroundings or extracellular environment. Plant cell possess wall over the plasma membrane for extra protection and support. 

2. Holding cell contents: Plasma membranes hold the semi fluid protoplasmic contents of the cell intact; thus keeping the individuality of the cell.

3. Selective Permeability: Cell membrane allows only selected or specific substances to enter into the cell and are impermeable to others. 

  • Gases like O2 and CO2 can diffuse rapidly in solution through membranes.
  • Small compounds like H2O and methane can easily pass through where as sugars, amino acids and charged ions are transported with the help of transport proteins.
  • The size of the molecules which can pass through the plasma membrane is 1-15 A0. This property is responsible for keeping a cell ‘as a cell’, an individual unit. 

4. Shape: It maintains form and shape of the cell. It serves as site of anchorage or attachment of the cytoskeleton; thus providing shape to the cell (especially in animal cells without cell wall). 

5. Organelles: Cell membrane delimits or covers all sub-cellular structures or organelles like nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, microbodies etc. thus protecting them form the surroundings and also helps in maintaining a constant internal environment.

6. Compartmentalization: Cell membrane separate the cells from their external environment and cell organelle from cytosol. It help the cells and their organelles to have their own microenvironments, structural and functional individuality. 

7. Cell Recognition: With the help of glycolipids and glycoproteins on its surface, cell membranes are able to differentiate similar cells from dissimilar ones, foreign substances and cells own materials. Cell recognition is useful for tissue formation and defence against microbes. 

8. Antigens: Cell membranes possess antigens which determine blood grouping, immune response, acceptance or rejection of a transplant (graft rejection by MHC’s on plasma membrane). 

9. Microvilli: They are microscopic finger like projections of plasma membrane present on some cells like intestinal epithelial cells, which are involved in a wide variety of functions, including increasing surface area for absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion etc.

10. Sheaths of cilia and flagella: Cilia and flagella are projections from the cell; made up of microtubules which are covered by an extension of the plasma membrane.

11. Cytoplasmic bridges in plasmodesmata and gap junctions: Plasmodesmata in plant cells and gap junctions in animal cells; meant for intercellular transport and communication, form cytoplasmic bridges between adjacent cells through plasma membrane.

12. Endocytosis and Exocytosis: Bulk intake of materials or endocytosis occurs through development of membrane vesicles or invagination and engulfing by plasma membrane.

Exocytosis: It is reverse of endocytosis that provides for releasing waste products and secretory materials ot of the cells with the help of plasma membrane. 

13. Impulse transmission in neurons: The transmission of a nerve impulse along a neuron from one end to the other occurs as a result of electrical changes across the plasma membrane of the neuron

14. Cell metabolism: Cell membranes control cell metabolism through selective permeability and retentivity of substances in a cell. 

15. Electron transport chain in bacteria: In bacteria; Electron transport chain is located in cell membrane.

16. Osmosis through cell membrane: It is movement of solvent molecules (generally water) from the region of less concentrated solution to the region of high concentrated solution through a semi permeable membrane. Here the semi permeable membrane that helps in osmosis is the cell membrane. Eg: Root cells take up water from the soil by osmosis 

17. Carrier proteins for active transport: They occur in the cell membranes and control active transport of substances. Example, GLUT1 is a named carrier protein found in almost all animal cell membranes that transports glucose across the bilayer or plasma membrane.

18. Plasma Membrane enzymes: Many enzymes are present on the plasma membrane with wide variety of catalytic activity. Example: Red blood cell plasma membranes contain a number of enzymes such as ATPases, anion transport protein, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, acetylcholinesterase.

19. Cell Membrane Receptors: Receptor on the plasma membrane performs signal transduction, converting an extracellular signal into an intra-cellular signal. Membrane possess receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, antibodies and several other biochemicals.

20. Plasma membrane assisted Cell movements: Undulation and pseudopodia are cell membrane phenomenon involved in cell movement. Amoeba, macrophages and WBCs move with the helps of temporary organelles like pseudopodia. Pseudopods are temporary cytoplasmic projections of the cell membrane in certain unicellular protists such as Amoeba. Some mammalian cells such as fibroblasts can move over a solid surface by wave like undulations of the plasma membrane.

The Ground Substance of Spiritualism and Spirituality. The vital characteristics, the animating principles of Protoplasm could be known by observing Amoeba proteus. The Living Substance works as an organ of Motion or Movement, as an organ of Nutrition, and as an organ of Reproduction to generate new cells which have a life span of their own. In these physiological functions, I describe the characteristics such as Cognition, Consciousness, Memory, and Intelligence as spiritual attributes of Life as they bring functional unity and harmony in the interactions between different parts of the same individual organism while it exists in an environment as a member of a biological community.

THE SPIRITUALITY OF SUBSTANCE, FUNCTION, ORGANIZATION, ACTION, AND INTERACTIONS:

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

To establish the biological existence of the human organism, I add the concept of Spiritualism and Spirituality to the Cell Theory.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

The Single Fertilized Egg Cell has ground substance that is of Spiritual nature and the Spiritualism and Spirituality consists of the following functional, and organizational characteristics:

1. The Cell is Conscious of its own existence and knows its internal condition and knows it external environment.

2. The Cell is intelligent and it has the cognitive abilities like perception and memory to acquire information, to retain information, to recall information, and to use information in the performance of its complex tasks in a sequential manner.

3. The Cell has the ability to show characteristics such as mutual cooperation, mutual tolerance, and display functional subordination and subservience while being independent.

4. The Cell grows, divides, and develops into a complete organism while it acquires substances and energy from an external environment. The power of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm to attract matter found in its external environment is called Nutrition. The Cell continuously transforms matter to build matter of its own kind for its own benefit to sustain its  existence with its own identity and individuality. The Organism represents a social group or a biological community of Cells. The Spiritual nature of Protoplasm/Cytoplasm brings this functional harmony and unity in the Social Group or Biotic Community of Cells by bringing together its Essence and Existence.

5. The Cell Theory is incomplete for it does not describe the conditioned nature of the Cell’s existence. The Cell represents a Living System that is thermodynamically unstable. It requires a constant supply of matter and energy from its external environment to sustain its living functions. The concept of Whole Spirituality formulates the connection between the Cell and its external source of matter and energy.

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor. The Bone Marrow smear from a patient of Leukemia or Blood Cancer helps to illustrate the nature of Biotic Interactions in the Social Group or Biotic Community that represents the singularity called man. The true or real man can only be discovered by the microscopic study of the Cells that constitute the Organism.

The theoretical claims about Spirit and Soul, the religious and philosophical doctrines of Spiritualism and Spirituality must be verified using the Cell Theory that defines the human organism. To describe Soul or Spirit as  nonmaterial or immaterial Self will not help man to know the real or true man.

The Rudolf-Rudi Connection at Whole Foods. God created Cytoplasm or Protoplasm as the Ground Substance of Spirituality.

Simon Cyrene

The Rudolf and Rudi Connection. The Discovery of Whole Spirituality at Whole Foods, Ann Arbor.

Whole Foods, Whole People, and Whole Planet come together in a Wholesome Relationship as God is the Energy Provider, the Original Source of Matter and Energy for Life.

Rudolf is Reborn as Rudi to describe the spiritual connection between the Cell and its Energy Provider.

Published by WholeDude

Whole Man - Whole Theory: I intentionally combined the words Whole and Dude to describe the Unity of Body, Mind, and Soul to establish the singularity called Man.

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