What it is to be a Substance? and What it is to Exist? We need to establish knowledge about the man and the world on a firm basis and the information it provides must be tested for its accuracy and consistency with an external reality. We have to make the fundamental distinction between the living and the non-living matter. The scientific advances of the 19th and 20th centuries reinforced the materialistic position concerning the basic similarity of organic living and inorganic physical matter. The man is viewed as a product of natural evolution and is thought to be subject to the same laws of Physics and Chemistry or mechanistic principles.
We need a methodology to study philosophy and to understand philosophical statements. Logical Positivism, also known as Scientific Empiricism aims to clarify concepts in both everyday and scientific language. It describes analysis of language as the function of philosophy. This analysis of language and of concepts is important to understand questions of belief and ideology which affect what we think we ought to do individually and socially. I would use this method of ‘Applied Philosophy’ to analyze the concept of Spiritual Optics, the Spiritual dimension of designing the Solar System and the designing of the Living Systems.
“The Grand Design” by Stephen Hawking – A Fundamentally Flawed Argument:
Science is knowledge derived from verifiable evidence. An important characteristic of the scientific method is that if a claim is made, it must be verifiable by other people. The word ‘DESIGN’ means to make a plan, or to form a plan in the mind, a purpose, intention, aim for an outcome; a preliminary sketch to work from to produce a thing planned for. Any action, or activity which is spontaneous in nature cannot be a product of ‘Design’. The word ‘CREATION’ means an act that is inspired by a creative thought or influence. Creation cannot be a spontaneous act. Creation is driven by inspiration. Stephen Hawking has not chosen his words carefully and his claims would only add confusion and could be misinterpreted. As a Physicist, and to present a scientific thought or concept, he must present his views not as a matter of faith or belief but that of reason supported by accepted body of information that can withstand verification. The concept of ‘Logical Positivism’ states that, “Something could be said to be true if and only if it could be verified by logical or scientific procedures.” If a ‘Designer’ described as ‘God’ is not known by scientific methods or procedures, it may not mean that the ‘Designer’ or ‘God’ does not exist. Science may provide some understanding of natural principles and Physical Laws that could explain what individuals know and experience about the world around them and inside them. Could we extend scientific methodology of investigation into every field of inquiry? Could we find Truth and Reality as an external experience? Is it possible to visualize Truth and Reality if the Object of our inquiry is not dependent on us for its existence? If I am the subject identified as the ‘Knower’, I can know about the existence of an ‘Object’, if my existence is dependent upon the existence of that unknown ‘Object’. The ‘Designer’ called ‘God’ is not dependent upon me for His existence in the Universe. On the contrary, I recognize that my existence is not truly independent by its nature. I may not gain direct sensory experience of ‘God’ or the ‘Designer’, but the nature of my dependent existence points towards the direction of an entity that may sustain my existence. The Mechanistic Concept described by Dr. Stephen Hawking fails to account for the apparent purpose with which Universe exists and the function of Living systems that populate this Universe.
The Redwoods represent the oldest living systems on planet Earth. Some trees have the estimated age of 3,500 years. The Mechanistic concept cannot explain the living functions like water transportation. The Laws of Physics and Chemistry are not adequate. The tree actively uses the chemical energy it generates and pumps up water to an amazing height. If the soil is dry and the atmospheric pressure drops at the base of the tree to a level like 10 atmospheres, this tree maintains the pressure gradient; the pressure at the top drops to minus 25 atmospheres. The tree is conscious of its own state of living and the environment in which it exists and has the ability to exploit Laws of Physics to sustain its own existence.
The Redwoods display the characteristics of intelligence, design, purpose, and ability to function in this Universe as a Living System. The shoot displays the phenomenon called ‘phototropism’ and literally grows towards heavens and the roots grow in a direction away from light and firmly establish the existence of the tree apart from nourishing its growth with water. Mechanistic Laws and principles cannot explain the Living Functions.
THE ‘FINITE’ AND THE ‘INFINITE’:
St Thomas Aquinas suggests that we need to recognize the existence of things that might be objects of everyday experience. Reflection on everyday things and the everyday world reveals it as pointing beyond itself to God as its sustaining cause. The human beings are in a process of constant change and the change is not the result of their own efforts, and even when it is, it does not depend on them exclusively. No object in the familiar world can fully account for its own act of existing, nor is it wholly self-sufficient; all are affected from without, operate in an environment that is not their own making. Living Organisms are Finite. The Finite points beyond itself to the Infinite. The system of limited beings, each dependent for its activity on something else of the same kind demands for its completion the existence of a ‘Unlimited Being’, one that is the source of change in other things but is not subject to change itself. Such a ‘Unlimited Being’ would be the ‘First Cause’ or ‘Ultimate Cause’ – it would be the ‘Unconditioned Condition’ of the existence of all other things. St Thomas Aquinas believes that the human reason can produce the definitive proofs of the existence of an Infinite Being.
THE PURPOSE OF UNIVERSE:
The Greek word for Universe is ‘COSMOS’ which stands for Beauty and Order. The Universe is everything that exists; all matter and energy; all living, nonliving matter, and all forms of energy including the chemical energy that living entities use to establish, and to sustain their existence in support of various living functions. The Universe is immense and could be of unknown proportions. Earth is nearly 13,000 km across, a tiny speck among myriads of larger and smaller specks in the Universe. I seek the Knowledge of the Universe as it exists with a purpose. The purpose of the Universe is to provide me and other life forms a place to live in it.
The Planets of the Solar System:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are known as the terrestrial planets. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are planets of the Outer Solar System. Pluto could be viewed as an Interplanetary Object if not as the ninth planet of Solar System. Earth is the only planet with vast expanses of liquid water. Earth has a Nitrogen-Oxygen atmosphere filled with water vapor. Earth has a magnetic field indicative of a liquid metal core with electric currents in the metal.
The Rotational Spin of Planets:
Explanation: How does your favorite planet spin? Does it spin rapidly around a nearly vertical axis, or horizontally, or backwards? The featured video animates NASA images of all eight planets in our Solar System to show them spinning side-by-side for an easy comparison. In the time-lapse video, a day on Earth — one Earth rotation — takes just a few seconds. Jupiter rotates the fastest, while Venus spins not only the slowest (can you see it?), but backwards. The inner rocky planets, across the top, most certainly underwent dramatic spin-altering collisions during the early days of the Solar System. The reasons why planets spin and tilt as they do remains a topic of research with much insight gained from modern computer modeling and the recent discovery and analysis of hundreds of exoplanets: planets orbiting other stars.
Different planets have different rates of rotation. We use Earth’s spin to define coordinate systems for locating objects both on the ground and the sky. The timekeeping system that we use is related to the rotation of the Earth. My human existence in this Universe is synchronized with the rotational spin of the Earth. The spin gives me alternating periods of light and darkness known as Day and Night while the Sun is shining all the time. The material energy that imparted the necessary momentum to initiate the rotational spin could be described as “MAYA”; a Fundamental Force that causes Illusion. The illusion of Sunrise and Sunset governs my Biological Rhythm which is named as Solar Rhythm, Diurnal Rhythm, and Circadian Rhythm. The Laws of Physics may give an explanation for the rotational spin of planet Earth. However, I claim that the rotational spin has a purpose. The purpose of the rotational spin of planet Earth is to transform my “FUTURE” into “PAST” and my “PRESENT” is a mere instant in this Future-Past Continuum. My body experiences aging using an internal timing mechanism which measures the length of my days and nights that I spend on planet Earth. This timing mechanism known as ‘Biological Clock’ has a plan for my dissolution as an Individual at the end of a predetermined time. My life span is governed by the rotational spin of Earth, a product of ILLUSION called ‘MAYA’. If in Truth and Reality, I exist as an Eternal Entity; an Entity that is never born, Unborn, which has no Beginning, no Middle, and no End; the rotational spin generates the ILLUSION of my Dissolution. The methodologies used by Science may not have the ability to refute or establish the Truth and Reality of the Human Existence with a Past, Present, and a Future.
London: British physicist Stephen Hawking has said that the creation of the universe was a result of the inevitable laws of physics and it did not need God’s help.
In his latest book titled “The Grand Design”, Hawking writes: “Because there is a law such as gravity, the universe can and will create itself from nothing. Spontaneous creation is the reason there is something rather than nothing, why the universe exists, why we exist.”
He rejects Isaac Newton’s theory that the universe did not spontaneously begin to form but was set in motion by God. He wrote in the 1988 book: “If we discover a complete theory, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we should know the mind of God.”
“It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch-paper and set the universe going,” the Daily Telegraph quoted Hawking as writing in his current book.
Hawking argues that the Big Bang which resulted in the creation of the Solar System and planets, including the earth, was the result of the inevitable laws of physics and God was nowhere in the picture. Earlier, a few scientists, including Hawking himself, had said that the spark plug that kick-started the universe through the Big Bang was probably provided by God.
Extracts of The Grand Design was published in Eureka magazine in The Times. And in that Hawking is quoted as saying: “It is not necessary to invoke God to light the blue touch-paper and set the Universe going.”
Hawking had been putting forward the `no-God’ theory for quite some time. In June, he had told a Channel 4 series that a “personal” God did not exist.
“The question is: is the way the universe began chosen by God for reasons we can’t understand, or was it determined by a law of science? I believe the second. If you like, you can call the laws of science ‘God’, but it wouldn’t be a personal God that you could meet, and ask questions.”
However, there are unexplained phenomena in astrophysics. For example, researchers are yet to identify the `dark matter’ that comprise over 75 per cent of the universe. Black holes, dark energy and God’s particle — phenomena that resulted either in the formation of the universe or in its death, have not been conclusively explained by science.
The Grand Design, co-written by American physicist Leonard Mlodinow, is published on September 9, 2010.
In “The Grand Design” Stephen Hawking postulates that the M-theory may be the Holy Grail of physics…the Grand Unified Theory which Einstein had tried to formulate and later abandoned. It expands on quantum mechanics and string theories.
In my e-book on comparative mysticism is a quote by Albert Einstein: “…most beautiful and profound emotion we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. It is the sower of all true science. To know that what is impenetrable to us really exists, manifesting itself as the highest wisdom and most radiant beauty – which our dull faculties can comprehend only in their primitive form – this knowledge, this feeling, is at the center of all religion.”
Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is probably the best known scientific equation. I revised it to help better understand the relationship between divine Essence (Spirit), matter (mass/energy: visible/dark) and consciousness (fx raised to its greatest power). Unlike the speed of light, which is a constant, there are no exact measurements for consciousness. In this hypothetical formula, basic consciousness may be of insects, to the second power of animals and to the third power the rational mind of humans. The fourth power is suprarational consciousness of mystics, when they intuit the divine essence in perceived matter. This was a convenient analogy, but there cannot be a divine formula.
Thanks for sharing your view. I understand consciousness as a basic biological function that characterizes all living organisms both at an individualistic level and at cellular level. I do not essentially believe in the concept of ‘supra rational’ or higher levels of consciousness. In Clinical Medicine, we do use a grading system to describe the level of consciousness.
I was not referring to clinical medicine. Transpersonal psychology might be closer.
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Nobel physicist, in 1959 invited me to the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory. He introduced me to mysticism and the universality of the Universe. Swami Nikhilananda, founder of the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center in New York, spent many hours in 1960 privately teaching me that mystical awareness is beyond philosophy or religion. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, then V.P. of India and later President, met with me in Lucknow and Delhi in 1962 and taught that we can be active in this world without being of this world.
Since then I have studied the mystical traditions of Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hindu schools other than Vedanta and had met 19 mystics in 12 countries. Although my manuscript was reviewed by 30 religious leaders and scholars prior to posting on the Internet, there are no words to adequately describe mystical consciousness.
I am indeed delighted to hear from you. I may mention that I am related to Dr. Sarvepalli. Radhakrishnan on the maternal side and met him at his residence in Mylapore, Madras which happens to be my birth place. I explore consciousness as a biological function and not as a mystical function. I will be very pleased to read more about your views.
You had earlier said I understand consciousness as a basic biological function that characterizes all living organisms both at an individualistic level and at cellular level.
I wish that everyone understood, as you do, that all living organisms have consciousness, not just humans. Some physicists believe that the basic elements of matter may be said to be “conscious.”
Dr. Radhakrishnan was a wonderful person. I quote him three times in my e-book, but could not convey his warmth and intelligence. You come from a good bloodline.
Thanks again for kindly sharing your views. My maternal grandfather’s younger brother married Radhakrishnan’s daughter and they had also lived in Mylapore, Madras where I spent my early childhood. I was just a kid. I grew up in a traditional home and I learned about Indian traditions and culture from my grandmother.
Correction: I wish that everyone understood…
The Universe has a Creator. In fact, source of Gravitational Force is the Creator of the Universe.
The Universe includes everything that exists. In the Universe there
are billions and billions of stars. These stars are distributed in the
space in huge clusters. They are held together by gravitation and are
known as galaxies. Sun is also a star. Various members of the solar
system are bound to it by gravitation force. Gravitation force is the
ultimate cause of birth and death of galaxy, star and planets etc.
Gravitation can be considered as the cause of various forms of animate
and inanimate existence. Human form is superior to all other forms.
Withdrawal of gravitational wave from some plane of action is called
the death of that form. It can be assumed that gravitation force is
ultimate creator. Source of it is ‘God’. Gravitational Field is the
supreme soul (consciousness) and its innumerable points of action may
be called as individual soul (consciousness). It acts through body and
mind. Body is physical entity (weak and strong nuclear force. Mind can be defined as the function of autonomic nervous system. Electromagnetic waves are its agents through which it works. This can be realized through the practice of meditation and yoga under qualified meditation instruction. This can remove misunderstanding between science and religion and amongst various religions. This is the gist of all religious teachings – past, present and future.
Thanks for sharing your view. The terms like consciousness need better and clear definitions. Apart from gravitation, there are other forms of energies and forces. The presence of life forms makes this Universe an interesting place.
Uddalaka and Svetaketu
Uddalaka was a great rishi. He had a son by name Svetaketu.
After giving him the sacred thread at the proper age, the rishi called him one day and said, “Svetaketu, proceed to the house of a guru and living there as a student, learn the Vedas well; for, there is none in our family who is not learned in the Vedas.”
As directed by his father, Svetaketu went to a gurukula or the ashrama of a guru and studied the Vedas under the guru. He returned home when he was twenty-four years of age, a proud scholar. He thought that there remained little else for him to know.
His father was a shrewd man. He at once knew that his son’s head was swollen with pride. He wanted to correct him.
One day he called him and said, “Son, I think you feel you have mastered all knowledge on the face of the earth; but, have you ever learnt that knowledge, by which we can hear what is not heard; perceive what cannot be perceived, and know what cannot be known?”
Svetaketu was a trifle upset. He asked humbly, “Sire, won’t you tell me what that knowledge is? Seeing that his son was coming round, the father said, “My dear, let me explain myself fully. When, for instance, you know one clod of Clay, you can know all that is made of clay. When you know a nugget of gold, you can know all ornaments made of gold, because the essence of it is gold. When you know a nail-cutter, you can know all that is made of iron, the truth being that all of them are iron. The only difference is in their names and forms. That is the knowledge I am talking about.” Svetaketu said, “Sir, my venerable gurus did not perhaps know it.
Had they known, why would they have not taught it to me? Please teach it to me.” ‘
Uddalaka said, “All right. I shall teach you;- listen. In the beginning of creation, O child, the Sat or True Being alone existed. It had neither equal nor second. It thought, ‘Let me multiply myself and create beings.’ He first created Tejas or fire god. The fire god wanted to multiply himself. He created the water god. That is why whenever anybody weeps or perspires, water comes out. The water god wanted to multiply himself and created the food god. Then the True Being thought, ‘I have now created these three gods. Now I shall enter them as Jivatma and assume name and form!’
‘Later on, the True Being thought, ‘I shall now make each of them enter into the other.’ “Having thus entered them with His living spirit, It assumed names and forms like Agni, Indra etc. The True Being made them enter into one another, again. 0 child, now learn what each became thereafter. Whatever was fire showed as red. Whatever was water showed as white and whatever was food showed as black. Thus you will see the word Agni vanishes in fire. This change has only been in name. The three primary forms Tejas, Apas or water and Annam or food are the only true forms.
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The red colour of the Sun is Tejas; its white colour is water; its black colour is the food or the earth. Thus the name Aditya for Sun should vanish. It is only a conventional name. “You have now learnt from me, child, how every deity and element is descended from the three primary forms of the True Being.
“He or the Sat alone is all-name, because every name is His name.
He alone is all-power, because every power is His. All the forms that belong to others are reflections of His form. He is the only one without an equal or second. He is the best of all. He being the Chief, He is called Sat or the True Being. Knowing Him we know everything else. When a man sleeps soundly, he comes into contact with the Sat. When man dies, his speech merges in the mind, the mind in his breath, his breath in the fire and the fire in the Highest God, the True Being. Thus the soul or Jiva-Atman is deathless. All the universe is controlled by the Sat. He pervades it all. He is the destroyer of all. He is full of perfect qualities. O Svetaketu, you are not that God.
Svetaketu asked, “Sire, please teach me more.”
Uddalaka said, “The bees, my child, collect the honey from different flowers and mix them in the hive. Now, honeys of different flowers cannot know one from the other.
“My child, the rivers that run in the different directions rise from the sea and go back to the sea. Yet the sea remains the same. The rivers, while in the sea, cannot identify themselves as one particular river or another. So also creatures that have come from Sat know not that they have come from that Sat, although they become one or the other again and again.”
Uddalaka then asked his son to bring a fig fruit. When he did so, Uddalaka asked him to break it. He broke it.
Uddalaka: “What do you see in it?”
Svetaketu “I see small seeds.”
Uddalaka “Break one of the seeds and say what you see.”
Svetaketu “Nothing Sir.”
Uddalaka: “You are unable to see the minute particles of the seed after breaking it. Now, the big fig tree is born out of that essence of that particle. Like that, the True Being is the essence of all creation. ” Uddalaka asked his son to bring some salt and put it into a cup of water and bring the cup next morning.
Svetaketu did so.
Uddalaka: “You put the salt into the water in this cup. Will you take the salt out?
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Svetaketu “I am unable to find the salt; for it has dissolved.”
Uddalaka “Taste a drop from the surface of this water.” Svetaketu “It is saltish.”
Uddalaka “Now taste a drop from the middle of the cup.”
Svetaketu “It tastes the same, saltish.”
Uddalaka: “Now taste a drop from the bottom.”
Svetaketu “It is saltish all the same.”
Uddalaka “Now child, you do not see the salt, although it is certainly in the water. Even so, the True Being is present everywhere in this universe, although you do not see Him. He is the essence of all, and the desired of all. He is known to the subtlest intellect.”
Svetaketu became humble thereafter, and became a great rishi himself in course of time. This is a story from the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.
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A very nice and interesting story. Thanks for sharing the same with all of us.
Your graphic of earth and Venus is backwards. Earth actually rotates CCW and Venus CW. Just an observation. Why does the universe exist? To glorify God. Why do we exist? Same reason.
Thanks for visiting my blog post and for sharing your obeservation about the characteristics of Earth’s rotational spin. In the universe that we observe and have known, we have no conclusive evidence to suggest that life exists in places other than planet Earth. The rest of the universe stands as a silent spectator or bears mute testimony to the power and glory of our Lord God Creator. We humans have the ability to sing, praise, adore, and worship the Lord God Creator with a sense of humility, respect, and devotion to express the feelings of gratefulness for His Mercy, Compassion, and Grace without which there is no existence.
As proof that God exits, I want to show you a comparison of new discoveries in Space, Earth creation, mountains, sea, bacteria, plants, animals evolution, human creation, etc… with scientific signs in the Holy Quran.
I will leave to you to judge if these comparisons are correct and whether they both match or not (Quran & Science)? Then if they match then Quran is truly the word of God, and ALLAH is the Creator and the only God for all universe.
Please visit my blog ”Debate with an atheist” and see how ALLAH created the universe from nothing, start with Story of Creation – part (1), or choose any other part that talk about creation of oceans, rivers, rain, clouds, bacteria, plants, animals and humans…
Also, if you want to see tangible evidence that God exists, check the following article on my next blog:
ALLAH is the only God who is Worthy to Worship, by Name, by Definition and by Attributes..
Thanks for visiting my blog post and sharing information about your blog posts. I make my assumptions about man and the world, and the universe that he exists by using information as we can see today. There are plenty of theories and explanations about cosmic events to which we have no direct access. It is much easier to observe the present condition of man, world, and universe and apply a reasoning process to gain inferential knowledge. The attribute of God that would like to understand is that of His existence in the Immanent and Transcendental Realm.
My Friend, God existence is not a scientific theory that has many explanations, it’s a fact but some believe and some don’t want to believe..
I advise you to read what I forwarded to you to save yourself before it’s too late, before people stands on hell’s cliff waiting to be thrown into it and say:
If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: “Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayât (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, revelations, etc.) of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!” (27)
Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars. (28)
And they said: “There is no (other life) but our (present) life of this world, and never shall we be resurrected (on the Day of Resurrection).” (29)
If you could but see when they will be held (brought and made to stand) in front of their Lord! He will say: “Is not this (Resurrection and the taking of the accounts) the truth?” They will say: “Yes, by our Lord!” He will then say: “So taste you the torment because you used not to believe.” (30)
They indeed are losers who denied their Meeting with Allâh, until all of a sudden, the Hour (signs of death) is on them, and they say: “Alas for us that we gave no thought to it,” while they will bear their burdens on their backs; and evil indeed are the burdens that they will bear! (31) [Quran 6:27-31]
Also, I invite you to read the following to know Why Islam “theory” is different than all others:
Thanks again for sharing your view and your concern for humanity and appreciation for God’s Power of Creation. I reach God by understanding man and the world, and the universe in which man exists. We need to know the nature of man and the condition called human existence. I define Spiritualism as an internal, mutually beneficial relationship between the cells of the human organism, and the Whole Organism that represents the human individual. God created man using a spiritual corporeal substance and hence it is the nature of man to exist in relationship with his Creator.
If you want to wait till you understand how is human nature, it may take a lot of time, believe me the case is much easier than that, and just for your info most of the people of heaven will be the modest and poor people, and most of the hell people are the sophisticated people who think too much that they miss the main point: why they are created for??..
Please read the following hadith [Prophet’s saying], hope it will clear for you many things
Abu Dharr reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying that Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, said:
“My servants, I have made oppression unlawful for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another.
My servants, all of you are liable to err except one whom I guide on the right path, so seek right guidance from Me so that I should direct you to the right path.
O My servants, all of you are hungry (needy) except one whom I feed, so beg food from Me, so that I may give that to you.
O My servants, all of you are naked (need clothes, i.e. money) except one whom I provide garments, so beg clothes from Me, so that I should clothe you.
O My servants, you commit error night and day and I am there to pardon your sins, so beg pardon from Me so that I should grant you pardon.
O My servants, you can neither do Me any harm nor can you do Me any good.
O My servants, even if the first amongst you and the last amongst you and even the whole of human race of yours, and that of Jinn even, become (equal in) God-conscious like the heart of a single person amongst you, nothing would add to My Power.
O My servants, even if the first amongst you and the last amongst you and the whole human race of yours and that of the Jinn too in unison become the most wicked (all beating) like the heart of a single person, it would cause no loss to My Power.
O My servants, even if the first amongst you and the last amongst you and the whole human race of yours and that of jinn also all stand in one plain ground and you ask Me and I confer upon every person what he asks for, it would not, in any way, cause any loss to Me (even less) than that which is caused to the ocean by dipping the needle in it.
My servants, these are your deeds that I shall reward you for them, so he who deeds of yours which I am recording finds good should praise Allah and he who does not find that should not blame anyone but his ownself….
I like the Prophet’s saying quoted by you. However, I still seek Truth and Consistency of any given statement by applying scientific information and reasoning. French philosopher Rene Descartes had recommended the use of sceptical hypothesis to verify the accuracy of a given statement.
PRAISE THE LORD, AMEN.
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