MAN’S ESSENCE AND MAN’S EXISTENCE :
What is man? The tradition of knowing oneself is a longer tradition than any other Science. This is a study in which the Knower and the Known are one. The object of the scientific inquiry is the nature of the scientist. The motivation to know man comes from a statement expressed in Sanskrit language, “Sarvesham Swastir Bhavatu” which seeks the well-being of all humans of all races, of all cultures, of all religions, and of all nations. Our efforts to support the well-being of man would be affected by our ability to discover the universal principles that describe the ‘real’ or ‘true’ nature of man. All human literary, philosophical, religious, and scientific traditions make assumptions about human nature. The basic assumption about human nature is that of finding it displayed in feelings, thoughts, moods, and mental states of the human individual from where human actions and behavior proceed. All such actions and behaviors that emanate from mental states show individualistic variations. It will not be easy to discover universal principles that could clearly establish the basis of true and real human nature by simply studying human mind and its functions. The structure and behavior of things contribute to their individual being and function. To understand human behavior, we may have to know the structure and behavior of the human living matter or substance to which we attach human identity and recognize it as human person. I try to know human nature from the functional characteristics that are observable in biotic interactions of cells, tissues, and organ systems formed and developed by the human living matter and constitute the human organism. If man is viewed as a multicellular organism, I try to discover human nature of a subject who objectively exists because of the living functions of cells, tissues, and organ systems that provide the biological basis for that existence. In this context, I have explored the theories shared by biologist Konrad Lorenz, psychologist Dr. B.F. Skinner, philosopher Jean Paul Sartre and now I would like to review the Theory of psychoanalysis formulated by Dr. Sigmund Freud. It must be noted that all of them and several others have explained human nature without explaining the connection between the nature that is observed and the biological basis for the existence of the human individual whose behavior and actions they have studied.
PSYCHOANALYSIS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF DETERMINISM :
Dr. Sigmund Freud is known as the creator of Psychoanalysis. He is the author of several books; The Interpretation of Dreams(1900), The Psychopathology of Everyday Life(1901), Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality(1905), Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis(1909), Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis(1915 -1917), Beyond the Pleasure Principle(1920), The Ego and the Id(1923), The Future of an Illusion(1927), An Outline of Psycho-Analysis(1938), and others. He assumes that all phenomena are determined by the laws of Physics and Chemistry. He considers that man is a product of Natural Evolution and is subject to the same laws of mechanistic principles. According to Freud, every event has preceding sufficient causes within the realm of the mind. He investigated for hidden causes in a person’s mind. Freud suggests that there are uncontrollable causes in every individual’s mind that determine the choices the individual makes. Freud contends that the mind includes ‘unconscious’ items of which the person has no ordinary knowledge. Freud postulates that the ‘unconscious’ mental state is dynamic in nature and that it actively exerts pressures and influences on what a person is and what he does. Freud coined the term Psychoanalysis to describe both the theories of Personality and the method of treating mental illness. Freud profoundly influenced man’s view of himself. Psychoanalysis involves the possibility of ‘unconscious’ mental states which have causal effects on people’s mental life. Psychoanalysis is based upon the idea that people could suffer from some idea or memory or emotion of which they are not conscious, but from which they could be cured by somehow bringing it into consciousness. Freud applied Psychoanalytic theory to the whole of normal mental life, not just to pathological conditions. He evolved a method of treatment to address the problems of neurotic mental disorders. The Freudian concept thus describes the powerful influence of the ‘unconscious’ mind on conscious thought and behavior and the equally powerful influence of the apparently forgotten past on the present. Apart from using terms such as ‘unconscious’, ‘preconscious’, and ‘conscious’, he distinguished three major structural systems within the human mind or personality; the ‘id’ which contains all the instinctual drives seeking immediate satisfaction, the ‘ego’ which deals with the real world outside the person, mediating between ‘ego’ and the ‘id’, and the ‘superego’, a special part of the ‘ego’ which contains the conscience, the social norms acquired in childhood. Whatever can become ‘conscious’ or items that could be ‘preconscious’ is in the ‘ego’ and everything in the ‘id’ is permanently ‘unconscious’. Freud’s concept of man includes his theory of the ‘instincts’ or ‘drives’, the motive forces within the mind. Freud also shares the historical theory of individual human character and the adult character depends upon the experience of infancy and childhood. Freud says that individual well-being or mental health depends on a harmonious relationship between the various parts of the mind and between the person and the real world in which man has to live. When we apply the Psychoanalytic theory to verify the contents of man’s ‘conscious’ or ‘unconscious’ mind, the basic assumption of Freud that man is governed by laws of Physics and Chemistry gets disproved. Human beings are vastly different from the entities studied by Physics and Chemistry. Psychoanalysis could only have individualistic applications. Psychoanalysis does not provide data that could be further tested empirically. We cannot test the usefulness or judge the efficacy of Psychoanalytic treatment in the same manner that is used to evaluate other therapeutic interventions.
SPIRITUALISM AND CONSCIOUSNESS :