SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22


SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22:

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: "AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA." Both India, and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: “AHIMSA PARAMO DHARMAH; DHARMA HIMSA TATHIVA CHA.” Both India, and Tibet recognize Non-Violence or Ahimsa as the highest principle. The military organization, Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 represents the second part of the statement; Violence or Himsa is equally the highest principle when it is necessary to defend the righteous.

The military organization known as Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 came into its existence during the presidency of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India, 13 May 1962 to 13 May 1967. While Special Frontier Force is a product of Cold War Era secret diplomacy, I would like to share my personal story, the events from early childhood, that shaped the rest of my life and has formulated my bonding with this Organization and my desire to accomplish its military mission.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, the second President of the Republic of India is known to me from my early childhood as Mylapore, Madras(Chennai) is my birthplace.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan(05 September 1888 to 17 April 1975), the second President of the Republic of India is known to me from my early childhood as Mylapore, Madras(Chennai) is my birthplace. His daughter was married to my maternal grandfather’s younger brother who had also lived in Mylapore.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan belonged to Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai) and his daughter was married to the younger brother of my maternal grandfather, Dr. Kasturi. Narayana Murthy, M.D., who had also lived in Mylapore. I was born at 2/37 Kutchery Road, my grandfather’s residence. While I lived in Mylapore and later during my regular summer vacations spent in Madras City, I used to visit Dr. Radhakrishnan’s daughter’s residence on a daily basis.  At that time, Dr. Radhakrishnan served as the first Vice President of India(1952-1962). I clearly remember the celebration of 2500th Birth Anniversary of Gautama Buddha on May 24, 1956 while I was in Mylapore, Madras City(Chennai), and in India’s capital of New Delhi, the celebration was attended by His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama and the  10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche. The institution of Dalai Lama is the central focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan national character.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan's birthday(05 September) as Teacher's Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter.
Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and the history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In India, school children celebrate Dr. Radhakrishnan’s birthday(05 September) as Teacher’s Day and every year that I spent as a student, I had a special reason to remember my family connection with his daughter and the Indian President. He had correctly predicted the need for military action to fight injustice and during his Presidency, India had bravely resisted the Chinese aggression and thousands of Indian Army soldiers gave their precious lives to defend India. It had inspired me to serve in Indian Armed Forces to continue the task of opposing, and resisting the threat posed by Communist China.

INDIA – TIBET RELATIONS FROM 1950 to 1962:

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24,  1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen  in this photo image. Becuase of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to People's Republic of China's invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Celebration of 2500th Anniversary of the birth of Gautama Buddha(Buddha Jayanti) in New Delhi on May 24, 1956 displays the historical connection between India, and Tibet. Prime Minister Nehru, President Rajendra Prasad, the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama, Rinpoche are seen in this photo image. Because of Gautama Buddha, India, and Tibet are natural allies. But, the complex, political, and military relationship developed as a reaction to People’s Republic of China’s invasion of Tibet in 1950.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The President of India Babu Rajendra Prasad with the visiting His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, and Panchen Lama Rinpoche. India, and Tibet, during 1956 tried to resolve the crisis imposed by China using peaceful, diplomatic negotiations.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India, and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military occupation of Tibet by Communist China had shaped the historical, cultural, religious relationship between India, and Tibet. It commenced an entirely new era in which both India, and Tibet are driven by the same kind of security concerns. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai represents the face of that danger that forced Prime Minister Nehru to know and appreciate the nature of Tibetan Nation as represented by the 14th Dalai Lama, and the 10th Panchen Lama Rinpoche.

India had achieved its full independence from the British rule on August 15, 1947. India became the Republic of India on January 26, 1950. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad became the first President of the Republic of India. The first general elections were held in 1952, and Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who was at that time-serving as India’s ambassador to Soviet Union, was elected as the first Vice President and he had served a second term as the Vice President from 1957 to 1962. India witnessed a major military threat to its Himalayan frontier when People’s Republic of China sent its army during October 1950 to occupy Tibet while Tibetans had no ability to resist such a massive, military invasion of their territory. Tibet tried to resolve the issue using diplomacy. Tibet requested India to bring the issue to the attention of the United Nations to adopt a resolution against the Communist invasion. At that time Tibet was still following the policy of political isolationism, and neutralism and was not recognized by the United Nations as a member nation. The United States was fighting the Korean War and was fully interested in preventing the spread of Communism in Asia. However, Tibet did not request for direct, US military intervention. India did not have the necessary military force of its own to intervene inside Tibet. At the same time, India had also actively pursued its own policy of political neutralism that is known as the Nonaligned Movement to reduce the political tensions caused by the Cold War. India thought that the crisis in Tibet could be resolved by directly negotiating with China without involving the United Nations. During 1951 Communist China had imposed a 17-Point Agreement on Tibet while Tibetans had no capacity to defend their rights; the Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the local Government of Tibet on 23rd May 1951 to take measures for the “Peaceful Liberation of Tibet.” China started quoting this agreement  to justify its illegal, and unjust military occupation of Tibet. It must be clearly understood that the Great Fifth Dalai Lama founded the “Ganden Phodrang” Government of Tibet in 1642. The successive Dalai lamas have headed the Tibetan State for nearly four centuries. Towards the end of the Qing Dynasty or Ching Dynasty, the Great 13th Dalai Lama declared Tibet’s Independence from Manchu China. From 1911 to 1950 – 39-Years, Tibet was an independent Nation before the creation of this political entity called The People’s Republic of China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet's isolationism.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The photo image of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in Peking. Tibet tried its very best to appease the Communist Party Chairman Mao Tse-Tung until 1954-1955. China took full political, and military advantage of Tibet’s isolationism and took every possible measure to deny the freedom that Tibetans had enjoyed for several centuries in spite of sporadic foreign invasions by the Mongols, and later by the Manchus. In the past, the foreign rulers of Tibet did not intervene in Tibet’s internal affairs and their traditional style of governance through the institution of the Dalai Lama or the “Ganden Phodrang” Government continued for four centuries.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India's President and Vice President. Both India, and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with India’s President and Vice President. Both India, and Tibet had strongly desired to resolve the conflict with communist China using diplomacy. The existence of autonomous Tibetan nation serves the best interests of Indian national security.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate  a military alliance/pact in response to China's military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honour the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet had no intentions to formulate a military alliance/pact in response to China’s military occupation. They had expected that China would consent to release its military grip and allow full autonomy. A banquet held in Ashoka Hotel, New Delhi in 1956 to honour the visiting Head of State, the 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet who is seen seated between Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Both India, and Tibet desired friendly, and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Both India, and Tibet desired friendly, and peaceful relations with China. Prime Minister Chou En-Lai is seen here with the 14th Dalai Lama, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and his daughter Ms. Indira Gandhi. These efforts towards peaceful co-existence with Communist China had utterly failed during 1957-58.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China's policy of Expansionism.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India and Tibet tried to cultivate a friendly relationship with China and its failure was caused by China’s policy of Expansionism.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China's military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai , and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: India desired to promote international peace and tried to avoid armed conflicts. The burden imposed by China’s military occupation of Tibet was viewed with concern, but India tried the use of diplomacy and avoid war. A ceremony to honor Prime Minister Chou En-Lai , and the 14th Dalai Lama during their visit to New Delhi in 1956.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India's peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image of Prime Minister Chou En-Lai, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 14th Dalai Lama demonstrates the desire of India to promote peaceful co-existence. Establishment No. 22 represents the failure of India’s peace initiative. The military occupation of Tibet is not a friendly posture and China could not be trusted as a friend.

While Tibet tried its very best to please the Communist leaders of China, India had also pursued a similar policy to befriend China to address the problem of the military threat posed by the military occupation of Tibet. The “Panchsheela” Agreement of 1954 between India and People’s Republic of China had recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, and India had agreed to withdraw its very small, military presence in Tibet. India believed that China would grant full autonomy to Tibet and preserve the political, and cultural institutions of Tibet. It must be noted that Tibet had not recognized or endorsed the agreement made by India and China.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Chinese Prime Minister Zhou Enlai visited New Delhi, India in June 1954 after his initiative called the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence(PANCHSHEEL). The first President of India, Rajendra Prasad(first right), Vice President Radhakrishnan third right, and India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru is at the far left.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Dr. Radhakrishnan made an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem of the military occupation of Tibet. He had visited Peking during September 1957 and met with various Communist Party leaders including Chairman Mao tse-Tung, and President Liu Shao-Chi(Liu Shaoqi), and Party General Secretary Teng Hsiao-Ping(Deng Xiaoping).
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian Vice President Radhakrishnan had visited Peking during September/October 1957 and could not get any concessions from the Communist leaders. China had determined to pursue a policy of Expansionism and had tripled the size of its country using its superior military power.

THE ORIGIN OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22:

The need for the use of military force became inevitable after China made it abundantly clear that it would not negotiate its military occupation of Tibet and would not allow the traditional form of Tibetan Government as represented by the Institution of the Dalai Lama. The Tibetan Resistance Movement began with a very modest attempt to train some Tibetan nationals to fight the Chinese People’s Liberation Army that occupied Tibet.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China's occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People's Liberation Army.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: 1957 was a turning point. India had recognized that its foreign policy of political neutralism was of no use and had started depending upon the United States to address the military threat posed by China’s occupation of Tibet. But, the effort was too modest and both India and the United States had grossly underestimated the strength of the People’s Liberation Army. Camp Hale at Colorado represents one aspect of CIA operation and had been called ST CIRCUS.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010 was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 can be traced back to 1957-58 when the CIA launched Operation ST CIRCUS. This Commemoration on September 10, 2010 was the first time that US had officially acknowledge the CIA operation with the Tibetans and it includes the Mustang(Nepal) Operation.

During 1957 it became very clear that Communist China would not relax its military grip over Tibet, and the hopes for limited Tibetan autonomy evaporated. Both India, and Tibet had agreed to seek American military intervention, and it must be believed that India had only wanted a covert, military operation to build and establish a Tibetan Resistance Movement to challenge, and overthrow the Chinese military regime in Tibet. The climax of this Tibetan Resistance was during March 1959, and China using its vastly superior military power had easily crushed this Tibetan Uprising. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had no choice; he and his close followers fled Tibet to seek political asylum in India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA's covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The arrival of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama in India to seek political asylum represents the failure of CIA’s covert operation inside Tibet. CIA had grossly underestimated the intelligence capabilities of Communist China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India during March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The Journey of a political refugee. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India on 31 March 1959 and was presented a Guard of Honor by the Assam Rifles in the Tawang Sector of the North East Frontier Agency which is renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India's belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Indian President Babu Rajendra Prasad had received His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama with due dignity reflecting India’s belief that the Dalai Lama is the traditional Head of Tibet, an autonomous nation.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China's occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The military tyranny imposed by Communist China’s occupation had forced Tibet to break-free from its traditional policy of political isolationism and it is not a big surprise to find India as its natural ally. Vice President Radhakrishnan is seen with His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama.

THE 1962 INDIA – CHINA WAR:

I must admit that the Chinese brutal attacks across the Himalayan frontier during October 1962 came as a shocking surprise to me and to most people all over India. To some extent, India, Tibet, and the United States had lacked the intelligence capabilities to know the intentions and the capabilities of their enemy. The costs of this 1962 War would be known if China takes courage and openly admits the numbers of its soldiers wounded, or killed in action. China paid a heavy price, and had utterly failed to obtain legitimacy for its military occupation of Tibet.

Truths about the 1962 India-China War
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: The 1962 War between India and China paved the way towards better understanding of India’s security concerns and the need for military alliance/pact with a friendly power like the United States to meet the challenge posed by Communist China. I appreciate Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru for his idealistic views and aspiration to be known as a peacemaker. He finally recognized the need for a strong, well-equipped Army.
The 1962 India-China War
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Prior to the 1962 India-China War, the Tibetan Resistance Movement had no permanent base in India. The War had forced India to strengthen the Tibetan Resistance Movement and provide it a permanent base within Indian territory. Indian Armed Forces played a major role in training the members of Special Frontier Force with financial, and technical assistance provided by the United States.

The 1962 War of Aggression launched by Communist China had a decisive influence on my personal life. I was a college student, and I was in the first year of my 3-year Bachelor of Science degree course. I felt a strong urge to join India’s Armed Forces to specifically address the military threat posed by China. The 1962 War was a conflict imposed by China to teach India a lesson. Later, official documents released by China describe that Chairman Mao Tse-Tung took punitive action to teach a lesson to India when it launched a massive war of retribution attacking Indian Army positions across the entire Himalayan frontier in October 1962. Chairman Mao Tse-Tung was angered by the support extended by India to Tibet to counter the military occupation. Chairman Mao had resented India’s role in helping the covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency and had called it an “Imperialist” conspiracy or plot against China. China had utterly failed to achieve its objectives and the War ended when China declared unilateral ceasefire on November 21, 1962 and withdrew from the captured Himalayan territory. It should be noted that India did not request China to declare this ceasefire. India did not promise that it will withhold the support that it extends to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile. The Secret White House Recordings of the US President John F Kennedy reveal that Kennedy had threatened to nuke China in 1962 and I must say that the threat achieved its purpose and had forced China to stop its military aggression and withdraw unilaterally without demanding any concessions from India, or Tibet.

THE BIRTH OF SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE-ESTABLISHMENT No. 22:

President John F. Kennedy had immediately responded to Chinese attack on India. Apart from delivery of arms and ammunition, and other military supplies, American aircraft carried out photo missions over the Indo-Tibetan border. In a meeting held on November 19, 1962 at the White House, President Kennedy, Dean David Rusk(Secretary of State), Averell Harriman(Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs), Robert McNamara(Secretary of Defense), General Paul Adams(Chief of the US Strike Command), John Kenneth Galbraith(US Ambassador to India), John A McCone(Director of Central Intelligence Agency), Desmond Fitzgerald(the Far Eastern CIA Chief), James Critchfield(the Near East CIA Chief), John Kenneth Knaus(CIA’s Tibet Task Force), and David Blee(CIA Station Chief in New Delhi) had decided upon a military aid package in support of the newly created military organization in India which was initially named as Establishment No. 22 and later the name Special Frontier Force was added to describe the location of its headquarters in New Delhi.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: In the Cold War Era of Silence and Secrecy, India was fortunate to find the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, Averell Harriman who played a crucial role in developing the military response to the 1962 War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to fight the threat posed by Communism. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru's visit to Washington D.C.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: John Kenneth Galbraith, the US Ambassador to India played a very helpful role to bring India, and the United States to come together on mutual security concerns and to build a personal relationship between the leaders. This photo image is from 1961 taken during Prime Minister Nehru’s visit to Washington D.C.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: People's Republic of China could not alter the course of India's foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to "NUKE" China.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: People’s Republic of China could not alter the course of India’s foreign policy. The 1962 War launched by China ended very abruptly when China declared unilateral ceasefire and withdrew from the captured territory on November 21, 1962. President Kennedy played a decisive role by threatening to “NUKE” China.

The 1962 India-China War, a military conflict that was initiated by China had accomplished the exact opposite of what China had planned to accomplish.

1. India became more firmly aligned with the United States discarding its original policy of political neutralism.

2.The level of cooperation between the Central Intelligence Agency and India’s Research and Analysis Wing(RAW-The Intelligence Bureau of India) became greatly enhanced.

3. India started increasing its own defense-preparedness and had strengthened its military capabilities to fight a future war with China.

4. India was not deterred by the Chinese attack, and had decided to substantially increase its involvement with the Tibetan Resistance Movement. India made the commitment to provide a permanent base to the Tibetan Resistance Movement apart from hosting the Tibetan Government -in-Exile.

5. India, Tibet, and the United States had joined together in a military alliance/pact leading to the creation of the military organization called the Establishment No. 22 which is later formally named The Special Frontier Force to describe its official Headquarters in New Delhi.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan visiting Indian Army units during the 1962 India-China War. India had withstood the attack by Communist China and it soon recovered from its wounds, and regained its full confidence to engage China on the battlefield.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan with Officers of Indian Army during the 1962 India-China War. India understood the need for better preparedness to fight future wars and had decided to maintain its support to His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the Head of Tibetan nation who was granted political asylum in India.
Special Frontier Force- President Radhakrishnan-Clash with China
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: President Radhakrishnan is seen speaking to news reporters during the 1962 War. India was not deterred by Chinese aggression and had boldly continued the support it extended to the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.

PRESIDENT RADHAKRISHNAN’S HISTORICAL VISIT TO THE UNITED STATES ON JUNE 03/04, 1963:

After the conclusion of the 1962 War with China, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s personal health demanded a serious attention and President Radhakrishnan performed the historical journey to the United States on June 03/04 to meet the US President John F. Kennedy to express India’s solidarity with the United States in promoting Peace and Democracy, and the visit displays the trust, and confidence placed by India in the future of their mutual military assistance, and cooperation. I am happy to share several photo images of that visit.

The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. The historical visit by President Radhakrishnan to affirm India’s friendly relationship with the United States in their policy towards China.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03/04, 1963. President Radhakrishnan’s visit affirms the appreciation for American support during the 1962 India-China War.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: June 03, 1963, Indian President Radhakrishnan by his visit acknowledges the India-Tibet-US military alliance/pact to oppose the military threat posed by China.

Indian President-President Kennedy-Spirits of Special Frontier Force

President Kennedy with Indian President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
The History of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 is linked to the presidency of John F. Kennedy.

I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore residence after his retirement during 1967. At that time, both of us were not aware that the very first posting of my career in Indian Armed Forces would be that of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22 that was created during his presidency. In India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan is recognized as a teacher, philosopher, and a statesman. He is never described as the Supreme Commander of the Indian Armed Forces. I was granted Commission to serve in the Indian Army at the pleasure of the President of India, and my posting order to serve as a Medical Officer in Establishment No. 22 – Special Frontier Force was issued under the authority of the Ministry of Defence which functions under the powers sanctioned by the President of India.

The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People's Republic of China.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This photo image shows Vice President Radhakrishnan at his New Delhi residence during 1960. The events from 1957 to 1962 had shaped Indian foreign policy and it paved the way for alignment with the United States to oppose the military threat posed by the People’s Republic of China. I met President Radhakrishnan at his Mylapore, Madras(Chennai) residence after completion of his term of presidency in 1967. He prefers to read while relaxing in his bed. This is the image, I still carry in my memory.

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Special Frontier Force-At Sarasawa.
The history of Special Frontier Force-Establishment No. 22: This is a photo image taken at Sarasawa airfield that proudly displays the National Flag of Tibet. Special Frontier Force is a living military organization that is facing its future with hope and encouragement from the United States, India, and Tibet.
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32 thoughts on “SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – ESTABLISHMENT NO. 22

  1. Great men great stories – if you live long enough and could remember the past – there is so much silent tears you can shed – and do not wish to talk or fight because they ended to all what did were meaningless drama when realized in the timeless truth – –

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    1. Dear Archbishop Abraham,
      Thanks for visiting my blog post. Your comment has no particular merit and it appears that you have no time to read the post and understand the problem of Tibetan people.

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      1. Sorry, I did not understand your blog, I commented on God aspects only. sorry I misunderstood your blog – I apologize – however dear man – I do not have to read all what people write – anybody can write anything – if you have God wisdom you do not have to read all what others write – on your such a surprising comment – You call Holy Lama your spiritual head. At the same time Buddhism is not a spiritual religion – so how can he be called Spiritual Head – Christian and Jewish and Muslim are spiritual religions – Buddhism is religion of the mind. Mind dies on person dies but spirit won’t – so there is no continuity of the Power – in such not transferring the power to next generation – that might be a good reason lost Tibet – God bless you ( Your name Bhavanajagat – it is cultural – religious – mindset – Bhavana + Jagat means God’s earth Etc – Are you truly in that Power other than mindset self satisfaction? (You might be one of the Tibetan orphan child I was taking care at Pachmarhi – MP – India – after Sino-Indian war)

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      2. Dear Sir,

        I am glad to note that you have responded to my comment. It simply affirms the suspicion that I have shared. It appears that you have not invested enough time to understand the vital, animating principle called spirit, and soul. If man is a created being, and if man is created as a physical, mental, social, moral, and spiritual being, no religious doctrine can change or alter the true, or real nature of man. Man’s belief in God, man’s trust of God, and man’s faith in the existence of God is not a product of a particular religiuos theory. I support Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in the occupied Land of Tibet and my aspiration is not because of religious affiliation. I have witnessed the pain, and suffering endured by ordinary Tibetan peasants and I have responded with compassion. You are not the ‘Good Samaritan’ that Lord Jesus had described in His parable.

        Like

      3. Another thing – since I saw your blog too long with no comment by anyone in sympathy I commented for at least one with positive attitude but your response was strange – have a nice day

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      4. Dear Sir,

        Thanks again for visiting my blog and showing sympathy. I want my readers to share their sympathy in support of Freedom, Democracy, Peace, and Justice in the occupied Land of Tibet. I had rendered military service to the governments of the United States, India, and Tibet in a military organization known as the Special Frontier Force – Establishment No. 22 and our military mission aims at evicting the occupier from the Land of Tibet using military tactics. I would be happy if you have said a prayer and have wished for the success of this military mission. Tibetan exiles are living with patience, and are hopeful that the illegal, and unjust occupation of their country will end. They derive this sense of hope, and encouragement from the governments of the United States, India, and Tibet(Tibetan Government-in-Exile). You cannot provide healing by using empty words. Healing comes if, and only if there is understanding of the underlying problem.Human Compassion is an aspect of divine healing, it empowers people to share the pain, and suffering that is experienced by other living creatures.

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      5. The first impression is the best impression – an impression to a stranger “Thanks for visiting my blog post. Your comment has no particular merit and it appears that you have no time to read the post and understand the problem of Tibetan people” – seems very unimpressive – while the same is a short version represented in your own website quoted from former president of India Dr. S Radhakrisnan, yet you commented no merit and accused of not reading your website, etc – – the Bible also says everyone talks who he/she is – dear man I know about establishment 22 since 1962 probably before you born or know about it – American Aid PL 480 for the refugees in India – God luck to you-          

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      6. Dear Sir,

        I must thank you and I am indeed pleased to read that you know about Establishment No.22. If it is possible, you may kindly bless this work and seek its success.

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      7. My comment has no particular merit because the truth does not get merit before Bhavanajagat who is a resident/citizen of the USA where as he should have been at least in India. His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama is a Buddhist leader; and it is very unfortunate for he can’t talk to Buddhist leaders in China which is a Communist country.

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      8. Dear Sir,
        I confirm that I deleted your comment for it has no merit and you tried to comment on an issue of which you have no understanding. This comment is not relevant, but I am posting it to give you my response.

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      9. Dear Sir,
        I confirm that I deleted your comment for it has no merit and you tried to comment on an issue of which you have no understanding. This comment is not relevant, but I am posting it to give you my response.

        Like

    1. Thanks for visiting the blog post. I am posting from Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. I would love to post from Lhasa, Tibet. I thought that I would march into Lhasa and it didn’t happen. We have no age barrier to join the battle. If the opportunity comes, I would be willing to get back to Tibet; not as a tourist, just to take a chance to evict its military occupier.

      Like

      1. You stated: “posting from Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. I would love to post from Lhasa, Tibet” – this is earthly wish of the mind – for True Religion you would wish posting from Heaven, where all are one – that is Christ for all – for your mind Tibet is important – but is the importance of Tibet for the majority of the world – Israel was founded after WW II and was God of Biblical prophesy – do you have any Biblical prophesy about Tibet –

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      2. Dear Sir,

        Thanks for that response. The Prophesy was shared by Prophet Moses in The Old Testament Book of Leviticus, Chapter 25, verse #23 in which God claims: “Land is mine and you are but aliens and my tenants.” Land belongs to God the Creator. People’s Republic of China had illegally occupied Land which is not theirs using military force. Hence, they must be evicted and let people use Land in its natural, free condition.

        Like

  2. Dear Bhavanajagat,
    The day will surely come and you will write your blog from Lhasa…thousands and thousands of indians like me are also with you. We”l together smash the dragon from your land.

    Like

    1. Dear Jithesh,

      Thanks for visiting my blog post and thanks for sharing your good wishes. We need the physical, and mental courage to standup for our rights and state them in a transparent manner. India’s support to Tibetan Resistance Movement is shrouded in secrecy. India is now letting China to loot and plunder our natural resources without firing a bullet. At the same time, China is supporting and encouraging the Naxal movement in India and is openly expressing interest to breakup Indian Union. We need a transparent policy that is fully accountable to the people of India to fight the challenge posed by Communist Dragon’s expansionist policy in Southeast Asia.

      Like

  3. Clots!They do not understand1. Shadow of the Grt Game – NS Sarila.2.Nehru going to the UN Over Kashmir when we had the military advantage,Nehru’s silence on Tibet in 1950,Nehru(Ha!) giving up the UN seat in favour of China.
    How many roads must a man walk down before they call him a man?-Bob Dylan
    kopterkojak@Utube

    Like

    1. Dear Wg Cdr Bhatt,

      Thanks for visiting my blog post and sharing your opinion. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru had a romantic vision of the world and as the first Prime Minister of independent India he wanted to assert India’s foreign policy in a new direction to avoid international conflicts and achieve peace through diplomatic negotiations. It is very easy to blame him for all that is lost and find fault with the choices he made. However, he was not entirely silent on Tibet issue. Tibet at that time had followed the policy of Isolationism. Tibet did not respond to the offer of friendship made by President Roosevelt. Besides military aid, at a minimum, Tibet could have established diplomatic relationship with the US and had applied for UN membership. Both India, and Tibet tried to resolve the problem with China using diplomacy. They had continued these efforts until 1957-58 and when they found China was not yielding to any of their requests, they agreed to limited US intervention. When that intervention resulted in a failed Tibetan Uprising during March 1959, Tibetan leader took asylum in India and received support from India and the US to establish a Tibetan Government-in-Exile. On the domestic front, Nehru had wanted to deliver the benefit of Freedom to the people and wanted to execute ambitious development programmes and was reluctant to increase the spending on Defence. The 1962 War of aggression came as a surprise and yet India recovered and China was forced to declare unilateral ceasefire and it withdrew from most of the occupied territory along the Himalayan front. Now, we have to question our present leadership about their China policy. Both the US and India are trading with their enemy and we are paying a much higher price for not engaging the enemy and for ignoring the plight of Tibetan people.

      BhavanaJagat.

      Like

      1. It is easy to say fight – but who has to sacrifice – Mr Bhavanajagat if you really wants to liberate Tibet you should live nearby there and organize from there rather than just sending emails living wonderfully in the USA. In the memories as a teacher in the Establishment 22 some time ago I commented your website with a quote from this website itself yet your reply was my comment does not carry the merit. So how I can say your mission to free Tibet.

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  4. Thanks for that suggestion. If you recall, the Tibetan Resistance Movement started with training of fighters at Camp Hale in Colorado, USA. It doesn’t take a long time to get back to the frontier. I left India during January 1984 after I resigned my Permanent Regular Commission. I am interested to read about your teacher’s assignment and give me those details and I will be happy to read the same. I shared my story about my army career at this blog post:
    http://Bhavanajagat.com/2010/04/06/Indira-Gandhi-A-Flame-that-Got-Extinguished/

    Like

  5. what are the benefits for the recriut who becomes physical unfit during traing period. What are the advantages he get while going discharge at home. Does he get medical pension? Does he get medical allownces?

    Like

    1. Dear Mr.Kunwar,
      As this Force represents a military alliance or military pact between three national entities, the rules, terms, and conditions of Service differ. I have not read the rules for other members of this Force. I have informal knowledge about some death, retirement, and disability compensation. There is monetary compensation of varying amounts apart from special cash awards for acts of bravery. Some people like the retired Political Leader Ratuk Ngawang have told news media reporters that a retirement pension is paid on a monthly basis. The young men whom I had served as their Medical Officer, were very willing to take whatever risk that could be involved to accomplish the mission and were totally unconcerned about death, disability, and injuries. During Operation Eagle, the military action that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, under my medical supervision, the dead were cremated or buried in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and their bodies were not returned to their parents or other surviving family members. As these Tibetan Spirits still live in my Consciousness, I can firmly claim that we are not fighting this Battle for any monetary compensation or financial gain or reward. On behalf of those Living Tibetan Spirits, I have repeatedly asked the Government of India to give the Gallantry Award of VIR CHAKRA as recommended by Unit Commander, Brigade Commander, and the Force/Formation Commander. I thought that the Modi Government would be more receptive to my petition, but he has not even replied or acknowledged my Grievance. If you are truly concerned about Death and Disability, kindly write to Shri. Narendra Modi, Prime Minister’s Office(PMO), the Cabinet Secretariat, and demand that the Gallantry Award must be given to honor the memory of the Fallen Men.

      Like

    2. Dear Mr.Kunwar,
      As this Force represents a military alliance or military pact between three national entities, the rules, terms, and conditions of Service differ. I have not read the rules for other members of this Force. I have informal knowledge about some death, retirement, and disability compensation. There is monetary compensation of varying amounts apart from special cash awards for acts of bravery. Some people like the retired Political Leader Ratuk Ngawang have told news media reporters that a retirement pension is paid on a monthly basis. The young men whom I had served as their Medical Officer, were very willing to take whatever risk that could be involved to accomplish the mission and were totally unconcerned about death, disability, and injuries. During Operation Eagle, the military action that initiated the Liberation of Bangladesh in 1971, under my medical supervision, the dead were cremated or buried in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and their bodies were not returned to their parents or other surviving family members. As these Tibetan Spirits still live in my Consciousness, I can firmly claim that we are not fighting this Battle for any monetary compensation or financial gain or reward. On behalf of those Living Tibetan Spirits, I have repeatedly asked the Government of India to give the Gallantry Award of VIR CHAKRA as recommended by Unit Commander, Brigade Commander, and the Force/Formation Commander. I thought that the Modi Government would be more receptive to my petition, but he has not even replied or acknowledged my Grievance. If you are truly concerned about Death and Disability, kindly write to Shri. Narendra Modi, Prime Minister’s Office(PMO), the Cabinet Secretariat, and demand that the Gallantry Award must be given to honor the memory of the Fallen Men.

      Like

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