When I write about Man as a Spiritual Being, the concern is not about glorifying people as saints. The issue is about man’s true or real nature. My theory of Spirituality is about “The Art of Knowing” that can provide tools to all people to know themselves in an objective manner. This is a simple challenge that can be accomplished without forcing people to attend Church or any other place of worship. The Art of Knowing does not involve what most people tend to recognize as spiritual practices such as Prayer, Meditation, Yoga, or Mysticism. The Art of Knowing simply involves training people to know what they know about others or about themselves. It must be noted that Life is essentially a state, a condition, or an act of knowing.
WHOLE INTUITION VS WHOLE MYSTICISM :
Henri Bergson, French philosopher, Professor at the College de France, was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature. His famous works include Time and Free Will(1889) and The Creative Mind(1934). Bergson’s dualistic philosophy holds that the world contains two opposing tendencies, the life force and the resistance of matter against that life force. The individual knows matter through intellect but through intuition perceives the life force and the reality of time, which is not a unit of measurement but duration in terms of life experience. Bergson considered intuition to be the highest state of human knowing and held that mysticism is the perfection of intuition. Bergson emphasized the value of intuition in scientific thinking and argued that reality is beyond rational understanding. He formulated a Theory of Knowledge in which intuition plays a central role. He contended that the expansive and creative thrust of Life explained by Darwinian mechanism. Bergson claimed that ‘Evolution’ is creative and is not based upon mechanistic principles. For similar reasons, I shared my arguments to oppose Darwin’s Theory of Evolution. I formulated my theory of ‘The Law of Creation and Individuality’ for all known living things primarily exist as Individuals with Individuality and they have no choice other than that of existing as Individuals. In this article, I would like to recognize knowing as a basic cognitive function and this biological characteristic can be attributed to a popular term called ‘Spirit’ or ‘Soul’. In this context, I would like to interpret Bergson’s views about Knowing, Intuition, Mysticism, and the Reality of Time.
Intuition provides immediate understanding and it describes the ability to perceive or know things without conscious reasoning. Intuition is about direct knowing or learning of something without using the faculties of mind such as Intellect. The doctrine of Intuitionism claims that things and principles are truly apprehended by Intuition. The doctrine called Ethics describes that fundamental moral principles or the rightness of acts is apprehended by Intuition. In Biology, I would like to use the term Intuition to things apprehended by ‘Innate Knowledge’, the Knowledge that is inherent and not acquired, the Knowledge that is implanted in the Substance or Material called Living Matter. Plants know Light not because of intellectual ability but on account of an innate ability or intuitive power.
To learn the Art of Knowing, man has to know that the physiological basis for existence is dependent upon Innate Knowledge with which the human organism recognizes matter( such as molecules of Oxygen, or energy-yielding molecules of food substances) and further exploits matter and energy to support and maintain its living functions. To the same extent, the human organism defends its own existence by recognizing the molecules as Self or Non-Self. The immune defense mechanisms that the human body uses to recognize viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and other foreign antigens involve the recognition of molecules.
What is the Mystery of Life ??? Can Mysticism help to know the hidden truths about Life ??? Mysticism is the doctrine about knowing reality through intense contemplation and other secret practices that involve mental concentration. Mysticism is found in several religions of the world. The criteria and conditions for mystical experience vary depending on the cultural traditions, but there are three common attributes of Mysticism : 1. The experience is immediate and overwhelming, divorced from the common experience of reality, 2. The experience or the knowledge imparted by it is self-authenticating, without need of further evidence or justification, and 3. The experience is ineffable, its essence incapable of being expressed or understood outside the experience itself. The focus of Mysticism is not about the physical reality called existence but it is about a direct and immediate experience of the sacred, or the knowledge derived from such an experience. Mysticism is about the practices of those who are initiated into the mysteries, the practice of putting oneself into direct relation with God, the Absolute or any Unifying Principle of Life. Mystics believe that it is possible to achieve communion with God through their mystic practices. There are two general tendencies in the practice of Mysticism; 1. To regard God as outside the ‘Soul’ which rises to God by successive stages, and 2. To regard God as dwelling within the ‘Soul’ to be found by delving deeper into one’s own reality. Mysticism is extended to Magic, Occultism, and the Esoteric. Magic may involve the use of charms, spells, and rituals in seeking or pretending to cause or control events or govern certain natural and supernatural forces. Occultism is about hidden, concealed, and secret information that could be beyond human understanding. The Esoteric is about confidential, private, or withheld information that is intended for or understood by only a chosen few and as such the knowledge or information is beyond the understanding of most people. The rituals of Mysticism include meditation, prayer, and a variety of ascetic disciplines. If Mysticism is about Knowing the Secrets of Life, it does not demand the learning of Human Anatomy or Human Physiology, or any of the principles of Biology.
Bergson claimed that the Reality of Time is not a Unit of Measurement but duration in terms of life experience. How does the human organism knows about its own lifetime??? The human organism experiences the Aging Phenomenon which is related to man’s perception of Time. How is Time controlling or operating life experience ??? The physical reality called existence is controlled, is operated, or is directly influenced by events in man’s external environment, and the most important change in the environment is the alternating periods of light and darkness called Day and Night.
Bergson may have used the term life force to describe the vital, animating Principle called Spirit or Soul. In my view, Soul is an animating Principle for it is fundamentally related to the functional ability called Knowing. Soul is a vital Principle for it is fundamentally related to the functional ability called Nutrition, the power of a living organism to exploit matter found in its external environment. The functional attributes of Soul are related to Knowledge that is inherent or Innate and not acquired as learned experience. Soul describes man’s intuitive ability to know the fact of his own existence in a given environment and to maintain that existence while experiencing the aging process under the external influence called Time.
While writing about The Art of Knowing, I would like to remind my readers that certain things could be hidden from the human perception and man has no ability to know things even if he knows the reality of those things. Blaise Pascal, the French scientist who founded the modern Theory of Probability had claimed : “Man is a nothing in comparison with the Infinite, an All in comparison with the Nothing, a mean between Nothing and Everything. Since he is infinitely removed from comprehending the extremes, the end of things and their beginnings are hopelessly hidden from him in an impenetrable secret; he is equally incapable of seeing the Nothing from which he was made, and the Infinite in which he swallowed up.”
Which came first, the Chick or the Egg ??? Spirituality Science is not about knowing the Beginning or the Ending of things. Spirituality is about things that exist in the ‘Present’. The Physical Reality of Man’s Subjective and Objective experience of his lifetime is a functional attribute of Soul or Spirit which gives Man the cognitive ability called Knowing . If Devotion is used as a scientific method of Inquiry, ‘The Art of Knowing’ is about Knowing Man as a Spiritual Being.
The UN General Assembly has declared June 21 as International Yoga Day. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his maiden address to the UN General Assembly on September 27, 2014, asked the world leaders to adopt June 21 as Yoga Day. He stated that Yoga provides a holistic approach to health and well-being; a holistic way of life that brings harmony between man and nature and promotes simpler lifestyles. Prime Minister Modi has expressed the hope that by changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, Yoga can help us deal with Climate Change.
WHAT IS YOGA ????
Yoga is a general term for spiritual practices, and spiritual discipline followed for centuries by devotees of both Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism to attain “Higher Consciousness”, liberation from ignorance, release from suffering, and Freedom from Rebirth. It is also one of the six orthodox systems of Indian Philosophy. Patanjali(2nd Century B.C.,) expounded the Theory and the Practice of Yoga called “RAJA YOGA”(Royal Yoga). He stated Yoga Sutras or aphorisms and divided the practice of Yoga into eight stages.
Patanjali considered “SAMADHI” as the highest stage of Yoga practice in which the Yogi, the practitioner of Yoga finds identification of the individual “Consciousness” with the Ultimate Godhead, or the Absolute Reality(often called Brahman). Hindu tradition recognizes three main types of Yoga; JNANA YOGA, the path of wisdom and discrimination, BHAKTI YOGA, the path of Love and Devotion to a personal, or impersonal God, or both, and KARMA YOGA, the path of selfless or unattached action. HATHA YOGA emphasizes physical control, holding body in systematized postures, and the practice of controlled breathing. In Jainism and Buddhism, the emphasis may involve withdrawing from the world, mental concentration without allowing the mind to get distracted by extraneous things. In Indian traditions, the highest meditative state is called “NIRVIKALPAKA SAMADHI”, content less trance that constitutes Liberation or “NIRVANA.”
While Yoga may explain the highest aim or purpose in “LIFE” for most Hindus, Buddhists, and Jains, certain physical practices have found their acceptance in the West without any concern for the religious doctrine or the philosophical basis. Even in the Indian tradition, the practice called “JAPA YOGA” which involves the repetition of certain sounds with mystic power or “MANTRAS” is concerned about providing relief to man while coping with “STRESS”, the physical, and mental challenges posed by day-to-day existence in a world where threats to existence come from several known and unknown directions.
The word ‘YOGA’ is related to the Sanskrit word ‘YUGA’ which symbolizes union, or association of entities or events. It may be noted that the problem of human existence is always connected to the TIME and the Place of man’s existence. In the Indian tradition, the events in one’s life are conditioned by the Cyclical Flow of Time, and the time cycles have designated names called “YUGA.” The term ‘YOGA’ is variously used in Indian tradition to describe the ‘YOKE’ which is often seen as a mark or symbol of bondage. ‘Yoke’ is commonly used all over the ancient world where the agricultural practices are similar.
Yoke (Hebrew. motah, an oxbow, a yoke, tsemedh, yoke of oxen; Greek. zeugos, a team and Zygos, yoke) in the literal sense, is a bar of wood so constructed as to unite two animals, usually oxen, enabling them to work in the fields, drawing loads and pulling the plow. For these two chief functions yoke was commonly used all over the ancient world.
The Yoke imposes a burden of its own and can be seen as a sign of bondage and servitude. At the same time, the Yoke provides some relief to the entities that are paired or joined together while they are subject to bondage and servitude for there is sharing of the burden. Man’s existence in the world imposes a burden for man has to constantly find an external source of energy to support his living functions. This burden of ‘Life’ is eased for man is paired with Providence, the term that describes God’s Compassion, Mercy, and Grace. Man is never alone in the toils of his ‘Life.’ I use the term “SPIRITUAL” to describe the nature of a relationship, a partnership, a pairing, “Yoking”, an association, a connection, or bonding between two, or more living entities to find Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in their living experience. For man’s existence is conditioned and is constantly threatened by both internal, and external challenges from known and unknown directions, man has to find comfort and solace by pairing with the Divine Providence.
If spirituality is about finding Peace, Harmony, and Tranquility in the living, human condition, the spiritual practice called ‘Yoga’ demands the “YOKING” of man with “The Good Shepherd.” In The New Testament Book of Bible, The Gospel According to Saint Matthew, Chapter 11, verses 28 to 30 describe the ‘YOGA’ prescribed by Jesus Christ: “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you and learn from me, for I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy and my burden is light.”
In my view, the phrase ‘WHOLE YOGA’ is about establishing humility in the heart and to find rest, comfort, and ease from the burdens of ‘Life’ by accepting the “YOKE” that is Easy and whose burden is ‘Light’.
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – AHAM BRAHMASMI – UNITY VS IDENTITY:
This article is dedicated to this Indian Lady who symbolizes the Principle of Unity that appears as the verbal Sound or “SHABDA” called “ASMI” which means always present or ever-existing.
Should man search inwards or search outwards to find God??? I can search, if and only if my existence is supported. For my existence, I depend upon the ability of plants called Photoreception. If God is Light, the Light that sustains Life is not about the human ability of sensory perception called Vision.
I am asking my readers, specially those who study Indian Schools of Thought, to recognize the need for careful interpretation of the insights provided by Indian thinkers. The concern is not about duality and differentiation. The problem is not that of establishing the exact Identity between God and orders like Matter, Energy, Time, Space, Man, and Living Entities. The concern is about the fact of existence. Everything that exists is not exactly the same or identical to Brahman. It may be correct to state that everything finds its existence because of Unity or “EIKYATA”, the fundamental basis for existence and this Unity becomes the verbal Sound known as “ASMI” which describes BRAHMAN as the Cause of all that exists.
It is indeed true that man’s existence on planet Earth could be short-lived, ephemeral, transitory, and may even last only one day. Man is an organism with a brief life cycle. But, the Physical Reality of this existence demands the Unity described by the verbal Sound called “ASMI” which means ‘always present’, or ‘ever-existing’. The Physical Dimension of human life and human existence cannot be rejected as unreal and it is not an illusion for there are always both Subjective and Objective criteria to verify and to validate the physical form and physical appearance that is associated with existence. Man’s true or real Essence called Self or ATMAN cannot manifest itself in the physical world without Unity between the mortal nature of man’s conditioned existence and the eternal nature of Brahman which is always present, or ever-existing.
I use the word Spirit, Soul, or ATMAN to describe the Vital, Animating Principle that is involved in establishing man’s physical existence in the world. The issue is not about Soul or ATMAN’s existence when separated from its human body. The human form, the human appearance, and the human existence at any given age or condition is always dependent upon the Unity between Body and Soul.
It should not be of any surprise to note that ATMAN could be Unborn, Eternal, Everlasting, Immortal, and Imperishable. Those are the fundamental attributes of all Physical Matter that exists in this Universe. Matter is made up of Chemical Elements and the Fundamental Laws of Conservation state that Matter is neither created, nor destroyed.
To understand the concept of Unity and the Unifying Principle, we need not ignore the beautiful Reality that manifests itself in numerous, countless forms and shapes. There are no identical living things. Every living thing, every member of all known living species simply exist as Individuals with Individuality. The Statement about The Atman, “The One Without Second” is a mere reflection of the Reality that Science can experimentally verify. To know about Life, we have to know about each individual, living thing.
Brahman or God is variously described as the Creator, the Artist, the Designer, and the Architect of the Universe. Every created object exists as an original, unique, distinct, and one of its own kind of object. For the Architect uses Imagination to draw a Plan or Design, there is Unity while there is Diversity, Variation, and Differentiation of various parts that come together in Harmony to give the Whole Experience.
The discussion about Life and Death need not involve the separation of human body into separate or distinct parts like the Body, and Soul. At no time, the Body exists without its operating Principle called Soul, or ATMAN. The phenomenon of Death involves the physical form and appearance and not that of the Substance and the Chemical Elements that constitute the Living Things.
Man’s mortal or conditioned existence demands the operation of Unity or Unifying Principle that allows man and other living entities to exist in relationship with God. At the same time, Lord Krishna in the above image(The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter IX, Verse #4) clarifies that God’s Existence is Unconditioned and God does not depend upon man and other living entities to maintain or sustain His own eternal, everlasting Existence.
Indian tradition such as the above image of a statement from Kathoponishad(KATHA+UPANISHAD) may suggest the separation of human body from its indwelling Soul, Atman, or PURUSHA, I would ask my readers to be very careful to make an interpretation after recognizing the simple fact that man has no ability to separate the living entity from its Living Principle. Man may kill himself, man can kill other men and other forms of Life. But, the Union of Body and its Soul or ATMAN, or PURUSHA is not accomplished by man’s mental, or physical actions. Man exists with no Control, or ability to Rule or Govern his own existence at any given instant.
Indian Tradition often describes the Identity between the Self, ATMAN, and PURUSHA, the Eternal Cosmic Person. For I recognize that man is not the Cause or Originating Seed of his own existence, man must carefully describe his existence as that of Unity between man, and PURUSHA, the eternal Cosmic Person. Man is the result of the harmonious effect that brings Structural, and Functional Unity between various interacting parts such as the trillions of individual, independent, living cells that constitute the human organism.
The Complexity of BRAHMAN, THE PURUSHA, OR THE COSMIC PERSON can be understood by viewing the above image of “VIRAT PURUSHA” in which every Energy, Force, or Power is depicted with a distinct physical appearance and form. Man’s own physical form and appearance is derived from this Universal Form and it simply represents one aspect among the numerous manifestations. Hence I submit that the “MAHAVAKYA” or the Great Statement that appears in the Brihadarnyaka Upanishad, “AHAM BRAHMASMI” should be interpreted with a pinch of Salt and in Reality, man may speak of his Unity and not of Identity with “VIRAT PURUSHA.”
SPIRITUALITY SCIENCE – LIGHT OF LIGHTS – THE PHENOMENON OF ILLUMINATION :
I am pleased to share an article titled “Light of Lights” published by Dr. Sarvepalli Anantha Padmanabha Rao, M.S. who served for many years as a Professor of Surgery, and as Director of Medical Education in the Government of Andhra Pradesh Medical and Health Services. It is important to know the views shared by the traditional thinkers of India and in my view, Indian Schools of Thought such as “ADVAITA”(NON-DUALISM) have formulated their theories about the true or real identity of “SELF”(ATMAN) without considering the physiological or biological basis for hosting a thought about “SELF”(ATMAN) that may have an independent existence while it is totally detached from the Body, and Mind of its thinker. While MYSTICISM is a part of various religious traditions, I am asking my readers to seek “WHOLE ILLUMINATION” by investigating and by exploring the basis for man’s existence in the natural world. Any such explanation, or clarification would come to a conclusion and will assert that man needs association, partnership, relationship, bonding, cooperation, assistance, patronage, or UNITY with a source of ENERGY that exists in the man’s external environment. Man cannot maintain the fact or the reality of his physical existence using introspection, meditation, or contemplative prayer which could be of use in illuminating man’s “Inner World” and provide him “Inner Vision”, a vision or illumination that describes the Identity of man’s true or real “SELF'(ATMAN) and its perfect, complete, and wholesome Divine Nature.
THE PHENOMENON OF ILLUMINATION – THE PHENOMENON OF KNOWING:
The term illumination describes lighting or light. It is often used as the act or process of making something clearer or brighter or as a device for doing so. The word ‘illuminating’ or ‘illuminated’ is often applied to a clarification or explanation that sheds light on a subject that needs careful interpretation of information. In Physics, illumination is about the intensity of light per unit of area; the luminous flux per unit area at any point on a surface exposed to incident light. It is also called ‘ILLUMINANCE’. However, in Biology, the phenomenon of Illumination requires the study of Optics, Photoreception, and Photochemistry. The biological processes that involve the response of a living thing to the Light stimulus need to be stated as Photochemical Reactions which could be energy dependent and involve the use of chemical energy provided by molecules of Adenosine Triphosphate(ATP). The Phenomenon of ‘ILLUMINATION’ in Biology requires the operation of three conditions; 1. The Source of Light or Lighting, 2. The Object that is Illuminated, and 3. The Observer who has the Sensory Perception called Vision, or the ability called Photoreception to acknowledge the phenomenon that is observed. Using the nature of photochemical reaction that is observed, living things can be broadly classified into two kinds; 1. Plants that respond to Light stimulus to trap its radiant Energy but have no Sensory Perception called Vision, and 2. Animals(man included) that have the Sensory Perception called Vision but do not have the ability to trap the Light Energy. For human existence, we need all those three conditions, 1. The Sun as the Source of Light, 2. The Plants that trap the radiant energy of Sunlight using their ability called Photoreception, and 3. The man or Purusha who uses the ability called Sensory Perception or Vision and interprets that Light is God.
The above picture image of a verse from Brihadaranyak Upanishad 4:5:11 helps us to understand the nature of the vital function of Breathing and Respiration which is the physiological mechanism that man uses to oxidize food substances and derive energy which he further uses for his physical and mental work. If Vedas and Holy Scriptures are seen as the Source of knowledge, the transmission of that Knowledge involves the use of Breathing. If “Knowing” is compared to the phenomenon of ‘ILLUMINATION’, the act of Knowing will only be possible if there is Unity between God, the Source of Knowledge, Knower, the Individual called JEEVA who performs all his living functions because of the Knowledge implanted in his substance that makes him a Sentient or Sensible thing, or establishes him as the “Knowing-Self.” The natural phenomenon of Life and Living can be defined as ‘Knowledge in Action’. In Indian tradition the “SELF” or “ATMAN” is the source of Inner Light that illuminates the entire human body. I am suggesting that the Light called SELF or ATMAN illuminates by making it possible for man to maintain his connection with an external source of energy present in the environment even while man may find perfect Identity with God through the process called Inner Vision, Introspection, Meditation, or Contemplative Prayers with an attitude of “Whole Detachment” with all things present in the external world. I like the presentation “LIGHT OF LIGHTS” for it nicely explains the thoughts of Shankara. However, I have noticed that the author did not provide clarification, or explanation for the final sentence, “TAT ASMI PRABHO.” It simply describes the Unity(ASMI) between man(TAT) and the LORD(PRABHU). Man’s ability of Sensory Perception called Vision, and the ability of Inner Vision are of secondary importance as Existence depends directly on the act of Breathing and the LORD provided Knowledge by performing that act of Breathing.
Light illumines manifold objects in varying degrees of darkness; that is its property. Sources of such light may be external or internal to us. Examples of the former class are well-known, such as Sun, moon, fire, various kinds of lamps etc; The latter class, the internal, would be the psychic apparatus of man, comprising the sense organs, intelligence, intuition and above all the transcendental ‘Oversoul’ of R W Emerson the American philosopher. Vedanta too subscribes to such a transcendental super-conscious entity, illumining all, comprehending all and all-encompassing supreme Brahman. Flashes of intuition reveal discoveries which remain obscure prior to such overpowering experiences. Archimedes, crying out ‘eureka – eureka’ and Newton, when the apple fell and the law of gravitation revealed are instances of such intuitions . A deeper mental cloud prevents one from knowing who one exactly is in the ultimate analysis.
There is, in Greek mythology, a river named ‘Lethe’ whose waters, when drunk, would make the drinker profoundly forgetful.. One would forget, who one was, the ‘whence and wherefore’ of one’s own very self. A great philosopher likened our human predicament, to such a state of congenital amnesia, in which we lost our moorings, our “original innocence” as it were. Nescience is the technical term used for this state of primordial ignorance, which is said to cover one’s wisdom, ‘like smoke shrouds the fire or as dust sullies a mirror or as the womb envelops an embryo’ as th bhagavadgiitaa puts it. This is the ultimate darkness which needs for its dispelling, no less a light than that of the ‘Lord’, quoted in the GITA chapterXI-12 ever so stunningly – “if the light of a thousand suns were to blaze forth in the sky all at once, that might resemble the splendour of that exalted Being” – nothing short of an ‘apocalypse’, as it were, a revelation, of something not previously known or realized. Oppenheimer, the nuclear physicist, whose name is associated with the first atom bomb and who was a witness to its detonation.was so awe-struck at the sight that this line of the gItA chapter XI-32 flamed in his mind ” I am the full-blown, the all-destroying Time “. It was an indubitable intimation from the depths of his being and not much later, his intuitive insight was proved right, by the nuclear holocaust, the mayhem and the destruction at Hiroshima and Nagasaki it was cataclysmic in proportion
To Sankara, that transcendental spiritual genius, is ascribed a one-stanza poem, by name, ‘ekashlokI’. In it, is encapsulated the pith, the quintessence of the celebrated “mahAvAkya’s or the four great Vedic statements, called as such in the Advaita Vedanta. They are culled one from each of the four Vedas those statements or rather ‘truths’ are
a) ” praGYAnam Brahma, (Rigveda) pristine consciousness is Brahman.
b) ayam aatmaa Brahma (Atharva veda) – consciousness in all its apparent transformations is Brahman,
c) “tat tvam asi” (Samaveda)- You are, in essence, that consciousness, the eternal nitya, the unsullied shuddha, the fully awakened buddha, and unfettered - mukta ; the corollary follows that you are not the ignorant embodied jiiva, which you imagine you are.
d) (“aham Brahma asmi ” (Yajurveda) I am indeed that all-encompassing consciousness
It is with considerable trepidation that I have dared to translate the ‘mahaavaakya’s for fear that they may suffer the ‘noble transmutation from gold to lead’, in the process.
The order in which they are recounted here is not the temporal order in which they occur in the veda but they seem, to me, to be the order adopted by Sankara in this small ‘upadesha’ work, namely, the ekashlokii ’ As will become clear in the sequel, what is attempted here is not a word-for-word translation of the Sanskrit texts, not even a paraphrase but rather an unfolding of the traditional thought couched in the highly compressed poem
Before reproducing the Sanskrit verse, a short anecdotal account of the poignant scenario in which it is set, would be well in order, One might be tempted to ask ‘why only one verse-an ‘ekashlokI? Had not Sankara composed his shatashlokI of hundred verses and his upadesha sAhasrI of thousand teachings ? After all, what were the extenuating circumstances? As though in answer to such questions, a story is recounted thus: Sankara, on one of his peregrinations, chanced upon a spiritual aspirant who was in the throes of death. bemoaning his fate of his having ro die before he could get his ‘beatitude’. The compassionate master had empathy with the man’s plight and knowing well the shruti declaration that “he who departs from this world without realising the ‘axara‘, the Imperishable entity, is a veritable wretch a ‘kRRipaNa“, the master devised for him the shortest discourse and the ‘ekashlokI was the result. The verse was composed in a frisky meter named ‘shArdUla vikrIditam’ which has four quarters of 19 syllables each, to enable him to pack all the punch at his command, in a single stanza. This imaginative story illustrates the truth that, when an exceptional master and a pupil desperately thirsting for the ‘saving wisdom’ come together, spiritual enlightenment can not be far behind.
Unless the composition is split up at the right places, it would seem baffling at the first sight, to a beginner. The piece is in the form of a catechism or what in modern pedagogy would be called a ‘one on one’ interactive session. There are five question-answer pairs, one affirmation and one authoritative live-wire exhortation of the teacher and a final total concurrence, by the disciple, after his instant transformation. We shall now proceed with what may, euphemistically, be termed an exegesis of the verse. As will be seen in the sequel, what is attempted here is not a word-to-word rendering in to English, nor even a mere paraphrasing of the work; it is rather an attempt to enter to, and to bring out the traditional import of this Vedantic composition, to the extent my limited faculties permit. Much pertinent digression from the text has been indulged in, in the exposition.
The break up of the verse, is as follows :-
Q 1 :kim jyotih tava ? – what is your illuminator? By this question, the teacher is trying to ascertain a ‘baseline’, as it were, of the pupil’s understanding so as to lead him thence to higher levels. This was a well established methodology of spiritual instruction in the days of yore. It may be noted here that the question is a general one with no adjuncts of time or place specified. The student however thinks the question pertains to daytime and to things within his visual range.
A: bhhaanumaan ahani me – The daylight of the Sun sir. This answer establishes that the seeker has his vision riveted on the external objects – the out-going vision, the so-called ‘paraak pasyati’ concept of the KaThopaniShad.
Q 2 : raatrau ? what after Sun-down ? what illumines then ?
A: pradiipa aadikam- light of the various kinds of lamps which includes illumination from the moonlight, bonfires, lighted torches et cetera; it may be noted that the field being covered is still the outer world.
Affirmation : syaad evam. rightly so my dear; here the guru seems to be saying to himself “ Oh my! your answers are correct as far as they go; but they do not go very far. Here is the next question:
Q 3 Ravi diipa darshana vidhau kim jyotih ? Akhyaahi me – Now tell me what enables you to visualize the objects so illumined by the Sun, the lamps etc.Here the preceptor is shifting focus from the outer to the inner world of the mind. Even the sun, the lamps etc. stand in the relation of visible objects to the perceiving eye.
A: caxuH- “My eye, sir, is the perceiving light in this context” Now the student is made to understand the eye as the window to his inner cognitive apparatus – the mind.
Q4 : tasya nimiilana adi samaye ? If your eyes are shut, what then? The reasons for the shut-down may be many; one may choose to turn a blind eye like Nelson or to give a more noble example, one may actually be blind like Helen Keller. ‘ The word aadi’ in the Sanskrit original in the above question may include a legion instances The guru is taking the student in to deeper waters here, to turning his mind’s eye inward and enable him to watch the gyrations of his own mind
A: dhiiH, sir, it is my intellect that provides me the illumination necessary for my purposes, I can think thoughts that would navigate the scenes for me
Q 5: dhiyaH darshane (kim) ? you are right again my son! But thought is like a spring or a fountain. There must be some faculty to get to its mainspring its source as it were What ultimate light is it that stands as a ‘witness’ or ‘sAxI’ as it is technically termed, to your cognitive equipment?
A: ‘tatra aham ’ sir, Shorn of the baggage of all acquired accretions, appurtenances and appearances – in short, of all objective super-impositions I stand in all my majestic aloofness, and isolation (kaivalya). as ‘Myself’.
The great spiritual warrior in Sankara has finally drawn the bitterest foe of his pupil -‘the beginning-less spiritual ignorance’ to the edge of the precipice. with a view to pushing it over to its final annihilation. With a solemn and apocalyptic, coup de maître – a masterstroke, he is going to deliver the final push the student would be led to his beatitude meaning perfect blessedness or happiness. In devising this stepwise instruction Sankara has trodden the path of the ancient sages, established for ages. The famous dialogue between the sage YaaGYavalkya and Janaka the king in the BRRihadaaranyaka Upanishad chapter iv-3, the kaTha Upanishad III-10 as also the Bhavadgiitaa chapter III-42 have laid down the same rising hierarchical levels of consciousness viz – sense objects, sense organs, intelligence, intellect and the highest of all the PuruSha- the non plus ultra, higher than Which there can be nothing. To use the those very Sanskrit words pregnant with proven meaning – proven to mystic seers of all creeds and climes in their deepest visions down the millennia – saa kaashThaa, saa paraa gatiH. THAT is the summum bonum the last post
And what may that stupendous, staggering declaration be ? Let us see that in the next line:-
THE FINAL PUSH : ataH bhavaan paramakam jyotiH Therefore my child, you are verily that Light of lights, which the Vedanta asserts in stentorian voice and peremptory tone- tat tvam asi – THAT THOU ART . It is not the denoted dictionary meanings of the words of the scriptural testimony that will bring the peace that passes understanding but the inner experience of the truth which is transforming in nature
The finish : tat asmi prabho !!! Oh my master I am indeed that Light of Lights because I have just experienced that ecstatic mystic state, by your bounteous grace. It is another matter that the experience of that state can communicated in words only after descending somewhat from those Olympian heights. But at all events he has been raised to that dizzy altitude of sage-hood, the memory of which shall stamp its hallmark on every thought word and deed ever-after.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE – OLD FLAMES NEVER DIE – THE NEHRU LEGACY LIVES:
I am very pleased to share the article titled “Nehru’s Greatness lies in his minor failures” written by Manoj Joshi, Distinguished Fellow, Observer Research Foundation on November 20, 2014. Because of my “Kasturi-Sarvepalli-Mylapore-India-Tibet-US Connection” I can fully endorse the findings of Manoj Joshi and concur with his views and conclusions that specifically pertain to the problem of Tibet and its military occupation since 1950. On behalf of Special Frontier Force, I am glad to write that the Nehru Legacy Lives. I visualize this Legacy in the context of friendly relations between India, Tibet, and the United States that withstood the test of times. I am pleased to share several photo images of Nehru and others to pay my tribute in due recognition of Nehru’s tireless efforts to address the great problem of Tibet and his passion to defend the cause of “Free Tibet.”
It is easy to criticism him, but Nehru was not the caricature woolly headed idealist that his critics make him out to be.
Somewhere in the files of the PMO there is a 1949 query by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru to his army chief, General KC Cariappa, asking if the Indian army would be able to intervene to prevent the Chinese conquest of Tibet. The general’s response was that given the capacity of the army and the difficult communication links with Tibet, intervention was out of the question. Nehru was not the caricature woolly headed idealist that his critics make him out to be. He had to deal with the instruments under his command. And among these was an army that lacked the size and heft to take on the battle-hardened PLA across the Himalayas in Tibet in 1950. Redeployment India’s response to the invasion of Tibet by China, beginning January 1, 1950, was, therefore, cautious. Nehru’s interim government had already supplied weapons and trained Tibetans since 1946. But with Chinese power rampant, the Indian effort became covert. According to one source, India quietly dispatched 40,000 rifles to the Khampa regions, the first to feel the weight of the PLA invasion. Sardar Patel’s famous letter to Nehru on November 7, 1950, warning of the dangers arising from the Chinese invasion of Tibet was not meant as a critique of Nehru, as many über nationalists claim, but as part of a policy review which was undertaken after the Sardar passed away, a month later. A committee headed by Major General Himmatsinhji, the deputy minister for Defence was set up to examine the issues of the border and external intelligence. The committee, which comprised of senior army, intelligence and foreign ministry officials, submitted its reports in two parts, one dealing with the eastern border in April 1951 and the other with the western border in September. The recommendations called for the reorganisation and redeployment of the military forces and an increase in the size of the infantry and supporting arms, the development of certain airfields, the setting up of radar stations in the east, and an increase in the size of the Assam Rifles to patrol the border. It called for the strengthening of the administration in the eastern areas and the strengthening of the IB network. The dilemma before Nehru was stark. His army could not take on the PLA in Tibet. So, he used diplomacy to delay that moment of confrontation, unfortunately, it came sooner, rather than later and its causes had as much to do with India’s China policy, as Beijijng’s internal power struggles. The Indian army not only lacked the capacity to intervene in Tibet, indeed, it did not even have the ability to defend India’s northern border. To right this, paradoxically, Nehru needed economic growth, which required minimising defence expenditures, while encouraging the creation of a domestic defence industry. Towards that end, the government appointed Dr DS Kothari as the scientific adviser to the defence minister and the head of the new Defence Science Organisation in 1949. In 1957, India began work on the design and development of a combat aircraft which was to be done by a German team of Dr Kurt Tank and engineer Mittelhuber, while an Indian team of Dr Ghatage and Raj Mahindra would design a jet trainer. The first flight of the HF-24 took place in June 1961 and the trainer HJT-16 (Kiran) in September 1964. But Nehru’s diplomacy failed to synchronise with his defence modernisation plans, also it was hit by America’s decision to arm Pakistan in the name of fighting communism. Even though India expanded its ordnance factories and established facilities to make and assemble trucks, aircraft and other equipment, poor management and scarce resources ensured that the armed forces were badly equipped when the crisis with China erupted in 1959, and culminated in the disastrous war of 1962, that shattered Nehru’s reputation and health. Pragmatism Nehru’s pragmatism is best visible in his policy on nuclear weapons. He was among the first leaders to call for the abolition of nuclear weapons in the world. However, he was also the person who summoned Homi Bhabha and gave him the wherewithal to start India’s civil nuclear programme. In 1956, a nuclear reactor, named Apsara, designed and built by Indian scientists and engineers went critical. This was the first reactor to go critical in all of Asia. By 1958-1959, the DAE overtook the CSIR as the most important scientific institution in the country. Criticism One third of all R&D expenditures were flowing to the DAE. This led to the 1955 Canadian offer of a nuclear reactor called CIRUS (Canada-India-US) with the initial load of uranium fuel to be supplied by them came through. Nehru and Bhabha’s strategy was to build India’s nuclear capacity in such a way that it could be quickly transformed into a strategic capability in quick time. Once again, unfortunately, they were let down by their instrumentalities. The DAE failed to deliver the plutonium reprocessing facility in time and the result was that India did not have the wherewithal to carry out a nuclear test shortly after the Chinese test of October 1964 or before the cut-off date of January 1, 1967 for the NPT(Non-Proliferation Treaty). It is easy to criticise Nehru today. His priority then, as it remains that of our country today, is to take hundreds of millions of poor Indians out of poverty and protect the country’s territorial integrity. Given the circumstances, he did not do a bad job, and he did it without murdering millions as was done in China, or overturning democracy, as was the case in many countries of the time. But to understand him, you have to place yourself in his very large-sized shoes. Sufficient to say, none of the heroes of today’s uber nationalists would be able to fit in them.
SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE REMEMBERS PRIME MINISTER JAWAHARLAL NEHRU – OLD FLAMES NEVER DIE :
On 14th November 2014, Indians celebrated the 125th Birth Anniversary of India’s first Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Special Frontier Force has very special reasons to join this celebration for his Legacy still Lives. Prime Minister Nehru fostered friendly relations between India, Tibet, and the United States to defend the Natural Rights of Tibetans to live in Freedom and choose a form of governance according to their will. Special Frontier Force is hopeful that this Friendship will survive the test of times. I confidently assert that, “OLD FLAMES NEVER DIE.”
I am sharing an article published by Claude Arpi who is apparently not aware of Prime Minister Nehru’s effrots to restore Peace, Democracy, and Justice in Occupied Tibet.
Nehru’s pacifism had nearly cost us Tawang Claude Arpi 20 November 2014 [It is entirely due to Major
Bob Khathing’s courage and swift action, backed by the Assam Governor, that
Tawang is part of India. Had Jawaharlal Nehru had his way,
it would have been Chinese territory today]
While the legacy of Jawaharlal Nehru is being discussed by ‘eminent’ personalities at the Nehru International Conference, organised by the Indian National Congress to commemorate Nehru’s 125th birth anniversary, it is perhaps time to stop using the usual clichés about the first Prime Minister’s 17 years at India’s helm. By the way, I seriously doubt if many of the invitees of the conference have read any of the 58 volumes of Nehru’s Selected Works.
During the recent months, many have questioned the audacity to compare Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel to Nehru, but it is obvious that the Sardar would have been a far more decisive Prime Minister than the Pandit. Remember Kashmir
In a rare interview, Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw, who was Director of Military Operations at the time of independence, recounted a historic meeting presided over by Lord Mountbatten held at the end of October 1947: “There was Jawaharlal Nehru, there was Sardar Patel, there was Sardar Baldev Singh… I knew Sardar Patel, because Patel would insist that VP Menon [Secretary in the Ministry of States] take me with him to the various states.”
The young Brigadier continues his narration:
“At the morning meeting [Mountbatten] handed over the [Kashmir’s Instrument of Accession] thing. Mountbatten turned around and said, ‘Come on Manekji (he called me Manekji instead of Manekshaw), what is the military situation?’ I gave him the military situation, and told him that unless we flew in troops immediately, we would have lost Srinagar, because going by road would take days, and once the tribesmen got to the airport and Srinagar, we couldn’t fly troops in. Everything was ready at the airport.”
The future hero of the Bangladesh War then recalls: “As usual Nehru talked about the United Nations, Russia, Africa, God almighty, everybody, until Sardar Patel lost his temper. He said, ‘Jawaharlal, do you want Kashmir, or do you want to give it away?’ Nehru said, ‘Of course, I want Kashmir. Then [Patel] said, ‘Please give your orders’. And before he could say anything Sardar Patel turned to me and said, ‘You have got your orders’.” Without the Sardar, Kashmir would be Pakistani today.
In February 1951, Tawang found its own ‘Patel’ in Jairamdas Daulatram, the Governor of Assam, (the Iron Man of India had passed away two months earlier). Daulatram ordered a young Naga officer to go and immediately begin administrating Tawang (the then Kameng Frontier Agency).
A couple of years ago, an Indian journalist, Sidharth Mishra, provided a fascinating and detailed profile of Major Bob Khathing, the Naga officer in charge of the Sela sub-division: “In 1951, Major Bob Khathing commanded a force of 200 soldiers and re-established India’s sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh, much to the annoyance of Jawaharlal Nehru.”
Some other documents, such as the ‘official’ biography, Major Bob Khathing — The profile of a Nationalist Manipuri Naga by Lt Col H Bhuban Singh, complete the picture of Major Khathing’s expedition.
An incident mentioned by Mr Mishra is worth a comment. Once the administration of Tawang was firmly under control, the bold Naga officer went back to Shillong to report to his mentor, Jairamdas Daulatram.
Mr Mishra writes: “So, he set out downhill to Tezpur with a small retinue, leaving the expeditionary force in charge of [Major TC] Allen. The Governor sent a Dakota to pick him up from Tezpur and they flew to Delhi to see Jawaharlal Nehru… The then Prime Minister was livid. ‘Who asked you to do this?’ he vented his anger at the Governor. ‘I wish you had the good sense to consult me before you commissioned this colossal stupidity. I want a complete blackout on this incident’, he ordered the PMO.”
Nehru’s orders were religiously executed: Today it is practically impossible to find anything on Khathing’s expedition in the Government’s archives. Nehru certainly had some inkling about the happenings in Tawang in the first months of 1951. Lt Colonel Bhuban Singh wrote: “From Bob’s side too, wireless messages after wireless messages were sent to Charduar [Assam Rifles headquarters], Shillong [seat of the Governor of Assam responsible
for NEFA] and onward to New Delhi giving details of what he was doing. At the same time, he sought approval of Government of India for the actions he had taken and intended to take.”
Major Khathing’s biographer added:
“Shillong [Rustomji] and New Delhi were aghast with what Bob did. They must have preferred a peaceful, non-violent and Panchsheel type of approach. While Shillong was reduced to a mere post-office forwarding information only, lots of consultations and conferences took place in New Delhi and lots of tea were drunk without any decision. In the meanwhile, Bob was… instructed not to precipitate a crisis.”
Major Khathing’s direct interlocutor was Nari Rustomji, the Advisor to the Governor of Assam for the Tribal Areas. SN Haksar, an ICS officer serving as Joint Secretary in the Ministry of External Affairs, was at the receiving end in New Delhi. Nehru, being the External Affairs Minister, was undoubtedly regularly informed by Haksar of such a sizeable military expedition.
It is possible that when Jairamdas Daulatram decided to send more than one hundred Assam Rifles troops (with over 600 porters) to Tawang, Nehru did not realise the implications of this decisive action for the nation. Retrospectively, it was a blessing for India as, if he had realised, Tawang would probably be Chinese today.
A top secret report entitled, ‘Major Khathing’s Detailed Report About Tawang, sent in April 1951 by the Secretary to Advisor to the Governor of Assam to SN Haksar, is the best proof that the Prime Minister was in the loop. Nehru may have said: “Who asked you to do this?”, but the fact remains that he was informed.
It is also a fact that it was legally the prerogative of the Governor of Assam to occupy any Indian territory under his responsibility and Tawang was definitely part of India since 1914. So, what was wrong in administrating a part of Indian territory?
A Chinese study on the McMahon line admitted that at that time, the Chinese had no clue about the border between India and Tibet: “When the 18th Army led by [General] Zhang Guohua invaded Tibet, they still did not have a Tibetan map that they could use. They only had a rough and simple map of Tibet showing subdivisions. There was not even a standard road map. The names of the places and the villages were neither precise nor accurate.” It is only in 1954-55 that Mao Zedong discovered Tawang had been administrated by Tibet before 1914. Too late then for China to ‘liberate’ Tawang!
And thanks to Major Bob Khathing’s courage and swift action, it was too late for even Nehru to impose his pacifist views.
There is no ‘Essence’, there is no ‘Identity’, and there is no ‘Existence’ of man if there is no ‘Unity’ between the three fundamental orders called 1. God, 2. Soul, and 3. Matter. The Sanskrit word “ASMI” stands for ‘Unity’ or “EIKYATA” of the three fundamental orders. I want to invite my readers to join me in a discussion to interpret the terms Essence, Identity, Unity, and Existence that appear in the Indian Holy Scriptures and are variously interpreted by the major Indian Schools of Thought known as ‘Advaita'(Unqualified Non-Dualism), ‘Visistadvaita'(Qualified Non-Dualism), and ‘Dvaita'(Dualism).
Adi Shankara held that the Divine Soul or Paramatma, and the individual soul or Jeevatma are identical or the same. He did not account for the existence of his human body. He was satisfied by claiming that his human body does not describe his true or real identity or essence. In his view, the material world including the appearance of man is deceptive for it is the product of Illusion.
Ramanuja held the view that God is modified by the orders of Matter and Soul. He stated that the Soul is modified by the body for the body has no separate existence from its Soul. Similarly, the Soul modifies God for it has no separate existence apart from God. His aim was to achieve Soul’s Union with a Personal God. He had not accounted for the existence of the living human being whose Body, and Soul have no separate existence without maintaining Unity with God.
Madhva maintained that the simple fact that things are transient and ever changing does not mean that they are not real. He rejected Shankara’s Theory of Maya or Illusion but, at the same time he may have failed to acknowledge that the phenomenon of Illusion could be an important basis for the reality of man’s existence on the surface of a very fast spinning object like Earth. Man’s existence demands a blissful state of ignorance of the realities of motion of planet Earth while he synchronizes his existence taking the cues from Sun’s apparent motions across the sky that generate the experience of Sunrise and Sunset.
Aitareya Upanishad claims that Consciousness is God or Brahman and it states that all existence is supported by Consciousness. To that extent, Consciousness can be defined as the awareness of the fact of one’s own Existence. In my view, the ‘Essence’ and ‘Identity’ of a thing can be described if, and only if the thing had a past ‘Existence’, or is existing in the present, or has the potential ability to exist in the future. Essence and Identity are predetermined by the requirement called ‘Existence’.
If the universe is accounted by three distinct or separate orders such as God(“BRAHMAN”), Soul(“ATMAN”), and Matter, man represents the single, harmonious effect called ‘Unity’ or “ASMI.” The terms such as Soul or “ATMAN”, or “JEEVATMA” may have to be used to explain the fact of ‘Unity’ and the manifestation called ‘Existence’ by which the thing called “I” gets its name, and form, becomes differentiated and can be recognized as “I AM.” I want to categorically claim that it will be of no help or use if terms such as Soul, Atman, and Jeevatma are narrowly defined to simply describe the Essence or Identity of man. I would like to direct this discussion towards the importance of ‘Unity’ or of the term “ASMI” which means always present, and ever existing. Thus ‘Existence’ becomes the defining feature or chief attribute of all things and without the fact or reality called ‘Existence’, no truth can be known, and things have no Identity or Essence.
MY IDENTITY – MY CONNECTION – REBBAPRAGADA – KASTURI – SARVEPALLI – CONNECTION:
I am able to recognize and describe the ‘Identity’ of my maternal grandfather and his brothers for man always comes into existence with an original form, and gets a name for it can be clearly differentiated from all other men. My maternal grandfather’s younger brother was married to Mrs. Rukmini, daughter of Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. This ‘Connection’ with Sarvepalli family is important for several reasons. Most of my readers of this blog post in India can easily identify the person who existed as Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. He served as India’s first Vice President for two consecutive terms from 1952 to 1962, and served as India’s second President from May 13, 1962 to May 13, 1967. Apart from being a statesman, Dr. Radhakrishnan is recognized as an Indian philosopher and had published 56 books. His most popular books are Indian Philosophy, two-volumes and The Principal Upanishads(1953).
Man must understand what it is to be a Substance and what it is to Exist. The Indian traditional thoughts about man tend to divide man into two categories; 1. The Sentient Soul or the Conscious Being, and 2. The Insentient or the Physical Being that is unreal, constantly changing, perishable, and leads a mortal, transient, or evanescent existence.
The above statement that claims that the universe consists of a combination of the perishable and imperishable may need further clarification. It cannot be entirely true for the Chemical Elements that constitute Physical Matter cannot be destroyed or they are imperishable. Indian tradition describes man as “DEHA”, the physical body which is often compared to an empty vessel or house which is distinct, and separate from an entity called “DEHE”, or “DEHINAH”, the indweller, the embodied being, the tenant who occupies a place of dwelling or residence. The indweller of the physical human body is identified as Soul, Atman, or Jeevatma. This separation of Body/Mind, and its Soul into unrelated, or independent entities poses huge problems if I have to account for the physical reality of man’s Subjective and Objective Existence in the present world, the world that exists today as a self-evident truth.
Man’s existence in the world begins with the act called ‘Conception’, the Union of the originating Principle or Seed with Egg Cell. In the Divine Song of The Bhagavad Gita, Chapter X, verse #39, Lord Krishna claims that He is the Originating Seed of all types of Existence and hence it must be understood that the fact of Existence requires an Original Cause, an Original Purpose, and an Originating Seed or Principle.
If God is viewed as the fosterer of the People, and if God is explained as the Originating Seed that accounts for man’s existence, God, and man’s physical body cannot be separated into separate parts.
For God(Brahman) is defined as the ‘First Cause’, man’s physical existence can be accounted as the single, harmonious “Effect” of that Original Cause that brings Unity between the three orders called God, Soul, and Matter.
Man’s physical existence begins with the stage called ‘ZYGOTE’, the fertilized human ovum or Egg Cell. This single cell grows, multiplies, and fully differentiates to develop all the tissues, organs, and organ systems that are parts of the human body. The human body is the “Effect” of an Originating Seed, and cannot be considered as an empty vessel or an empty dwelling that is apart from its resident or indweller.
The Single, Fertilized Egg Cell is conscious of its own existence and the developing Embryo on its sixth day of existence implants itself into the tissues of Mother’s womb to secure its own further existence.
The Newborn Baby always arrives into the world with an original, unique, distinct, and one of its own kind of genome that has never existed in the past, and will never exist again in the future. Every man who is born can only exist as an Individual with Individuality. Every man can be identified as a specific individual. The Law of Generation and Propagation is based on the principle of Creation that always causes the production of original objects that cannot be further duplicated. For man’s form, and appearance is always associated with differentiation, man’s identity can be easily described by attaching a proper name.
The word ‘Essence'(Latin. Essentia) describes that something which makes an entity what it is; intrinsic, fundamental nature, the most important quality of something to constitute its essential being. Essence is used to describe the inward nature of anything that is important to know its manifestations that can be physically observed. The word ‘Spirit’ or ‘Soul’ are often used to describe the ‘true’ or unchanging principle of man for man’s physical identity is not constant. The term ‘Identity'(Latin. idem) means the same(Sanskrit. idam). The Latin word identitas is related to Latin. essentitas and hence Identity and Essence are always related and they help to know the thing or entity that they describe. Identity is about the condition or fact of being the same, or exactly alike, sameness or oneness. In modern times, identity is about the condition or fact of being a specific person or thing. Whereas the term ‘Individuality’ describes the sum of characteristics or qualities that set one person or thing apart from others. Individuality is the condition of the Individual who exists as a single, separate, or particular thing. For man, his Individuality sets him apart from all other men. The term ‘Existence'(Latin. existere, or exsistere) is about the act of existing, the state, or the fact, or the reality of actual being. Existence demands that the thing or entity must come forth, stand forth, to manifest, living, or being alive. The term ‘Unity’ implies the state of being united to make something complete in itself, the quality or fact of being a totality or ‘Whole’. Unity is used to signify a Complex, the product of a Union of related parts, or an arrangement of parts that will produce a single, harmonious effect. Unity is thus concerned about the ‘Effect’ it generates while a thing could be made up of diverse elements or individuals. For human body is constituted by trillions of Individual, and Independent Living Units called Cells, the ‘Effect’ called ‘Unity’ is of fundamental importance to know man’s ‘Essence’, or ‘Identity’ that is manifested by his ‘Existence.