Holistic Medicine is a system of health care based on a concept of the “WHOLE” person as one whose body, mind, spirit, and emotions are in balance with the environment. It is a movement within Medicine that emphasizes the need to perceive patients as “WHOLE” persons and to treat them accordingly. Holistic Medical Care follows three basic tenets; 1. Recognition of the psychological, environmental, and social contributions to disease, 2. Active involvement of the patient in the treatment process, and 3. Emphasis on preventive medicine and on life-styles that lessen the probability of developing disease. Holistic Care stresses the importance of personal responsibility for health without accounting for man’s existence in the physical world. Apart from conventional Medicine, Holistic health care may recommend alternative medicine such as Chiropractic, Acupuncture, Biofeedback, Faith Healing, Folk Medicine like “AYURVEDA”, Megavitamin therapy, Meditation and Yoga. It may avoid Surgery and Prescription Drugs. Holistic Health practitioners may encourage their patients to establish self-regulated regimes to control such illness-related factors as poor diet, smoking, alcohol intake, and stress. It may be noted that the concept of Holistic Medicine and Holistic Health Care is not officially recognized by the American Medical Association.
AMERICAN HOLISTIC MEDICAL ASSOCIATION – AHMA:
American Holistic Medical Association, AHMA founded in 1978 is serving as the leading advocate for the use of Holistic and Integrative Medicine. AHMA defines Holistic Medicine as the Art and Science of Healing that addresses care of the “WHOLE PERSON” – Body, Mind, and Spirit. It integrates conventional and complementary therapies to promote optimal health, and prevent and treat disease by addressing contributing factors. Holistic Health Care practitioners strive to meet the patient with grace, kindness, acceptance, and “spirit” without condition as Love is Life’s most powerful healer. Each person is seen as a unique individual rather than an example of a particular disease. AHMA states that disease must be understood to be the result of physical, emotional, “spiritual”, social, and environmental imbalance. AHMA concludes that healing takes place naturally when the physical, emotional, “spiritual”, social, and environmental aspects of Life are brought into proper balance. AHMA does not mention as to how the physical, emotional, “spiritual”, social, and environmental aspects of Life establish the reality of the Human Being who may exist in the physical world because of the interaction of these factors that are involved in the causation of Disease.
THE WHOLE PERSON, THE WHOLE MAN, THE WHOLE BODY, THE WHOLE DUDE:
I would ask my readers to give due consideration to the definition of the ‘WHOLE PERSON’. I suggest that the ‘WHOLE PERSON’ is derived from the Single, Fertilized, Egg Cell or Ovum which always comes into existence with a unique Genome that is Original, distinctive, one of its own kind, and a Genome that has not existed in the Past, and will not exist again in the Future. Hence, I claim that the ‘WHOLE PERSON’ always arrives in the World as a Created Being even if man uses the latest reproductive technology to use a fertilized Egg Cell that is cloned. Man always exists as a Created Being with Identity and Individuality without any exceptions. This Person is a Conscious Being and hence is distinct from all other physical matter and all other Living Matter. The Person is Conscious of the fact of his own Existence at any given time, place, and environment. Every aspect of the ‘WHOLE PERSON’ is derived or contributed by this Single, Fertilized Egg Cell which I would like to recognize as the ‘WHOLE CELL’. To promote the health and well-being of man at any stage of his human existence; at any age, any place, any environment, and as a member of any social community, I submit that, the factors that contribute to the establishment of the ‘WHOLE CELL’ and its transformation and existence as the ‘WHOLE PERSON’ must be explained.
Holism is described as the view that an organic or integrated whole has an independent reality which cannot be understood simply through understanding of its parts. The term or phrase “HOLISTIC” deals with a view that is concerned with whole or integrated systems rather than with their parts.
I am indeed pleased to write this blog post in Celebration of Life, the life of Professor Rene Jules Dubos of The Rockefeller University, the French-American Microbiologist who had advocated the need to perceive man as a Whole Person. The term ‘Whole’ means auspicious, sound, uninjured, healthy, entire, complete, intact, containing all the elements or parts or constituting the entire amount, extent, and number. When the term ‘Whole’ is applied to a human being, it must state all aspects of one’s being that are instrumental to the establishment of the existence of that Living Being.
Professor Rene Dubos is credited for discovering the first commercially produced antibiotic, Tyrothricin-Gramicidin, an antibiotic that is effective against Gram-Positive bacteria. He isolated the antibiotic from soil microorganisms. He laid the basis for chemotherapy. Rene Dubos played a great role in promoting our understanding of environmental and social determinants of human health and disease. In his book, ‘Mirage of Health’(1959) he had expressed the view that man will never be free from disease because man has to continuously adapt to environmental changes. Disease results from the dynamic process of life, a process of adaptation to constant changes, both in the internal living condition, and in the external environment in which man physically exists. In his book, ‘So Human An Animal’, Rene Dubos contends that each human being is unique, unprecedented, and unrepeatable. For the same reasons that Dubos had shared, I describe man as a ‘Created Being’, the being that exists with unique, one of its own kind, original Genome which has never existed in the past, and will never again exist in the future. Rene Dubos expresses the concern that each person faces the critical danger of losing this very humaneness to his mechanized surroundings: “People spend their days in a confusion of concrete and steel, trapped in the midst of noise, dirt, ugliness, and absurdity.”
The medical term ‘Etiology’ describes the causes or origins of disease. Professor Rene Dubos had promoted the understanding of the disease as a consequence of the relationships between the host, the etiological agents such as the disease-causing bacteria, and parasites under the influence of social, and environmental conditions that demand man to adapt to constant changes in his living conditions.
Professor Rene Dubos provides a perspective on Ecological Crisis and seeks positive values in man’s relationship to Nature. He sees hope in Benedictine stewardship. He speaks of “The Demon within”..”The thrust of technology and institutions that may run counter to living in harmony with nature.”
In various books that Professor Rene Dubos had authored, he developed a Philosophy of Man in his Environment. He stressed the importance of man’s relationship to the natural environment. Some of his works include, ‘Health and Disease’(1965), ‘Man, Medicine, and Environment’(1968), and ‘Beast or Angel’(1974). He described human choices and interventions to shape life, environment, and civilization. He paved the way for social action to combat environmental problems and to prevent environmental degradation that have health consequences.
In his final book, ‘The Celebration of Life’(1981), Professor Rene Dubos stressed the importance of understanding life in the context of the entire web of ecological relationships. The famous dictum of this book is: “WHEREVER HUMAN BEINGS ARE INVOLVED, TREND IS NOT DESTINY.” I am hopeful that this ‘Destiny’ of man will be shaped by God’s Unconditioned Love that flows Beyond the Good and Evil Behavior of Man.
The word ‘Spring’ describes the move upward or forward from the ground, it denotes resilience or bounce, and it means to grow or develop or come into existence quickly. Among the Seasons, the Spring Season is the time during which plants begin to grow after lying dormant all Winter. In the North Temperate Zone, the Spring Season includes the months of March, April, and May, the period between the Vernal Equinox and the Summer Solstice.
LORD MADHAVA – THE LORD OF THE SPRING SEASON:
The Spring Season is a time for rebirth, regeneration, renewal, and regrowth after a period of dormancy. Man derives a sense of joy and happiness when the plants start their growing process and quickly bear attractive flowers. It gives the experience of ‘Sweetness’ which is called ‘Madhurya’ in Sanskrit language. It is the manifestation of a creative process, or the operation of a creative energy that makes human existence possible giving man the sensation associated with consuming nectar, honey, or sweet wine. In Indian tradition, this creative energy is personified as Goddess Madhavi, and Her consort is viewed as the Controller of the creative energy and is called Lord Madhava. Today, I would like to seek the Blessings of Lord Madhava and Goddess Madhavi to renew my creative energy that would guide me to express my thoughts using sweet words and to promote the well-being of all my readers and become a source of Happiness to all people who are in the pursuit of Happiness.
I am writing this blog post to recognize Mark Elliot Zuckerberg, the Founder, Chairman, and CEO of Facebook, Inc., as my true ‘Neighbor’, or ‘The Good Samaritan’. To know and to understand God’s purpose in human life, we need to clearly understand the meaning of ‘Neighbor’. The concept of ‘Neighbor’ cannot be simply derived by describing a person’s place of residence, the country of residence, or things situated near one another. My religion, my race, my ethnicity, my skin color, my gender, my language, my country of origin, or my place of residence cannot conclusively determine the identity of my ‘Neighbor’. To recognize Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg as my ‘Neighbor’, I seek the understanding provided by The Parable of The Good Samaritan that is narrated in The New Testament Book, The Gospel According to Saint Luke, Chapter 10, verses 25 to 37.
The term ‘Samaritan’ originally refers to a native or inhabitant of Samaria, a district of ancient Israel between Galilee and Judea which in the Biblical times belonged to the North Kingdom of the Hebrews. These residents of Samaria represent a sectarian Jewish Community who were colonists introduced after the Assyrian conquest of the region during 722 B.C. The Samaritans adopted a form of Judaism based entirely on ‘Pentateuch’(the first five books of The Old Testament) the Scripture revealed by Prophet Moses whom they recognize as the only Prophet. The Jews refused to recognize Samaritans as their ‘neighbors’ and had treated them as strangers or even as enemies. The Jews had refused to let the Samaritans participate in building the Second Temple in Jerusalem and the Samaritans built their own Temple on Mount Gerizim which was destroyed in 128 B.C. This historical context must be understood while reading the Parable of The Good Samaritan and to derive the meaning of ‘Neighbor’. The story begins when an expert in the Law stood up to test Jesus and had asked, “What must I do to inherit eternal life?” To inherit eternal life, the expert on Law had correctly stated that the Scripture demands, “‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself’.” The expert in the Law had further asked Jesus to explain, “And who is my neighbor?” Jesus responds by sharing the Parable of The Good Samaritan which described the actions of a Priest, a Levite, and a Samaritan and Jesus concluded the story by asking the expert in the Law, “Which of these do you think was a neighbor to the man who fell into the hands of robbers?” The expert in the Law replied, “The one who had mercy on him.” Jesus told the expert in the Law, “Go and do likewise.” To inherit eternal life, man has to perform actions apart from loving Lord God. Man has no ability to reflect or return God’s Unconditioned Love even while man chooses to love God with all his heart, all his soul, with all his strength, and with all his mind. Fundamentally, there is a problem as man has no true ability to recognize God’s existence and man has no true Knowledge of God’s existence. However, man has the ability to recognize the existence of a fellow human being. Man has a chance to redeem himself in his actions and interactions with his fellow human beings. To inherit eternal life, man needs the Grace, Mercy, and Compassion of the Lord God and man can easily qualify himself to receive God’s Mercy by simply showing some compassion in his actions to respond and to provide some assistance to another person who is in a disabled situation and cannot help himself.
WHO IS MY NEIGHBOR??? WHY IMMIGRATION REFORM ???:
The United States must take pride in itself and must also give the opportunity to others to cherish the place with a sense of pride.
Facebook CEO, Mark Zuckerberg founded on April 11, 2013, FWD.us.,(http://FWD.us/), a 501(c)(4) Lobbying group that aims to lobby and advocate for Immigration Reform to provide some relief to about 11 million immigrants that are estimated to be living in the United States without being Legal Residents. The US Senate passed a comprehensive bill last June but, the legislation has stalled in the US House where Republicans have rejected a comprehensive approach to Immigration Reform. Mark Zuckerberg and his organization FWD.us has launched a nationwide advertisement campaign on Monday, March 03, 2014 that implores US House Republicans to act this year on legislation overhauling the nation’s Immigration System.
In the context of the debate on Immigration Reform in the United States, I make this attempt to define my ‘true neighbor’. I recognize Mark Zuckerberg, Chairman and CEO of Facebook, Inc., as the ‘Good Samaritan’, and I am pleased to write that I would seek to confer the Blessings of Eternal Life on Mark Zuckerberg in due acknowledgment of his efforts to promote good neighborly relations among the residents of the United States.
Special Frontier Force as a military organization symbolizes the recognition of Tibet as a Sovereign Nation and it specifically acknowledges that the Institution of Dalai Lama and the person holding this title as the true independent, ruler of Tibet apart from being a high-ranking priest of Tibetan Buddhism.
Special Frontier Force is a military organization jointly founded by the United States, India, and Tibet during the presidency of John F. Kennedy. The US and Indian nationals who serve in this organization derive their authority over the Tibetan soldiers of this organization by virtue of the power granted by Dalai Lama the Supreme Commander of the Tibetan Force. On March 31, 1959, His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama had arrived in India as a political exile and was granted political asylum in India. He had established the Tibetan Government-in-Exile which is based in Dharamsala of India.
The United States often describes His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama as a spiritual, and cultural leader of Tibetan people without explaining the cultural aspects of Tibetan governance. In Tibetan Culture, the title Dalai Lama is given to the Leader or Chief who provides a system of Government. The Dalai Lama has the same executive powers that are typically exercised by the Head of State of any independent, sovereign nation. The title of Dalai Lama is the equivalent of titles such as President or Prime Minister who hold the executive power in nations like the United Sates, India, and Great Britain.
THE SOVEREIGN, POLITICAL INSTITUTION OF DALAI LAMA:
His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama who had visited The White House in Washington, DC on February 21, 2014 and on numerous other occasions meeting with various US Presidents during the last 30 years, is the rebirth of a long line of “TULKUS” who descend from the Compassionate Bodhisattva named “AVALOKITESVARA.” In Tibetan Buddhism, a “TULKU” is a particularly high-ranking Lama, of whom the Dalai Lama is one. But, it is very important to recognize Dalai Lama as a ‘Hierarch’, a Leader or Chief who provides a system of Government. The Sovereign, political institution of Dalai Lama is formally known as ‘Ganden Phodrang’. The succession of this ‘hierarchy’ is maintained by the discovery of a child born soon after the death of a Dalai Lama into whom the ‘Spirit’ of the deceased has entered.
The Great Fifth Dalai Lama, Lobsang Gyatso(1617-1682) founded the Ganden Phodrang Government of Tibet in 1642. During his reign, the Potala Palace on the Red Hill in Lhasa was built. The successive Dalai Lamas have headed the Tibetan Nation for nearly four centuries. The name “DALAI” is the anglicized version of Mongolian word “TA -LE” which is used as an honorific title and the equivalent of the Tibetan “RGYA-MTSHO” meaning Sea or Ocean which suggests the breadth and depth of wisdom and the temporal power of Dalai Lama on Tibetan way of life. Tibetans call the Dalai Lama as ‘Rgyal-ba Rin-po-che’ which means ‘Great Precious Conqueror. The Third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso(1543-1588) had received this honorific title during 1578 while on a visit to the Mongol Chief Altan Khan who had applied this title retrospectively to the previous hierarchs making Gendun Drupa(1391-1474) the First Dalai Lama, and Gendun Gyatso(1475-1542) who became the Second Dalai Lama. This strong hierarchical organization of Tibetan Buddhism and the governance of Tibet has become the focus of Tibetan Cultural Identity and Tibetan National Character. The Eighth Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso(1758-1804) fought a war with the Gurkha troops from Nepal and had defeated them with some assistance from Manchu China. Tibet existed in a serene and unperturbed state for several centuries even while Tibet came under the control of the Yuan or Mongol Dynasty of China. In 1644, Chinese Manchu, Qing or Ching Dynasty was established and Tibet during the reign of its Seventh Dalai Lama, Kelsang Gyatso(1708-1757) came under Manchu China’s nominal protection although for the most part, the Tibetans retained full control over their internal affairs. The Manchu China Dynasty was overthrown in 1911 and the 13th Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso(1876-1933) had expelled the Manchu China’s troops from Tibet, promptly reasserted Tibet’s full Independence. The Great 13th Dalai Lama ruled with full personal authority and reigned as head of a Sovereign State. He had further formally announced Tibet’s full Independence on February 13, 1913.
Tibetans celebrate the 13th day of February as Tibetan Independence Day in recognition of their sovereignty. Being ‘Sovereign’ means that Tibetans do not acknowledge any superior and being a Sovereign Nation, Tibet has the full power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract alliances, establish Commerce and do all other acts and things which independent states may have the right to do. For 39 years, from 1911 to 1950, Tibet had indeed existed as an Independent Nation and had signed the bilateral “Mc Mahon Treaty” in Delhi during 1914 following the ‘Simla Agreement’. During October 1950, Communist China’s People’s Liberation Army invaded Tibetan soil and Tibet has come under China’s military occupation. It will be incorrect to suggest that Tibet is a part of China. Tibetans do not acknowledge China’s rule and Special Frontier Force is a military alliance that symbolizes the Tibetan Resistance Movement to oppose the occupation of Tibet. I am pleased to share a few photo images of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama, the living symbol of the Tibetan Resistance Movement when he visited The White House in recent past.
I would like to respectfully submit to my readers that the term “DALAI LAMA” recognizes the person who represents the sovereign, political institution, the seat of Tibetan Government and Tibetan Sovereignty. Kindly permit me to offer you my “TASHI DELEK” greetings to all of you to seek your support for Tibetan Freedom from occupation.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO:
I define the term ‘Spirituality’ as an internal mutually beneficial partnership between the cells, the tissues, and the organ systems of the human organism and the Whole Organism which exists as the human being. Spirituality brings structural unity and functional harmony and is the fundamental basis for man to discover Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition and in his living experience in any given external environment as a member of any given external community. In terms of Science, the human being is a biological community of independent cells and each exists with its own internal environment and an external environment and constantly interacts with its own intracellular organelles and other living cells found in its external environment. Similarly, man has an internal environment called ‘Milieu Interieur’ and the organism tries to maintain ‘Homeostasis’ which is defined as the tendency to maintain internal stability by coordinated responses of the organ systems that automatically compensate for environmental changes and it is analogous to maintenance of stability or equilibrium while participating in social interactions within a social group. French physiologist, Dr. Claude Bernard(1813-1878) described ‘Homeostasis’: “All the vital mechanisms, varied as they are, have only one object; that of preserving constant the conditions of Life.” In this context of the structural and functional relationship of the human organism to maintain stability and equilibrium within the organism and while participating in social interactions within a social group, I would ask my readers to “Behold The Man.” I would like to present two men and provide a contrast as to how their ‘Homeostasis’ was compromised and as to how they failed to keep their existence; 1. due to an external threat to existence posed by the social group in which the individual lived and participated in social interactions, and 2. due to an internal threat posed by another living organism with which the individual participated in biotic interactions.
BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO – THE SON OF MAN:
The Vulgate or Latin Version of the Bible, the official biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church, in the New Testament Book of The Gospel According to Apostle John, Chapter 19, verses 4 and 5 describe the words used by the Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate when he presented Jesus to a huge crowd of Jews that had gathered outside his palace to demand that Jesus must be punished by Crucifixion: Once more Pilate came out and said to the Jews, “Look, I am bringing him out to you to let you know that I find no basis for a charge against him.” When Jesus came out wearing the crown of thorns and the purple robe, Pilate said to them, “Ecce Homo !”(Behold The Man)
To maintain Life, man has to always preserve the stability and equilibrium of his internal and external living conditions. But, man constantly faces several threats to his existence and these threats may exist within or without, the environment in which the existence is maintained. Jesus faced the threat called the demand for his crucifixion because of His social interactions with members of His own social community of Jews who failed to understand God’s Will and God’s Purpose in human life. The Roman Governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate was unwilling to find any crime in the conduct of Jesus and had repeatedly told the gathering of Jews that he finds no basis for a charge against Him. Pilate very reluctantly imposed the capital punishment not only because of the insistent demand of Jews , but because of the unwillingness of Jesus to beg for mercy or pleading to set Him free. Apostle John has reported on the conversation between Pilate and Jesus :( John 19:10-11) “Do you refuse to speak to me?” Pilate said, “Don’t you realize I have power either to free you or to crucify you?” Jesus answered, “You have no power over me if it were not given to you from above. Therefore the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin.” Before His arrest and trial by Pilate, Jesus had demonstrated various kinds of supernatural powers and had performed miracles. In fact, both the Jews and the Romans had mockingly told Jesus that He could save Himself from crucifixion using supernatural powers and prove His claim to be ‘The Son of God’. I understand the Biblical narration of crucifixion to behold the human being, to understand the human condition that has no real freedom and is simply dependent upon an external source of support called ‘Providence’. Jesus who had stated that His mission or purpose in life as that of sharing the ‘Truth’, knows that the human being has no ‘Free Will’ and understands that man has no choice apart from living in obedience to God’s Will and Purpose in human life. It is not surprising to find that Jesus made no attempt to run away from the threat, and did nothing to defend His existence. He had simply desired to bear witness to God’s Will and God’s purpose of His human existence. Jesus as a Spiritual Being showed patience and showed tolerance of people who were persecuting Him and for His Deliverance, He called upon His Father: “Jesus called out with a loud voice, ‘Father, into your hands I commit my spirit.’ When he said this, he breathed his last.”(The New Testament Book of the Gospel According to Apostle Luke, Chapter 23, verse #46). The fact that Jesus has simply existed like any other mortal human being is revealed in His final announcement as mentioned in The Gospel According to Apostle John, Chapter 19, verse#28 which reads: Later, knowing that all was now completed, and so that the Scripture would be fulfilled, Jesus said, “I am thirsty.” In my view, thirst is the clearest symptom of mortal existence.
BEHOLD THE MAN – ECCE HOMO – NIETZSCHE:
To Behold The Man called Nietzsche, as a practitioner of Medicine, I would give a least amount of attention to his views and perspectives about human values and human existence. I would like to ascertain his complete medical history and assess his medical condition through a careful physical examination and use any investigative tools that may help me to know the man under my observation. Nietzsche born October 05, 1844 was apparently in good health during 1864 when he went to the University of Bonn to study theology and classical philology and in 1865 he transferred to University of Leipzig. He began military service in October 1867 in the cavalry company of an artillery regiment, sustained a serious chest injury while mounting a horse in March 1868. He resumed his studies in University of Leipzig in October 1868 while on extended sick leave from the military. In 1869, the University of Leipzig conferred the doctorate without examination or dissertation and paved the way for his selection for professorship in classical philology(Linguistics) in the University of Basel, Switzerland. He took leave during August 1870 when he had participated in Franco-Prussian War as a voluntary medical orderly. He had to quit that service when he contracted dysentery and diphtheria. His health problems continued to persist and by October 1876, Nietzsche requested and received a year’s sick leave. Because his health continued to deteriorate steadily he resigned his professorial chair on June 14, 1879. Nietzsche was seriously ill, half-blind, in virtually unrelenting pain during a decade of isolation from 1879 to 1889. He lived in boarding houses in Switzerland, France, and Italy with only limited human contacts. His most acknowledged literary and philosophical masterpiece, “Thus Spake Zarathustra” was published between 1883 and 1885 in four parts. Nietzsche’s final lucid year was 1888, a period of supreme productivity. He wrote and published ‘The Case of Wagner’, wrote a synopsis of his philosophy, ‘Twilight of the Idols’(published later in 1889), The Antichrist(published later in 1895), ‘Nietzsche contra Wagner’, and ‘Ecce Homo : How One becomes What One Is’, a reflection on his own works and his human significance. Ecce Homo got published in 1908, twenty years after its composition. Nietzsche collapsed in the streets of Turin, Italy in January 1889 and lost control of his mental faculties. He spent the last 11 years of his life in total mental darkness. He was first moved to an asylum in Basel, then he lived in Naumburg under his mother’s care and after her death in 1897, he lived in Weimar in his sister’s care. He died on August 25, 1900. His medical condition suggests the diagnosis of Atypical General Paralysis caused by the Tertiary Stage of Syphilitic infection and is known as Neurosyphilis which is the involvement of brain and nervous system due to dormant Syphilitic infection. I am most surprised to note that Nietzsche had failed to take into account the problems of his own injury and sickness that compelled him to change the direction of his life repeatedly without giving him the opportunity called “Free to Will.”
Nietzsche’s ability to maintain ‘Homeostasis’ was undermined when he got exposed to infection by a Spirochete bacterium called Treponema pallidum which infects man during sexual relationship with an infected individual. It is very easy to ignore this infection as in its Primary Stage the infection causes a painless sore at the site of infection and the sore heals without application of any medication. This bacterium remains dormant and may manifest signs of infection called Secondary Stage after a lapse of several months. During that Secondary Phase there would be generalized eruptions of the skin, mucous membranes, inflammation of eyes, bones, and central nervous system. It must be noted that during Nietzsche’s lifetime, there were no proper antibiotic drugs to treat the Syphilitic infection. The Tertiary Stage is delayed for some time(15 to 25 years) after the initial infection. During the period Nietzsche had lived, this kind of Syphilitic infection accounted for 10 percent of all admissions to mental hospitals. In Nietzsche’s case, looking at the medical problems that he had experienced during 1876, I would like to suggest that he had contacted Syphilitic infection during 1861 while he was about 17-years of age, because of a social interaction with another human being who was already infected by Syphilis. Nietzsche had formulated all his perspectives and views about human values, and human existence not knowing that he has no “Will to Power”, or “Will to Life” if he fails in the battle against the invasion of his body by this Spirochete bacterium. In his book Ecce Homo, Nietzsche proclaims the ultimate value of everything that has happened to him including his near-blindness as an example of ‘Love of Fate’(amor fati). He might not have given attention to problems like injuries and diseases which have a direct relationship to the course of action that man deliberately chooses to express his sense of Freedom of choice and action. The madness that claimed Nietzsche only months after he began writing Ecce Homo had already begun its work. He reveals the tragic fact that his very aliveness was in a state of being overwhelmed, consumed, by powerful unconscious emotion, the condition called ‘decadence’. He writes about Christianity’s decadence while in reality his brain was getting destroyed by the Syphilitic infection.
In the last Chapter of Ecce Homo titled, “Why I am a Destiny”, Nietzsche suggests a contrast with Jesus to claim that he truly is a “man.” In his view, to be a “man” alone is to be more than a “Christ.” In my opinion, both Nietzsche and Jesus had lived their lives as human beings and they faced great threats to their existence from different directions. It is indeed correct to suggest that man is like Christ for man is created in God’s own image. Nietzsche’s Spiritual Being was challenged by the problem of a bacterium that entered his body and similarly, the Spiritual nature of human society is challenged by the problem of Sin and acts of disobedience. Man finds it to difficult to experience Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility as there is no stability or equilibrium in his living condition. I would like to invite my readers to “Behold The Man” to know the human being and the physiological mechanism called ‘Homeostasis’ that is central to the mortal human existence as it faces internal or external threats. Eventually, man depends upon the Force of Mercy, Grace, and Compassion called “KRUPA” in Indian Sanskrit language even when man has no knowledge of God’s existence.
Greek philosopher Socrates(470-399 B.C.) compares the harmony produced by Virtue in the Soul with the harmony of the parts in a healthy body. He states, “Virtue is the health and beauty and well-being of the Soul, and Vice the disease and weakness and deformity of the same.” His view provides a rational basis for seeking a scientific understanding of Virtue and Vice. If Soul or Spirit is defined as the vital, animating principle that operates in all living beings, Spirituality is a Science that describes the establishment and existence of man as a Spiritual Being. I would define Spirituality as an internal, mutually beneficial partnership between the cells, the tissues, and the organ systems of the human organism and the Whole Organism which exists as the human being. To that extent it may be stated that, Spirituality brings structural unity and functional harmony in the multicellular human organism. Spirituality involves both intrapersonal, and interpersonal relationships. However, in common usage Spiritual relationships are stated as interpersonal relationships based upon sympathy, and understanding of thoughts and feelings. To develop a basis for scientific understanding of Soul or Spirit and the characteristic attributes of Spiritual functions, I would like to give special attention to the following defining aspects of man, his living condition, and the nature of human existence: 1. Man as a Conscious being, 2. Man as an Intelligent and Mental being, 3. Man as a Moral being with ability called Discernment, 4. Man as a Social being formulating his biological existence through spiritual, biotic interactions both intraspecific and interspecific, and 5. Man as a Physical being making choices between right and wrong in the context of self-preservation or existence. The last is an area where I would like to suggest that we have to make a careful distinction between Human Nature and Human Behavior. In my view, I seek to find Human Nature in terms of living functions that the human organism performs to maintain its existence while living in a given environment and participating in interactions with other members of its biotic community and much of these functions can only be understood at molecular and cellular levels. The term Human Behavior is the subject of study of a Science called Psychology. The terms Virtue and Vice are used without making a careful distinction between Human Nature and Human Behavior and hence cause some confusion in defining them.
VIRTUE IS GOOD, AND VICE IS EVIL:
Virtue is Good and Vice is Evil. Men tend to estimate or judge all things according to their own condition and the way things affect them. What is the principle of goodness in the virtues? There are several questions about objectivity or subjectivity of good and evil. How to determine good and evil? Are they determined by nature or convention? Are they objects of Knowledge or simply a matter of Opinion? Are they relative to individual desires? The terms Virtue and Vice are related to Morality, consideration of Good and Evil in human life, and with the issue of Right and Wrong in human desires, thoughts, and actions. However, to make the determination about good and evil, to make the distinction between Virtue and Vice, a few objective principles could be relevant; 1. The Rule of Reason, 2. Confirmity to Nature or Natural Law, 3. The Standard of Utility – useful and profitable nature of Virtue, 4. Obedience to the Moral Law and Moral Duty which is often shaped by acceptable standards established by social conventions or man-made rules and regulations that regulate human actions and behavior in a civilized society, and 5. Submission to God’s Will as dictated by individual’s religious faith. According to Immanuel Kant(1724-1804), German philosopher, good and evil occur only in the realm of freedom, not at all in the realm of existence or nature. Kant asserts that good and evil always imply a reference to the will as determined by the Law of Reason which is the Law of Freedom. In Kant’s view, virtue is the moral strength of a man’s will in his obedience to duty and Free Will is the seat or the source of all the goodness or evil that there is. While I appreciate the view shared by Kant and its relevance to the understanding of human actions and behavior, the concept of “Free Will” fails to account for man’s biological existence. To exercise “Free Will” man must establish his living condition called existence. The Law of Reason, human rationality, and human knowledge do not fully account for human existence. It is not rational for man to exist on the surface of a very fast spinning object like planet Earth. Man’s power of reasoning has no role. Man’s existence is possible because of the Force of Gravitation, a Law of Nature and its operation can be explained but cannot be accounted by the Law of Reason.
MORAL PHILOSOPHY – THE SCIENCE OF VIRTUE AND VICE:
According to Thomas Hobbes(1588-1679), English philosopher, “Moral philosophy is the science of virtue and vice” – and “Therefore the true doctrine of the Laws of Nature is the true Moral philosophy.” In Hobbes opinion, virtues derive their goodness from Natural Law or the Laws of Nature. Their contrary are vice. Natural Law demands man to do whatever is required for self-preservation and peace. Self-preservation is the end which determines the direction of virtuous conduct. Hobbes defines human nature as self-interested cooperation. In his view, the goodness of virtues must be praised as the means of peaceable, sociable, and comfortable living.
THE LAW OF REASON, THE LAW OF NATURE, AND DIVINE NATURE:
Baruch Spinoza(1632-1677), Dutch philosopher taught that there is one Infinite Substance, God or Nature having infinite attributes of which only thought and extension are knowable. He held that human mind, and human body as merely different aspects of a single Substance and God is Nature in its fullness. Both Spinoza and Hobbes stated a theory of Virtue making self-preservation the end which determines the direction of virtuous conduct. Both consider civil peace or the good of others in relation to self. Whereas Hobbes describes Virtue by reference to Natural Law, Spinoza identifies virtue in terms of adequate ideas of God’s Nature. Spinoza identifies Virtue with power and holds that, “The more each person strives and is able to seek his own profit, that is to say, to preserve his own being, the more virtue does he possess.” “The endeavor after self-preservation…….the primary and only foundation of Virtue.” “To act in confirmity with Virtue is to act according to the guidance of reason……, it is a good which is common to all men, and can be equally possessed by all in so far as they are of the same nature.” In Spinoza’s view, self-preservation has its foundation in knowledge of God. While I generally agree with the view shared by Spinoza, I tend to think that this self-preservation or human existence is fundamentally established by God’s Unconditioned Love which does not demand knowledge about existence of God. In other words, man can maintain his conditioned existence without any basic ability to gain knowledge of God.
THE RELATIONSHIP OF VIRTUE AND VICE WITH HAPPINESS:
Virtue can be viewed in the context of Duty or that of gratification and pleasure. Virtue can be seen as the means to obtain the end called Happiness. Virtue is a natural and necessary condition of Happiness. Virtue and Happiness can be explained as reciprocal notions like Cause and Effect. In Kant’s view, Virtue consists of doing one’s duty to become worthy of happiness. Virtue is related to happiness through the medium of duty. Aristotle(384-322 B.C.), Greek philosopher states a view of Happiness in which it may be seen as constituted by bodily and external goods such as health, pleasure, friendship, and wealth. Virtue is the good that causes our thinking and acting well with respect to all other goods. Happy man is one who is active in accordance with complete Virtue. If the object of Virtue is Happiness, I would like to assert that there will be no Happiness unless and until man discovers Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his living condition called existence. The specific quality of the maxims that define the difference between Virtue and Vice are Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility. In my opinion, man the Spiritual Being is known from the nature of his conditioned human existence seeking Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility within himself and with others in his environment, and community. I would like to define the terms Virtue and Vice as relative to man’s experience of Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in his own life and in his interactions with his external environment and community.